19 Works

Data from: Early changes in transient adenosine during cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury

Mallikarjunarao Ganesana & B. Jill Venton
Adenosine is an important neuromodulator in the central nervous system, and tissue adenosine levels increase during ischemic events, attenuating excitotoxic neuronal injury. Recently, our lab developed an electrochemical fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) method that identified rapid, spontaneous changes in adenosine concentrations that last only about 3 seconds. Here, we investigated the effects of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion on the concentration and frequency of transient adenosine release in the caudate-putamen. In anesthetized rats, data were collected...

Data from: Is there a disease-free halo at species range limits? The co-distribution of anther-smut disease and its host species

Emily L. Bruns, Janis Antonovics & Michael Hood
1. While disease is widely recognized as affecting host population size, it has rarely been considered to play a role in determining host range limits. Many diseases may not be able to persist near the range limit if host population density falls below the critical threshold level for pathogen invasion. However, in vector- and sexually-transmitted diseases, pathogen transmission may be largely independent of host density and theory demonstrates that diseases with frequency-dependent transmission may persist...

Data from: The role of infectious disease in the evolution of females: evidence from anther-smut disease on a gynodioecious alpine carnation

Emily L. Bruns, Ian Miller, Michael E. Hood, Valentina Carasso & Janis Antonovics
In flowering plants, the evolution of females is widely hypothesized to be the first step in the evolutionary pathway to separate male and female sexes, or dioecy. Natural enemies have the potential to drive this evolution if they preferentially attack hermaphrodites over females. We studied sex-based differences in exposure to anther-smut (Microbotryum), a sterilizing pollinator-transmitted disease, in Dianthus pavonius, a gynodioecious perennial herb. We found that within a heavily diseased population, females consistently had lower...

Data from: Morphology of the core fibrous layer of the cetacean tail fluke

William T. Gough, Frank E. Fish, Dylan K. Wainwright & Hilary Bart-Smith
The cetacean tail fluke blades are not supported by any vertebral elements. Instead, the majority of the blades are composed of a densely packed collagenous fiber matrix known as the core layer. Fluke blades from six species of odontocete cetaceans were examined to compare the morphology and orientation of fibers at different locations along the spanwise and chordwise fluke blade axes. The general fiber morphology was consistent with a three‐dimensional structure comprised of two‐dimensional sheets...

Data from: Spatiotemporal dynamics and genome-wide association analysis of desiccation tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster

Subhash Rajpurohit, Eran Gefen, Alan O. Bergland, Dmitri A. Petrov, Allen G. Gibbs & Paul S. Schmidt
Water availability is a major environmental challenge to a variety of terrestrial organisms. In insects, desiccation tolerance varies predictably over spatial and temporal scales and is an important physiological determinant of fitness in natural populations. Here, we examine the dynamics of desiccation tolerance in North American populations of Drosophila melanogaster using: 1) natural populations sampled across latitudes and seasons; 2) experimental evolution in field mesocosms over seasonal time; 3) genome-wide associations to identify SNPs/genes associated...

Data from: Relative effects of LDL-C on ischaemic stroke & coronary disease: a Mendelian randomization study

Elsa Valdes-Marquez, Sarah Parish, Robert Clarke, Traiani Stari, Bradford B. Worrall & Jemma C. Hopewell
Objective: To examine the causal relevance of lifelong differences in LDL-C for ischaemic stroke (IS) relative to that for coronary heart disease (CHD) using a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods: We undertook a two-sample Mendelian randomization, based on summary data, to estimate the causal relevance of LDL-C for risk of IS and CHD. Information from 62 independent genetic variants with genome-wide significant effects on LDL-C levels was used to estimate the causal effects of LDL-C for...

Data from: Populations with greater flexibility in floral traits modify mating system in response to the pollinator environment

Lia Leibman, Anne Rowe, Matthew H. Koski & Laura F. Galloway
1. Mixed mating and variation in outcrossing rate among populations of the same species are common. Outcrossing can be affected by pollinator activity and floral traits that facilitate or impede autonomous self-fertilization. However, the relative contribution of pollen limitation and evolved differences in the ability to self fertilize to variation in the mating system is poorly understood and can only be disentangled using an experimental approach. 2. We placed arrays of plants from eight Campanula...

Data from: Co-occurrence among three divergent plant-castrating fungi in the same silene host species

Jessica L. Abbate, Pierre Gladieux, Michael E. Hood, Damien M. De Vienne, Janis Antonovics, Alodie Snirc & Tatiana Giraud
The competitive exclusion principle postulates that different species can only coexist in sympatry if they occupy distinct ecological niches. The goal of this study was to understand the geographical distribution of three species of Microbotryum anther-smut fungi that are distantly related but infect the same host plants, the sister species Silene vulgaris and S. uniflora, in western Europe. We used microsatellite markers to investigate pathogen distribution in relation to host specialization and ecological factors. Microbotryum...

Data from: A key floral scent component (β-trans-bergamotene) drives pollinator preferences independently of pollen rewards in seep monkeyflower

Ariela I. Haber, James W. Sims, Mark C. Mescher, Consuelo M. De Moraes & David E. Carr
1) Floral odors play an important role in attracting insect pollinators. Because pollinators visit flowers to obtain pollen and nectar rewards, they should prefer floral odor profiles associated with the highest-rewarding flowers (honest signals). In previous work, bumble bees exhibited a preference for flowers from outbred over inbred Mimulus guttatus plants. Pollen is the only floral reward in M. guttatus, and pollen viability (a reliable indicator of protein content) is reduced in inbred plants. Yet,...

Data from: Archaeogenomic evidence from the southwestern US points to a pre-Hispanic scarlet macaw breeding colony

Richard J. George, Stephen Plof, Adam S. Watson, Kari L. Schmidt, Brandon J. Culleton, Thomas K. Harper, Patricia A. Gilman, Steven A. LeBlanc, George Amato, Peter Whiteley, Logan Kistler & Douglas J. Kennett
Hundreds of scarlet macaw (Ara macao cyanoptera) skeletons have been recovered from archaeological contexts in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico (SW/NW). The location of these skeletons, >1,000 km outside their Neotropical endemic range, has suggested a far-reaching pre-Hispanic acquisition network. Clear evidence for scarlet macaw breeding within this network is only known from the settlement of Paquimé in NW dating between 1250 and 1450 CE. Although some scholars have speculated on the probable...

Data from: Adaptive radiation along a deeply conserved genetic line of least resistance in Anolis lizards

Joel W. McGlothlin, Megan E. Kobiela, Helen V. Wright, D. Luke Mahler, Jason J. Kolbe, Jonathan B. Losos, & Edmund D. Brodie
On microevolutionary timescales, adaptive evolution depends upon both natural selection and the underlying genetic architecture of traits under selection, which may constrain evolutionary outcomes. Whether such genetic constraints shape phenotypic diversity over macroevolutionary timescales is more controversial, however. One key prediction is that genetic constraints should bias the early stages of species divergence along “genetic lines of least resistance” defined by the genetic (co)variance matrix, G. This bias is expected to erode over time as...

Data from: Rapid seasonal evolution in innate immunity of wild Drosophila melanogaster

Emily L. Behrman, Virginia M. Howick, Martin Kapun, Fabian Staubach, Alan O. Bergland, Dmitri A. Petrov, Brian P. Lazzaro & Paul S. Schmidt
Understanding the rate of evolutionary change and the genetic architecture that facilitates rapid adaptation is a current challenge in evolutionary biology. Comparative studies show that genes with immune function are among the most rapidly evolving genes across a range of taxa. Here, we use immune defence in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster to understand the rate of evolution in natural populations and the genetics underlying rapid change. We probed the immune system using the natural...

Data from: Large-effect mutations generate trade-off between predatory and locomotor ability during arms race coevolution with deadly prey

Michael T.J. Hague, Gabriela Toledo, Shana L. Geffeney, Charles T. Hanifin, , , Michael T. J. Hague & Edmund D. Brodie
Adaptive evolution in response to one selective challenge may disrupt other important aspects of performance. Such evolutionary trade-offs are predicted to arise in the process of local adaptation, but it is unclear if these phenotypic compromises result from the antagonistic effects of simple amino acid substitutions. We tested for trade-offs associated with beneficial mutations that confer tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance in the voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV1.4) in skeletal muscle of the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis)....

Data from: Population structure and gene flow of the tropical seagrass, Syringodium filiforme, in the Florida Keys and subtropical Atlantic region

Alexandra Bijak, Kor-Jent Van Dijk, Michelle Waycott & Alexandra L. Bijak
Evaluating genetic diversity of seagrasses provides insight into reproductive mode and adaptation potential, and is therefore integral to broader conservation strategies for coastal ecosystems. In this study, we assessed genetic diversity, population structure and gene flow in an opportunistic seagrass, Syringodium filiforme, in the Florida Keys and subtropical Atlantic region. We used microsatellite markers to analyze 20 populations throughout the Florida Keys, South Florida, Bermuda and the Bahamas primarily to understand how genetic diversity of...

Data from: Linking pollinator efficiency to patterns of pollen limitation: small bees exploit the plant-pollinator mutualism

Matthew H. Koski, Jennifer L. Ison, Ashley Padilla, Ashley Q. Pham, Laura F. Galloway & Angela Q. Pham
Seemingly mutualistic relationships can be exploited, in some cases reducing fitness of the exploited species. In plants, the insufficient receipt of pollen limits reproduction. While infrequent pollination commonly underlies pollen limitation (PL), frequent interactions with low-efficiency, exploitative pollinators may also cause PL. In the widespread protandrous herb, Campanula americana, visitation by three pollinators explained 63% of the variation in PL among populations spanning the range. Bumblebees and the medium-sized Megachile campanulae enhanced reproductive success, but...

Data from: Aging in an herbaceous plant: increases in mortality and decreases in physiology and seed mass

Brandie M. Quarles & Deborah Ann Roach
1. Little is known about plant age-dependent trait expression and how environmental conditions might affect aging in the wild. This study evaluates age variation in multiple traits of a short-lived perennial herb using a manipulative field experimental design. 2. Two different-aged cohorts were followed in a field plot for over a year to evaluate trait expression in response to a competition treatment and seasonal stress. Traits measured included size, mortality, reproduction, and physiology, including photosynthetic...

Data from: Range‐wide population genetic structure of the Caribbean marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum

Kor-Jent Van Dijk, Eric Bricker, Brigitta Ine Van Tussenbroek & Michelle Waycott
Many marine species have widespread geographic ranges derived from their evolutionary and ecological history particularly their modes of dispersal. Seagrass (marine angiosperm) species have ranges that are unusually widespread, which is not unexpected following recent reviews of reproductive strategies demonstrating the potential for long distance dispersal combined with longevity through clonality. An exemplar of these dual biological features is turtlegrass (Thalassia testudinum) which is an ecologically important species throughout the tropical Atlantic region. Turtlegrass has...

Data from: Response to joint selection on germination and flowering phenology depends on the direction of selection

Laura F. Galloway, Ray H.B. Watson, Holly R. Prendeville & Ray H. B. Watson
Background and Aims. Flowering and germination time are components of phenology, a complex phenotype that incorporates a number of traits. In natural populations, selection is likely to occur on multiple components of phenology at once. However, we have little knowledge of how joint selection on several phenological traits influences evolutionary response. Methods. We conducted one generation of artificial selection for all combinations of early and late germination and flowering on replicated lines within two independent...

Data from: Effect of the anther-smut fungus Microbotryum on the juvenile growth of its host Silene latifolia

Janis Antonovics, Jessica L. Abbate, Emily L. Bruns, Peter D. Fields, Nicole J. Forrester, Kimberley Gilbert, Michael E. Hood, Timothy Park & Douglas R. Taylor
Premise of the Study: Plant pathogens that form persistent systemic infections within plants have the potential to affect multiple plant life history traits, yet we tend to focus only on visible symptoms. Anther-smut disease of Silene latifolia caused by the fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae induces the anthers of its host to produce fungal spores in place of pollen, and the pathogen is primarily transmitted among flowering plants by pollinators. Nevertheless, most of its life cycle is...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    19

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    19

Affiliations

  • University of Virginia
    19
  • University of Adelaide
    2
  • University of Pennsylvania
    2
  • Stanford University
    2
  • Amherst College
    2
  • Harvard University
    2
  • West Chester University
    1
  • Computing Research Association
    1
  • Utah State University
    1
  • Columbia University
    1