144 Works

Data from: Effect of the anther-smut fungus Microbotryum on the juvenile growth of its host Silene latifolia

Janis Antonovics, Jessica L. Abbate, Emily L. Bruns, Peter D. Fields, Nicole J. Forrester, Kimberley Gilbert, Michael E. Hood, Timothy Park & Douglas R. Taylor
Premise of the Study: Plant pathogens that form persistent systemic infections within plants have the potential to affect multiple plant life history traits, yet we tend to focus only on visible symptoms. Anther-smut disease of Silene latifolia caused by the fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae induces the anthers of its host to produce fungal spores in place of pollen, and the pathogen is primarily transmitted among flowering plants by pollinators. Nevertheless, most of its life cycle is...

Data from: Population spatial synchrony enhanced by periodicity and low detuning with environmental forcing

Kyle J. Haynes, Jonathan A. Walter & Andrew M. Liebhold
Explaining why fluctuations in abundances of spatially disjunct populations often are correlated through time is a major goal of population ecologists. We address two hypotheses receiving little to no testing in wild populations: a) that population cycling facilitates synchronization given weak coupling among populations, and b) that the ability of periodic external forces to synchronize oscillating populations is a function of the mismatch in timescales (detuning) between the force and the population. Here, we apply...

Data from: Randomized phase 2 study of FcRn antagonist efgartigimod in generalized myasthenia gravis

James F. Howard, Vera Bril, Ted M. Burns, Renato Mantegazza, Malgorzata Bilinska, Andrzej Szczudlik, Said Beydoun, Francisco Javier Rodriguez De Rivera Garrido, Fredrik Piehl, Mariarosa Rottoli, Philip Van Damme, Tuan Vu, Amelia Evoli, Miriam Freimer, Tahseen Mozaffar, E. Sally Ward, Torsten Dreier, Peter Ulrichts, Katrien Verschueren, Antonio Guglietta, Hans De Haard, Nicolas Leupin & Jan J. G. M. Verschuuren
Objective: To investigate safety and explore efficacy of efgartigimod (ARGX-113), an anti-neonatal Fc receptor immunoglobulin G1 Fc fragment, in patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) with a history of anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) autoantibodies, who were on stable standard-of-care myasthenia gravis (MG) treatment. Methods: A phase 2, exploratory, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 15-center study is described. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 4 doses over a 3-week period of either 10 mg/kg IV efgartigimod or...

Data from: Environmental effects on the structure of the G-matrix

Corlett Wolfe Wood, & Edmund D. Brodie
Genetic correlations between traits determine the multivariate response to selection in the short term, and thereby play a causal role in evolutionary change. While individual studies have documented environmentally induced changes in genetic correlations, the nature and extent of environmental effects on multivariate genetic architecture across species and environments remain largely uncharacterized. We reviewed the literature for estimates of the genetic variance-covariance (G) matrix in multiple environments, and compared differences in G between environments to...

Improving intra- and inter-annual GPP predictions by using individual-tree inventories and leaf growth dynamics

Jing Fang, James Lutz, Herman Shugart, Xiaodong Yan, Wenqiang Xie & Feng Liu
Carbon sequestration is a key ecosystem service provided by forests. Inventory data based on individual trees are considered to be the most accurate method for estimating forest productivity. However, estimations of forest photosynthesis itself from inventory data remains understudied, particularly when considering the growth and development of individual trees under the background of global change. Here, we used the leaf growth process with phenology and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) storage to revise an individual-tree based carbon...

Data from: A geographic cline in the ability to self-fertilize is unrelated to the pollination environment

Laura Galloway, Matt Koski, Jeremiah Busch & Dena Grossenbacher
The reproductive assurance (RA) hypothesis predicts that the ability to autonomously self-fertilize should be favored in environments where a lack of mates or pollinators limits outcross reproduction. Because such limits to outcrossing are predicted to be most severe at range edges, elevated autonomy in peripheral populations is often attributed to RA. We test this hypothesis in 24 populations spanning the range of Campanula americana, including sampling at the range interior and three geographic range edges....

Transcriptional networks underlying a primary ovarian insufficiency disorder in alligators naturally exposed to EDCs: Transformed read counts and supplementary materials

Matthew Hale, Therese Koal, Tuan Hai Pham, John Bowden & Ben Parrott
Interactions between the endocrine system and environmental contaminants are responsible for impairing reproductive development and function. Despite the taxonomic diversity of affected species and attendant complexity inherent to natural systems, the underlying signaling pathways and cellular consequences are mostly studied in lab models. To resolve the genetic and endocrine pathways that mediate affected ovarian function in organisms exposed to endocrine disrupting contaminants in their natural environments, we assessed broad-scale transcriptional and steroidogenic responses to exogenous...

Rapid reversal of a potentially constraining genetic covariance between leaf and flower traits in Silene latifolia

Janet Steven, Ingrid Anderson, Edmund Brodie & Lynda Delph
Genetic covariance between two traits generates correlated responses to selection, and may either enhance or constrain adaptation. Silene latifolia exhibits potentially constraining genetic covariance between specific leaf area and flower number in males. Flower number is likely to increase via fecundity selection but the correlated increase in specific leaf area increases mortality, and specific leaf area is under selection to decrease in dry habitats. We selected on trait combinations in two selection lines for four...

Self-organising cicada choruses respond to the local sound and light environment

Lawrence Sheppard, Brandon Mechtley, Jonathan Walter & Daniel Reuman
1. Periodical cicadas exhibit an extraordinary capacity for self-organising spatially synchronous breeding behavior. The regular emergence of periodical cicada broods across the US is a phenomenon of longstanding public and scientific interest, as the cicadas of each brood emerge in huge numbers and briefly dominate their ecosystem. During the emergence, the 17-year periodical cicada species Magicicada cassini is found to form synchronised choruses, and we investigated their chorusing behavior from the standpoint of spatial synchrony....

Post-ACL reconstruction surgery rehabilitation dataset using isokinetic dynamometer and wearable IMUs

Robert Gutierrez, Joe Hart & Mehdi Boukhechba
Rehabilitation post-ACL reconstruction surgery is a lengthy process that involves a variety of exercises, with the goal of achieving leg symmetry. Testing for leg symmetry generally involves a series of tests, which may include walking gait analysis, isokinetic dynamometry, and single leg hop, if able. Isokinetic dynamometry readings have proven useful in understanding leg symmetry by providing a reading of muscle torque during a specific motion. However, the use of surface electromyography (sEMG) may provide...

Data from: Adaptive divergence at the margin of an invaded range

Francis Fatah Kilkenny & Laura F. Galloway
Invasive plant species threaten biological communities globally. However, relatively little is known about how evolutionary processes vary over the course of an invasion. To evaluate the importance of historical and adaptive drivers of range expansion, we compare the performance of North American populations of invasive Lonicera japonica from areas established 100-150 years ago, now the southern core of the range, to populations from the northern range margin, established within the last 65 years. Growth and...

Data from: Transmission and temporal dynamics of anther-smut disease (Microbotryum) on alpine carnation (Dianthus pavonius)

Emily L. Bruns, Janis Antonovics, Valentina Carasso & Michael Hood
1. Theory has shown that sterilizing diseases with frequency-dependent transmission (characteristics shared by many sexually transmitted diseases) can drive host populations to extinction. 2. Anther-smut disease (caused by Microbotryum sp.) has become a model plant pathogen system for studying the dynamics of vector and sexually transmitted diseases: infected individuals are sterilized, producing spores instead of pollen, and the disease is spread between reproductive individuals by insect pollinators. We investigated anther-smut disease in a heavily infected...

Data from: Competition drives trait evolution and character displacement between Mimulus species along an environmental gradient

Nicholas J. Kooyers, Brooke James & Benjamin K. Blackman
Closely related species may evolve to coexist stably in sympatry through niche differentiation driven by in situ competition, a process termed character displacement. Alternatively, past evolution in allopatry may have already sufficiently reduced niche overlap to permit establishment in sympatry, a process called ecological sorting. The relative importance of each process to niche differentiation is contentious even though they are not mutually exclusive and are both mediated via multivariate trait evolution. We explore how competition...

Data from: Experimentally decoupling reproductive investment from energy storage to test the functional basis of a life-history tradeoff

Robert M. Cox, Matthew B. Lovern & Ryan Calsbeek
The ubiquitous life-history trade-off between reproduction and survival has long been hypothesized to reflect underlying energy-allocation trade-offs between reproductive investment and processes related to self-maintenance. Although recent work has questioned whether energy-allocation models provide sufficient explanations for the survival cost of reproduction, direct tests of this hypothesis are rare, especially in wild populations. This hypothesis was tested in a wild population of brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) using a two-step experiment. First, stepwise variation in...

Data from: Synchronous effects produce cycles in deer populations and deer-vehicle collisions

Thomas Anderson, Lawrence Sheppard, Jon Walter, Robert Rolley & Dan Reuman
Population cycles are fundamentally linked with spatial synchrony, the prevailing paradigm being that populations with cyclic dynamics are easily synchronized. That is, population cycles help give rise to spatial synchrony. Here we demonstrate this process can work in reverse, with synchrony causing population cycles. We show that timescale-specific environmental effects, by synchronizing local population dynamics on certain timescales only, cause major population cycles over large areas in white-tailed deer. An important aspect of the new...

Relative forelimb-hindlimb investment is associated with flight style, foraging strategy, and nestling period, but not nest type

Natalie Wright, Jess Kotnour, Sarah McPeek, Hannah Wedig & Jonah Dominguez
We investigated Dial’s 2003 hypothesis that birds that rely more heavily upon flight as their primary mode of locomotion and thus invest more in their forelimbs than hindlimbs will experience selection for smaller body sizes, greater altriciality, and more complex nests. To test this hypothesis, we examined the skeletons of over 2,000 individuals from 313 species representing the majority of avian families and all major branches of the avian tree. We used the lengths of...

Phenotypic assortment by morphology in social partners of the forked fungus beetle Bolitotherus cornutus

Social interactions with conspecifics can dramatically affect an individual’s fitness. The positive or negative consequences of interacting with social partners typically depend on the value of traits that they express. These pathways of social selection connect the traits and genes expressed in some individuals to the fitness realized by others, thereby altering the total phenotypic selection on and evolutionary response of traits across the multivariate phenotype. The downstream effects of social selection are mediated by...

Data from: Stalking the fourth domain in metagenomic data: searching for, discovering, and interpreting novel, deep branches in phylogenetic trees of phylogenetic marker genes

Dongying Wu, Martin Wu, Aaron Halpern, Douglas B. Rusch, Shibu Yooseph, Marvin Frazier, J. Craig Venter & Jonathan A. Eisen
BACKGROUND: Most of our knowledge about the ancient evolutionary history of organisms has been derived from data associated with specific known organisms (i.e., organisms that we can study directly such as plants, metazoans, and culturable microbes). Recently, however, a new source of data for such studies has arrived: DNA sequence data generated directly from environmental samples. Such metagenomic data has enormous potential in a variety of areas including, as we argue here, in studies of...

Data from: Phenotypic assortment mediates the effect of social selection in a wild beetle population

Vincent A. Formica, Joel W. McGlothlin, Corlett Wolfe Wood, Malcolm E. Augat, R. Eileen Butterfield, Mollie E. Barnard &
Social interactions often have major fitness consequences, but little is known about how specific interacting phenotypes affect the strength of natural selection. Social influences on the evolutionary process can be assessed using a multilevel selection approach that partitions the effects of social partner phenotypes on fitness (referred to as social or group selection) from those of the traits of a focal individual (nonsocial or individual selection). To quantify the contribution of social selection to total...

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