38 Works

Impacts of male-killing Spiroplasma on the metabolic rate and ectoparasite resistance capacity (endurance) of Drosophila

Collin Horn, Lien Luong & Taekwan Yoon
Ectoparasitic mites are hypothesized to horizontally transmit bacterial endosymbionts, especially male-killing Spiroplasma. In this study we test how Spiroplasma poulsonii MSRO affects fly physiology and behaviour, and potential mite interactions.

Assessing the nutritional consequences of switching foraging behaviour in wood bison

Lee Hecker, Mark Edwards & Scott Neilsen
Diet is one of the most common traits used to organize species of animals into niches. For ruminant herbivores, the breadth and uniqueness of their dietary niche is placed on a spectrum from browsers that consume woody (i.e., browse) and herbaceous (i.e., forbs) plants, to grazers with graminoid-rich diets. However, seasonal changes in plant availability and quality can lead to switching of their dietary niche, even within species. In this study, we examined whether a...

Medial amygdala ERα expression influences monogamous behavior of male prairie voles in the field

Connor Lambert
Formation of long-term pair-bonds is a complex process, involving multiple neural circuits, and is context- and experience-dependent. While laboratory studies using prairie voles have identified the involvement of several neural mechanisms, efforts to translate these findings into predictable field outcomes have been ambiguous at best. Here we test the hypothesis that inhibition of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the medial amygdala of male prairie voles would significantly increase the expression of social monogamy in the...

Plant composition of northern temperate pastures and their disturbance history in Alberta, Canada

Lysandra Pyle & Edward Bork
This data set includes the plant composition of 102 pastures sampled in north-central Alberta, Canada. Sampled pastures were located in the Central Parkland and Dry Mixed-Wood natural subregions, and were largely comprised of introduced species. In this study, we examined the influence of pasture disturbance history on vegetation, soil properties, and rangeland health. Disturbance history includes estimates of pasture age, cultivation history, fire history, grazing history (including stocking rates), and other pasture management activities/inputs (manure,...

Data from: The patterns of vascular plant discoveries in China

Muyang Lu, Lianming Gao, Hongtao Li & Fangliang He
Aim 1. To understand geographic patterns of species discovery by examining the effect of growth form, range size, and geographic distribution on discovery probability of vascular plant species in China. 2. To find out which taxa harbor the largest number of undiscovered species and where those species locate. 3. To find out the determinants of province-level mean discovery time and inventory completeness. Location: China Methods We compiled the discovery time and province-level geographic distributions of...

Data from: Resource exploitation collapses the home range of an apex predator

Melanie Dickie, Robert Serrouya, Avgar Tal, Philllip McLouglin, Scott McNay, Craig DeMars & Stan Boutin
Optimizing energy acquisition and expenditure is a fundamental trade-off for consumers, strikingly reflected in how mobile organisms use space. Several studies have established that home range size decreases as resource density increases, but the balance of costs and benefits associated with exploiting a given resource density is unclear. We evaluate how the ability of consumers to exploit their resources through movement (termed “resource exploitation”) interacts with resource density to influence home range size. We then...

Ancient DNA-based sex determination of bison hide moccasins provides evidence for selective hunting strategies by Promontory Cave occupants

Sabrina Shirazi, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Jonas Oppenheimer, Jessica Metcalfe, Rob Found, John Ives & Beth Shapiro
The thirteenth-century human occupants of Promontory Cave, Utah, distinguished themselves from surrounding Fremont populations by being successful hunting specialists of bison in a region normally peripheral for that species. The hunters’ success is evident from the abundance of faunal remains excavated from the dry caves, which has facilitated zooarchaeological study of bison hunting strategies. The dry cave conditions also preserved hundreds of worn moccasins, which are of particular interest because of the Canadian-Subarctic style in...

Data from: Determinants and long-term costs of early reproduction in males of a long-lived polygynous mammal

Yanny Ritchot, Fanie Pelletier, Marco Festa-Bianchet & David Coltman
In long-lived polygynous species, male reproductive success is often monopolized by a few mature dominant individuals. Young males are generally too small to be dominant and may employ alternative tactics, however, little is known about the determinants of reproductive success for young males. Understanding the causes and consequences of variability in early reproductive success may be crucial to assess the strength of sexual selection and possible long-term trade-offs among life-history traits. Selective pressures driven by...

Social effects on annual fitness in red squirrels

Andrew McAdam, Quinn Webber, Ben Dantzer, Jeff Lane & Stan Boutin
When resources are limited, mean fitness is constrained and competition can cause genes and phenotypes to enhance an individual’s own fitness while reducing the fitness of their competitors. Negative social effects on fitness have the potential to constrain adaptation, but the interplay between ecological opportunity and social constraints on adaptation remains poorly studied in nature. Here, we tested for evidence of phenotypic social effects on annual fitness (survival and reproductive success) in a long-term study...

Snaps of a tiny amphipod push the boundary of ultrafast, repeatable movement

Sarah Longo, William Ray, Grace Farley, Jacob Harrison, Justin Jorge, Tomonari Kaji, A. Richard Palmer & Sheila Patek
Surprisingly, the fastest motions are not produced by large animals or robots. Rather, small organisms or structures, including cnidarian stinging cells, fungal shooting spores, and mandible strikes of ants, termites, and spiders hold the world acceleration records. These diverse systems share common features: they rapidly convert potential energy - stored in deformed material or fluid - into kinetic energy when a latch is released. However, the fastest and smallest known movements often cannot be used...

Data from: Trade-offs between reproduction and behavioural resistance against ectoparasite infection

Collin Horn
In these experiments we tested if 1) mated female flies (Drosophila nigrospiracula) are more vulnerable to ectoparasite mite (Macrocheles subbadius) infection then unmated conspecifics. 2) If a rest period to recover from male harassment following mating improved resistance to mites and 3) if reduced endurance following mating may explain differential resistance abilities between mated and unmated female flies.

Memory reactivation in rat medial prefrontal cortex occurs in a subtype of cortical UP state during slow-wave sleep

Soroush Malek, Masami Tatsuno, LeAnna Kalvi, Adrian Ponce-Alvarez, Karim Ali, David R. Euston, Sonja Gruen & Bruce L. McNaughton
Interaction between hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) and UP states, possibly by coordinated reactivation of memory traces, is conjectured to play an important role in memory consolidation. Recently, it was reported that SWRs were differentiated into multiple subtypes. However, whether cortical UP states can also be classified into subtypes is not known. Here, we analysed neural ensemble activity from the medial prefrontal cortex from rats trained to run a spatial sequence-memory task. Application of the hidden...

Data from: Topographic and vegetation drivers of thermal heterogeneity along the boreal–grassland transition zone in western Canada: implications for climate change refugia

César Estevo, Diana Stralberg, Scott Nielsen & Erin Bayne
Climate-change refugia are areas that are relatively buffered from contemporary climate change and may be important safe havens for wildlife and plants under anthropogenic climate change. Topographic variation is an important driver of thermal heterogeneity, but it is limited in relatively flat landscapes, such as the boreal plain and prairie regions of western Canada. Topographic variation within this region is mostly restricted to river valleys and hill systems, and their effects on local climates are...

Argos and GPS data for a polar bear track

Marie Auger-Méthé & Andrew E. Derocher
It is rare to be able to validate state-space models for Argos data. This dataset provides a unique opportunity to do so, because it contains simultaneous Argos and GPS data for a polar bear. The GPS locations are extremely accurate (≤30 m) compared to Argos data, which can have errors as large as 36 km depending on the quality class. The dataset contains one year of movement data, starting on April 20, 2009. The dataset...

Progressive neurochemical abnormalities in cognitive and motor subgroups of ALS: a prospective multicentre study

Daniel Ta, Abdullah Ishaque, Ojas Srivastava, Chris Hanstock, Peter Seres, Dean Eurich, Collin Luk, Hannah Briemberg, Richard Frayne, Angela Genge, Simon Graham, Lawrence Korngut, Lorne Zinman & Sanjay Kalra
Objective: To evaluate progressive cerebral degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by assessing alterations in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) ratios in the motor and prefrontal cortex within clinical subgroups of ALS. Methods: Seventy-six ALS patients and 59 healthy controls were enrolled a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study in the Canadian ALS Neuroimaging Consortium (CALSNIC). Participants underwent serial clinical evaluations and MRS at baseline, 4 and 8 months using a harmonized protocol across 5 centers. NAA ratios were quantified...

Genomic distinctness despite shared color patterns among threatened populations of a tiger beetle

Rowan French, Aaron Bell, Kiara Calladine, John Acorn & Felix Sperling
Conservation biologists have long debated the value of subspecies, which are morphologically and geographically identifiable but not necessarily evolutionarily distinctive. One example of a controversial subspecies is Cicindela formosa gibsoni, a tiger beetle that is nationally listed as threatened in Canada and whose taxonomic status is based primarily on its unique elytral (forewing) color pattern. To determine whether C. f. gibsoni represents one or more genetically distinctive units, we sampled 14 populations within or near...

Data from: Proximity to parasites reduces host fitness independent of infection in a Drosophila-Macrocheles system

Collin Horn & Lien Luong
We assayed the longevity and reproductive output of Drosophila nigrospiracula exposed or not exposed to ectoparasitic Macrocheles subbadius accross a mesh barrier. As such we measured the non-consumptive effects (extending the ecology of fear to host-parasite systems) of an ectoparasite on host fecundity and survival. We found that exposure to mites, without infection, caused flies to live shorter lives and produce fewer offspring.

Ancient horse genomes reveal the timing and extent of dispersals across the Bering Land Bridge

Alisa Vershinina, Peter Heintzman, Duane Froese, Grant Zazula, Molly Cassatt-Johnstone, Love Dalén, Clio Der Sarkissian, Shelby Dunn, Luca Ermini, Cristina Gamba, Pamela Groves, Joshua Kapp, Daniel Mann, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, John Southon, Mathias Stiller, Matthew Wooller, Gennady Baryshnikov, Dmitry Gimranov, Eric Scott, Elizabeth Hall, Susan Hewitson, Irina Kirillova, Pavel Kosintsev, Fedor Shidlovsky … & Beth Shapiro
The Bering Land Bridge (BLB) last connected Eurasia and North America during the Pleistocene. Although the BLB would have enabled transfers of terrestrial biota in both directions, it also acted as an ecological filter whose permeability varied considerably over time. Here we explore the possible impacts of this ecological corridor on genetic diversity within, and connectivity among, populations of a once wide-ranging group, the caballine horses (Equus spp.). Using a panel of 187 mitochondrial and...

Supplemental data from: Intraspecific facial bite marks in tyrannosaurids provide insight into sexual maturity and evolution of bird-like intersexual display

Caleb Brown, Philip Currie & François Therrien
Intraspecific aggression, or agonism, is a widespread intrasexual selective behavior important to understanding animal behavioral ecology and reproductive systems. Such behavior can be studied either by direct observation or inferred from wound/scar frequency in extant species, but is difficult to document in extinct taxa, limiting understanding of its evolution. Among extant archosaurs, crocodylians display extensive intrasexual aggression, whereas birds show extreme visual/vocal intersexual display. The evolutionary origin of this behavioral divergence, and pattern in non-avian...

Data from: Vertebrate scavenging dynamics differ between carnivore and herbivore carcasses in the northern boreal forest

Michael Peers, Sean Konkolics, Yasmine Majchrzak, Allyson Menzies, Emily Studd, Rudy Boonstra, Stan Boutin & Clayton Lamb
Vertebrate scavenging can impact food web dynamics, but our understanding of this process stems predominantly from monitoring herbivore carrion and extrapolating results across carcass types. Recent evidence suggests carnivores may avoid intraguild scavenging to reduce parasite transmission. If this behavior is widespread across diverse ecosystems, estimation of nutrient cycling and community scavenging rates are likely biased to a currently unknown degree. We examined whether the time to initiate scavenging, carcass persistence, or the richness of...

Codes for simulation and data for: The relationship between local and regional extinction rates depends on species distribution patterns

Chuan Yan, Fangliang He, Jinxing He & Zhibin Zhang
The rapid loss of biodiversity poses a great threat to ecosystem functions and services. Credible estimation of species extinction rates is essential for understanding the magnitude of biodiversity loss and for informing conservation, but this has been a challenge because estimated extinctions are unverifiable due to the lack of data. In this study, we investigated the relationship between local and regional extinctions and assessed the effects of range size, spatial segregation, and patchiness of species...

The density of anthropogenic features explains seasonal and behaviour-based functional responses in selection of linear features by a social predator

Karine Pigeon, Doug MacNearney, Mark Hebblewhite, Marco Musiani, Jerome Cranston, Gord Stenhouse, Fiona Schmiegelow & Laura Finnegan
Anthropogenic linear features facilitate access and travel efficiency for predators, and can influence predator distribution and encounter rates with prey. We used GPS collar data from eight wolf packs and characteristics of seismic lines to investigate whether (1) ease-of-travel or (2) access to areas presumed to be preferred by prey best explained seasonal selection patterns of wolves near seismic lines, and whether the density of anthropogenic features led to functional responses in habitat selection. At...

Assisted colonization of a regionally native predator impacts benthic invertebrates in fishless mountain lakes

Allison L. K. Banting, Mark K. Taylor, Rolf D. Vinebrooke, Chris M. Carli, Mark S. Poesch & Rolf D. Vinebrooke
The intentional introduction of native cold-water trout into high-elevation fishless lakes has been considered a tool to build resilience to climate change (i.e. assisted colonization); however, ecological impacts on recipient communities are understudied. The purpose of this study was to inform native cold-water trout recovery managers by assessing potential consequences of translocating a regionally native trout (westslope cutthroat trout; Oncorhynchus clarkii) into fishless mountain lakes. This study compared littoral benthic invertebrate richness, diversity, community structure,...

Phototaxic Behaviour of Flies with and without an ectoparasitic mite

Collin Horn, Jacob Wasylenko & Lien Luong
First, we demonstrated that flies are less likely to be infected by mites when exposed in light environments than dark environments using micro-arena experiments. In baseline conditions (mite-free environments), unmated female flies and mated female flies spent significantly more time in the dark side of the phototaxis chambers. Males did not show significant negative or positive phototaxis. Contrarily, when exposed to mites, neither unmated or mated females displayed significant phototaxis. Flies became less negatively phototaxic...

Experimental evidence for the recovery of mercury-contaminated fish populations

Lee Hrenchuk, Paul Blanchfield, John Rudd, Marc Amyot, Christopher Babiarz, Ken Beaty, Drew Bodaly, Brian Branfireun, Cynthia Gilmour, Jennifer Graydon, Britt Hall, Reed Harris, Andrew Heyes, Holger Hintelmann, James Hurley, Carol Kelly, David Krabbenhoft, Steve Lindberg, Robert Mason, Michael Paterson, Cheryl Podemski, Ken Sandilands, George Southworth, Vincent St. Louis, Lori Tate … & Michael Tate
Anthropogenic releases of mercury (Hg) are a human health issue because the potent toxicant methylmercury (MeHg), formed primarily by microbial methylation of inorganic Hg in aquatic ecosystems, bioaccumulates to high concentrations in fish consumed by humans. Predicting the efficacy of Hg pollution controls on fish MeHg concentrations is complex because many factors influence the production and bioaccumulation of MeHg. Here we conducted a 15-year whole-ecosystem, single-factor experiment to determine the magnitude and timing of reductions...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    38

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    38

Affiliations

  • University of Alberta
    38
  • University of Saskatchewan
    3
  • McGill University
    3
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
    3
  • University of British Columbia
    3
  • Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute
    2
  • Utah State University
    2
  • University of Freiburg
    2
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
    2
  • University of Toronto
    2