22 Works

Infection data and spore counts for cross inoculation experiments

Emily Bruns, Janis Antonovics & Michael Hood
Determining the processes that drive the evolution of pathogen host range can inform our understanding of disease dynamics and the potential for host-shifts. In natural populations, patterns of host range could be driven by genetically based differences in pathogen infectivity or ecological differences in host availability. In northwestern Italy, four reproductively isolated lineages of the fungal plant-pathogen Microbotryum have been shown to co-occur on several species in the genus Dianthus. We carried out cross-inoculation experiments...

Disentangling the influence of water limitation and simultaneous above and belowground herbivory on plant tolerance and resistance to stress

Fabiane Mundim, Ernane Vieira-Neto, Hans Alborn & Emilio Bruna
1. Plants face multiple biotic and abiotic stressors simultaneously. Many species can tolerate and resist stress, but countermeasures differ between roots and leaves. Since herbivores and environmental conditions modulate costs and benefits of plant defense traits, stress responses are context-dependent. We examined whole-plant tolerance and resistance responses to individual and combined effects of above and belowground herbivory under variable water conditions. 2. We manipulated water availability and access by two common herbivores (Spodoptera exigua caterpillars...

Data from: Reproductive tradeoffs and phenotypic selection change with body condition, but not with predation regime, across island lizard populations

Robert Cox
Tradeoffs between reproduction and survival are central to life-history theory and are expected to shape patterns of phenotypic selection, but the ecological factors structuring these tradeoffs and resultuant patterns of selection are generally unknown. We manipulated reproductive investment and predation regime in island populations of brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) to test (1) whether previously documented increases in the survival of experimentally non-reproductive females (OVX = ovariectomy) reflect the greater susceptibility of reproductive females (SHAM...

Modeling pulsed evolution and time-independent variation improves the confidence level of ancestral and hidden state predictions

Yingnan Gao & Martin Wu
Ancestral state reconstruction is not only a fundamental tool for studying trait evolution, but also very useful for predicting the unknown trait values (hidden states) of extant species. A well-known problem in ancestral and hidden state predictions is that the uncertainty associated with predictions can be so large that predictions themselves are of little use. Therefore, for meaningful interpretation of predicted traits and hypothesis testing, it is prudent to accurately assess the uncertainty of the...

Resistance correlations influence infection by foreign pathogens

Michael E. Hood, Noah Lerner, Victoria Luizzi, Janis Antonovics & Emily Bruns
Reciprocal selection promotes the specificity of host-pathogen associations and resistance polymorphisms in response to disease. However, plants and animals also vary in response to pathogen species not previously encountered in nature, with potential effects on new disease emergence. Using anther-smut disease, we show that resistance (measured as infection rates) to foreign pathogens can be correlated with standing variation in resistance to an endemic pathogen. In Silene vulgaris, genetic variation in resistance to its endemic anther-smut...

Data from: Geographic variation in pollen color is associated with temperature stress

Laura Galloway & Matthew Koski
The evolution of flower color, especially petal pigmentation, has received substantial attention. Less understood is the evolutionary ecology of pollen pigmentation though it varies among and within species and its biochemical properties affect pollen viability. We characterize the distribution of pollen color across 24 populations of the North American herb Campanula americana, and assess the degree to which this variation is genetically based. We identify abiotic factors that covary with pollen color and test whether...

Halophila johnsonii phylogenetic analysis alignments

Kor-Jent Van Dijk, Michelle Waycott, Ainsley Calladine, Eric Bricker & Ed Biffin
Halophila johnsonii is an endangered seagrass species that is restricted to the Florida Bay region of Florida, USA. Its taxonomic status has been called into question, in particular, given the close morphological and genetic similarity of H. johnsonii and the widely distributed and morphologically variable H. ovalis, which is largely restricted to the Indo-Pacific region. While a close relationship to H. ovalis is uncontroversial, it remains uncertain whether H. johnsonii represents a distinct lineage or...

Data from: An intronic transposon insertion associates with a trans-species color polymorphism in Midas cichlid fishes

Claudius Kratochwil, Andreas Kautt, Alexander Nater, Andreas Härer, Yipeng Liang, Frederico Henning & Axel Meyer
Polymorphisms have fascinated biologists for a long time, but their genetic underpinnings often remained elusive. Here, we aimed to uncover the genetic basis of the gold/dark polymorphism that is eponymous of Midas cichlid fish (Amphilophus spp.) adaptive radiations in Nicaraguan crater lakes. While most Midas cichlids are of the melanic “dark morph”, about 10% of individuals lose their melanic pigmentation during their ontogeny and transition into a conspicuous “gold morph”. Using a new haplotype-resolved long-read...

Group composition of individual personalities alters social network structure in experimental populations of forked fungus beetles

Phoebe Cook, Olivia Baker, Robin Costello, Vincent Formica & Edmund Brodie
Social network structure is a critical group character that mediates the flow of information, pathogens, and resources among individuals in a population, yet little is known about what shapes social structures. In this study, we experimentally tested whether social network structure depends on the personalities of group members. Replicate groups of forked fungus beetles (Bolitotherus cornutus) were engineered to include only members previously assessed as either more social or less social. We found that individuals...

Data from: Broad geographic sampling reveals predictable, pervasive, and strong seasonal adaptation in Drosophila

Heather E. Machado, Alan O. Bergland, Ryan Taylor, Susanne Tilk, Emily Behrman, Kelly Dyer, Daniel K. Fabian, Thomas Flatt, Josefa González, Talia L. Karasov, Iryna Kozeretska, Brian P. Lazzaro, Thomas JS Merritt, John E. Pool, Katherine O’Brien, Subhash Rajpurohit, Paula R. Roy, Stephen W. Schaeffer, Svitlana Serga, Paul Schmidt, Dmitri Petrov & Bernard Kim
To advance our understanding of adaptation to temporally varying selection pressures, we identified signatures of seasonal adaptation occurring in parallel among Drosophila melanogaster populations. Specifically, we estimated allele frequencies genome-wide from flies sampled early and late in the growing season from 20 widely dispersed populations. We identified parallel seasonal allele frequency shifts across North America and Europe, demonstrating that seasonal adaptation is a general phenomenon of temperate fly populations. Seasonally fluctuating polymorphisms are enriched at...

Hormonal pleiotropy structures genetic covariance

Tyler Wittman, Christopher Robinson, Joel McGlothlin & Robert Cox
Quantitative genetic theory proposes that phenotypic evolution is shaped by G, the matrix of genetic variances and covariances among traits. In species with separate sexes, the evolution of sexual dimorphism is also shaped by B, the matrix of between-sex genetic variances and covariances. Despite considerable focus on estimating these matrices, their underlying biological mechanisms are largely speculative. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that G and B are structured by hormonal pleiotropy, which occurs when one...

Data from: A sensory bias overrides learned preferences of bumblebees for honest signals in Mimulus guttatus

Ariela Haber, James Sims, Mark Mescher, Consuelo De Moraes & David Carr
Insect pollinators readily learn olfactory cues, and this is expected to select for “honest signals” that provide reliable information about floral rewards. However, plants might alternatively produce signals that exploit pollinators’ sensory biases, thereby relaxing selection for signal honesty. We examined the innate and learned preferences of Bombus impatiens for Mimulus guttatus floral scent phenotypes corresponding to different levels of pollen rewards in the presence and absence of the innately attractive floral volatile compound β-trans-bergamotene....

Intercontinental dispersal and whole‐genome duplication contribute to loss of self‐incompatibility in a polyploid complex

Brittany Sutherland, Brandie M. Quarles & Laura F. Galloway
Premise of the Study Angiosperm species often shift from self-incompatibility to self-compatibility following population bottlenecks. Across the range of a species, population bottlenecks may result from multiple factors, each of which may affect the geographic distribution and magnitude of mating-system shifts. We describe how intercontinental dispersal and genome duplication facilitate loss of self-incompatibility. Methods Self and outcross pollinations were performed on plants from 24 populations of the Campanula rotundifolia polyploid complex. Populations spanned the geographic...

Data used in timing is everything: Dichogamy and pollen germinability underlie variation in autonomous selfing among populations

Laura Galloway & Matthew Koski
Premise of the study: The evolution of multiple floral traits often underlies the transition from outcrossing to selfing. Such traits can influence the ability to self, and the timing at which selfing occurs, which in turn affects the costs of selfing. Species that display variation in autonomous selfing provide an opportunity to dissect the phenotypic changes that contribute to variability in the mating system. Methods: In a common garden, we measured dichogamy and herkogamy in...

Data from: Opportunities to catalyze improved healthcare access in pluralistic systems: a cross-sectional study in Haiti

Molly Klarman, Justin Schon, Youseline Cajusma, Stacey Maples, Valery M Beau De Rochars, Chantale Baril & Eric J Nelson
Introduction. Gains to ensure global healthcare access are at risk of stalling because some old resilient challenges require new solutions. Our objective was to identify determinants of intended versus actual care-seeking behaviors in a pluralistic healthcare system that is reliant on both conventional and non-conventional providers and discover opportunities to catalyze improved healthcare access. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among households with children less than 5 years of age in Haiti. Households were randomly...

Variation in reproduction and gene flow between cytotypes in a polyploid complex: one size does not fit all

Brittany Sutherland & Laura Galloway
Whole-genome duplication is considered an important speciation mechanism in plants. However, its effect on reproductive isolation between higher cytotypes is not well understood. We used backcrosses between different ploidy levels and surveys of mixed-ploidy contact zones to determine how reproductive barriers differed with cytotype across a polyploid complex. We backcrossed F1 hybrids derived from 2X-4X and 4X-6X crosses in the Campanula rotundifolia autopolyploid complex, measured backcross fitness, and estimated backcross DNA cytotype. We then sampled...

Improving intra- and inter-annual GPP predictions by using individual-tree inventories and leaf growth dynamics

Jing Fang, James Lutz, Herman Shugart, Xiaodong Yan, Wenqiang Xie & Feng Liu
Carbon sequestration is a key ecosystem service provided by forests. Inventory data based on individual trees are considered to be the most accurate method for estimating forest productivity. However, estimations of forest photosynthesis itself from inventory data remains understudied, particularly when considering the growth and development of individual trees under the background of global change. Here, we used the leaf growth process with phenology and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) storage to revise an individual-tree based carbon...

Data from: A geographic cline in the ability to self-fertilize is unrelated to the pollination environment

Laura Galloway, Matt Koski, Jeremiah Busch & Dena Grossenbacher
The reproductive assurance (RA) hypothesis predicts that the ability to autonomously self-fertilize should be favored in environments where a lack of mates or pollinators limits outcross reproduction. Because such limits to outcrossing are predicted to be most severe at range edges, elevated autonomy in peripheral populations is often attributed to RA. We test this hypothesis in 24 populations spanning the range of Campanula americana, including sampling at the range interior and three geographic range edges....

Phenotypic assortment by morphology in social partners of the forked fungus beetle Bolitotherus cornutus

Social interactions with conspecifics can dramatically affect an individual’s fitness. The positive or negative consequences of interacting with social partners typically depend on the value of traits that they express. These pathways of social selection connect the traits and genes expressed in some individuals to the fitness realized by others, thereby altering the total phenotypic selection on and evolutionary response of traits across the multivariate phenotype. The downstream effects of social selection are mediated by...

Floral spectral reflectance data for: Floral color properties of serpentine seep assemblages depend on community size and species richness

Kathryn LeCroy, Gerardo Arceo-Gómez, Matthew Koski, Nathan Morehouse & Tia-Lynn Ashman
Functional traits, particularly those that impact fitness, can shape the ecological and evolutionary relationships among coexisting species of the same trophic level. Thus, examining these traits and properties of their distributions (underdispersion, overdispersion) within communities can provide insights into key ecological interactions (e.g., competition, facilitation) involved in community assembly. For instance, the distribution of floral colors in a community may reflect pollinator-mediated interactions between sympatric plant species, and the phylogenetic distribution of color can inform...

Data for: Variation in reproductive isolation across a species range

Karen Barnard-Kubow & Laura Galloway
Reproductive isolation is often variable within species, a phenomenon that while largely ignored by speciation studies, can be leveraged to gain insight into the potential mechanisms driving the evolution of genetic incompatibilities. We used experimental greenhouse crosses to characterize patterns of reproductive isolation among three divergent genetic lineages of Campanulastrum americanum that occur in close geographic proximity in the Appalachian Mountains. Substantial, asymmetrical reproductive isolation for survival due to cytonuclear incompatibility was found among the...

C. Elegans meiotic spindles

Stefanie Redemann
The female meiotic spindles of most animals are acentrosomal and undergo striking morphological changes while transitioning from metaphase to anaphase. The ultra-structure of acentrosomal spindles, and how changes to this structure correlate with such dramatic spindle rearrangements remains largely unknown. To address this, we applied light microscopy, large-scale electron tomography and mathematical modeling of female meiotic C. elegans spindles undergoing the transition from metaphase to anaphase. Combining these approaches, we find that meiotic spindles are...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    22

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Affiliations

  • University of Virginia
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  • Clemson University
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  • Stanford University
    2
  • Amherst College
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  • University of Florida
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  • University of Maryland, Baltimore
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  • California Polytechnic State University
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  • University of Adelaide
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  • University of Pennsylvania
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