203 Works

Leapfrog dynamics in phage-bacteria coevolution revealed by joint analysis of cross-infection phenotypes and whole genome sequencing

Animesh Gupta
Viruses and their hosts can undergo coevolutionary arms races where hosts evolve increased resistance and viruses evolve counter-resistance. Given these arms race dynamics (ARD), both players are predicted to evolve along a single trajectory as more recently evolved genotypes replace their predecessors. By coupling phenotypic and genomic analyses of coevolving populations of bacteriophage lambda and Escherichia coli, we find conflicting evidence for ARD. Virus-host infection phenotypes fit the ARD model, yet genomic analyses revealed fluctuating...

DEPP: Deep learning enables extending species trees using single genes

Yueyu Jiang, Metin Balaban, Qiyun Zhu & Siavash Mirarab
Placing new sequences onto reference phylogenies is increasingly used for analyzing environmental samples, especially microbiomes. However, existing placement methods have a fundamental limitation: they assume that query sequences have evolved using specific models directly on the reference phylogeny. Thus, they can place single-gene data (e.g., 16S rRNA amplicons) onto their own gene tree. This practice is a proxy for a more ambitious goal: extending a (genome-wide) species tree given data from individual genes. No algorithm...

Data from: Phytoplankton functional composition determines limitation by nutrients and grazers across a lake productivity gradient

Marika Schulhof, Dedmer Van De Waal, Steven Declerck & Jonathan Shurin
Functional tradeoffs among ecologically important traits govern the diversity of communities and changes in species composition along environmental gradients. A tradeoff between predator defense and resource competitive ability has been invoked as a mechanism that may maintain diversity in lake phytoplankton. Tradeoffs may promote diversity in communities where grazing- and resource-limited taxa coexist, which determines the extent to which communities are resource- or consumer-controlled. In addition, changes in temperature may alter nutrient demands and grazing...

Behavioral context affects social signal representations within single primate prefrontal cortex neurons

Adam Fishbein, Vladimir Jovanovic, Lisa De La Mothe, Kuo-Fen Lee & Cory Miller
We tested whether social signal processing in more traditional, head-restrained contexts is representative of the putative natural analog – social communication – by comparing responses to vocalizations within individual neurons in marmoset prefrontal cortex (PFC) across a series of behavioral contexts ranging from traditional to naturalistic. Although vocalization responsive neurons were evident in all contexts, cross-context consistency was notably limited. A response to these social signals when subjects were head-restrained was not predictive of a...

Hair phenotype diversity across Indriidae lemurs

Elizabeth Tapanes, Rachel Jacobs, Ian Harryman, , Mitchell Irwin, Jason Kamilar & Brenda Bradley
Objectives: Hair (i.e., pelage/fur) is a salient feature of primate (including human) diversity and evolution—serving functions tied to thermoregulation, protection, camouflage, and signaling—but wild primate pelage evolution remains relatively understudied. Specifically, assessing multiple hypotheses across distinct phylogenetic scales is essential but is rarely conducted. We examine whole body hair color and density variation across Indriidae (Avahi, Indri, Propithecus)—a lineage that, like humans, exhibits vertical posture (i.e., their whole bodies are vertical to the sun). Materials...

Dense seismic three-component nodal array at the Bud Wellman Ranch

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High-Resolution imaging and monitoring of the subsurface structure and seismicity at a site along the San Jacinto fault zone using a dense seismic nodal array. The site is located about 8 km southeast of the town of Anza, California. The type of nodal sensor employed is the Fairfield Zland 3-component geophone (records ground velocity continuously). The array consists of 108 sensors, with 54 located along a linear across-fault profile and the remaining 54 sensors scattered...

Dense seismic three-component nodal array at the Ramona Reservation

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High-Resolution imaging and monitoring of the subsurface structure and seismicity at a site along the San Jacinto fault zone using a dense seismic nodal array. The site is located about 6 km northwest of the town of Anza, California. The type of nodal sensor employed is the Fairfield Zland 3-component 5 Hz geophones (records ground velocity continuously at 500 sps). The array consists of 97 sensors, with 65 located along a linear across-fault profile and...

Data from: Revisiting protein aggregation as pathogenic in sporadic Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases

Alberto J. Espay, Joaquin A. Vizcarra, Luca Marsili, Anthony E. Lang, David K. Simon, Aristide Merola, Keith A. Josephs, Alfonso Fasano, Francesca Morgante, Rodolfo Savica, J. Timothy Greenamyre, Franca Cambi, Tritia R. Yamasaki, Caroline M. Tanner, Ziv Gan-Or, Irene Litvan, Ignacio F. Mata, Cyrus P. Zabetian, Patrik Brundin, Hubert H. Fernandez, David G. Standaert, Marcelo A. Kauffman, Michael A. Schwarzschild, S. Pablo Sardi, Todd Sherer … & James B. Leverenz
The gold standard for a definitive diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the pathologic finding of aggregated alpha-synuclein into Lewy bodies and for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) aggregated amyloid into plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau into tangles. Implicit in this clinico-pathologic-based nosology is the assumption that pathological protein aggregation at autopsy reflect pathogenesis at disease onset. While these aggregates may in exceptional cases be on a causal pathway in humans (e.g., aggregated alpha-synuclein in SNCA gene multiplication...

Data from: Testing the effects of ant invasions on non-ant arthropods with high-resolution taxonomic data

Cause Hanna, Ida Naughton, Christina Boser & David Holway
Invasions give rise to a wide range of ecological effects. Many invasions proceed without noticeable impacts on the resident biota, whereas others shift species composition and even alter ecosystem function. Ant invasions generate a broad spectrum of ecological effects, but controversy surrounds the extent of these impacts, especially with regard to how other arthropods are affected. This uncertainty in part results from the widespread use of low-resolution taxonomic data, which can mask the presence of...

Data from: Destabilizing mutations encode nongenetic variation that drives evolutionary innovation

Katherine L. Petrie, Nathan D. Palmer, Daniel T. Johnson, Sarah J. Medina, Stephanie J. Yan, Victor Li, Alita R. Burmeister & Justin R. Meyer
Evolutionary innovations are often achieved by repurposing existing genes to perform new functions; however, the mechanisms enabling the transition from old to new remain controversial. We identified mutations in bacteriophage λ’s host-recognition gene J that confer enhanced adsorption to λ’s native receptor, LamB, and the ability to access a new receptor, OmpF. The mutations destabilize particles and cause conformational bistability of J, which yields progeny of multiple phenotypic forms, each proficient at different receptors. This...

Data from: Before platelets: the production of platelet activating factor during growth and stress in a basal marine organism

Ines Galtier D’Auriac, Robert A. Quinn, Heather Maughan, Louis-Felix Nothias, Mark Little, Clifford A. Kapono, Ana Cobian Guemes, Brandon T. Reyes, Kevin Green, Steven D. Quistad, Matthieu Leray, Jennifer E. Smith, Pieter C. Dorrestein, Forest Rohwer, Dimitri D. Deheyn, Aaron C. Hartmann, Ana Cobian & Ines Galtier D'Auriac
Corals and humans represent two extremely disparate metazoan lineages and are therefore useful for comparative evolutionary studies. Two lipid-based molecules that are central to human immunity, platelet activating factor (PAF) and Lyso-PAF were recently identified in scleractinian corals. To identify processes in corals that involve these molecules, PAF and Lyso-PAF biosynthesis was quantified in conditions known to stimulate PAF production in mammals (tissue growth and exposure to elevated levels of ultraviolet light) and in conditions...

Data from: Bees eavesdrop upon informative and persistent signal compounds in alarm pheromones

Zhengwei Wang, Ping Wen, Yufeng Qu, Shihao Dong, Jianjun Li, Ken Tan & James C. Nieh
Pollinators such as bees provide a critical ecosystem service that can be impaired by information about predation. We provide the first evidence for olfactory eavesdropping and avoidance of heterospecific alarm signals, alarm pheromones, at food sources in bees. We predicted that foragers would eavesdrop upon heterospecific alarm pheromones, and would detect and avoid conspicuous individual pheromone compounds, defined by abundance and how long they can linger to provide warning information (volatility). We show that Apis...

Data from: Social interactions shape individual and collective personality in social spiders

Edmund R. Hunt, Brian Mi, Camila Fernandez, Brandyn M. Wong, Jonathan N. Pruitt & Noa Pinter-Wollman
The behavioural composition of a group and the dynamics of social interactions can both influence how social animals work collectively. For example, individuals exhibiting certain behavioural tendencies may have a disproportionately large impact on the group, and so are referred to as keystone individuals, while interactions between individuals can facilitate information transmission about resources. Despite the potential impact of both behavioural composition and interactions on collective behaviour, the relationship between consistent behaviours, also known as...

Data from: CO2-induced ocean acidification does not affect individual or group behaviour in a temperate damselfish

Garfield Tsz Kwan, Trevor James Hamilton & Martin Tresguerres
Open ocean surface CO2 levels are projected to reach approximately 800 µatm, and ocean pH to decrease by approximately 0.3 units by the year 2100 due to anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the subsequent process of ocean acidification (OA). When exposed to these CO2/pH values, several fish species display abnormal behaviour in laboratory tests, an effect proposed to be linked to altered neuronal GABAA­ receptor function. Juvenile blacksmith (Chromis punctipinnis) are social fish that regularly experience...

Data from: Nosema ceranae can infect honey bee larvae and reduces subsequent adult longevity

Daren M. Eiri, Guntima Suwannapong, Matthew Endler & James C. Nieh
Nosema ceranae causes a widespread disease that reduces honey bee health but is only thought to infect adult honey bees, not larvae, a critical life stage. We reared honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae in vitro and provide the first demonstration that N. ceranae can infect larvae and decrease subsequent adult longevity. We exposed three-day-old larvae to a single dose of 40,000 (40K), 10,000 (10K), zero (control), or 40K autoclaved (control) N. ceranae spores in larval...

Data from: The influence of depression on cognitive control: disambiguating approach and avoidance tendencies

He Huang, Javier Movellan, Martin P. Paulus & Katia M. Harlé
Dysfunctions of approach and avoidance motivation play an important role in depression, which in turn may affect cognitive control, i.e., the ability to regulate thoughts and action to achieve internal goals. We use a novel experimental paradigm, i.e. a computer simulated driving-task, to study the impact of depression on cognitive control by measuring approach and avoidance actions in continuous time. In this task, 39 subjects with minimal to severe depression symptoms were instructed to use...

Data from: Deep neural networks for accurate predictions of crystal stability

Weike Ye, Chi Chen, Zhenbin Wang, Iek-Heng Chu & Shyue Ping Ong
Predicting the stability of crystals is one of the central problems in materials science. Today, density functional theory (DFT) calculations remain comparatively expensive and scale poorly with system size. Here we show that deep neural networks utilizing just two descriptors—the Pauling electronegativity and ionic radii—can predict the DFT formation energies of C3A2D3O12 garnets and ABO3 perovskites with low mean absolute errors (MAEs) of 7–10 meV atom−1 and 20–34 meV atom−1, respectively, well within the limits...

Data from: Advancing Precambrian palaeomagnetism with the PALEOMAGIA and PINT(QPI) databases

Toni H. Veikkolainen, Andrew J. Biggin, Lauri J. Pesonen, David A. Evans & Nicholas A. Jarboe
State-of-the-art measurements of the direction and intensity of Earth’s ancient magnetic field have made important contributions to our understanding of the geology and palaeogeography of Precambrian Earth. The PALEOMAGIA and PINT(QPI) databases provide thorough public collections of important palaeomagnetic data of this kind. They comprise more than 4,100 observations in total and have been essential in supporting our international collaborative efforts to understand Earth's magnetic history on a timescale far longer than that of the...

Data from: The future of evolutionary diversity in reef corals

Danwei Huang & Kaustuv Roy
One-third of the world's reef-building corals are facing heightened extinction risk from climate change and other anthropogenic impacts. Previous studies have shown that such threats are not distributed randomly across the coral tree of life, and future extinctions have the potential to disproportionately reduce the phylogenetic diversity of this group on a global scale. However, the impact of such losses on a regional scale remains poorly known. In this study, we use phylogenetic metrics in...

Data from: Surface energies of elemental crystals

Richard Tran, Zihan Xu, Balachandran Radhakrishnan, Donald Winston, Wenhao Sun, Kristin A. Persson & Shyue Ping Ong
The surface energy is a fundamental property of the different facets of a crystal that is crucial to the understanding of various phenomena like surface segregation, roughening, catalytic activity, and the crystal’s equilibrium shape. Such surface phenomena are especially important at the nanoscale, where the large surface area to volume ratios leads to properties that are significantly different from the bulk. In this work, we present the largest database of the calculated surface energies of...

Data from: Multi-behavioral endpoint testing of an 87-chemical compound library in freshwater planarians

Siqi Zhang, Danielle Hagstrom, Patrick Hayes, Aaron Graham & Eva-Maria S. Collins
There is an increased recognition in the field of toxicology of the value of medium-to-high-throughput screening methods using in vitro and alternative animal models. We have previously introduced the asexual freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica as a new alternative animal model and proposed that it is particularly well-suited for the study of developmental neurotoxicology. In this paper, we discuss how we have expanded and automated our screening methodology to allow for fast screening of multiple behavioral...

Data from: Comparative dynamics of microglialand glioma cell motility at the infiltrative margin of brain tumours

Joseph Juliano, Orlando Gil, Andrea Hawkins-Daarud, Sonal Noticewala, Russell C. Rockne, Jill Gallaher, Susan C. Massey, Peter A. Sims, Alexander R. A. Anderson, Kristin R. Swanson & Peter Canoll
Microglia are a major cellular component of gliomas, and abundant in the centre of the tumour and at the infiltrative margins. While glioma is a notoriously infiltrative disease, the dynamics of microglia and glioma migratory patterns have not been well characterized. To investigate the migratory behaviour of microglia and glioma cells at the infiltrative edge, we performed two-colour time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of brain slices generated from a platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGFB)-driven rat model of glioma,...

Data from: Maternal provisioning is structured by species’ competitive neighborhoods

Rachel M. Germain, Tess N. Grainger, Natalie T. Jones & Benjamin Gilbert
Differential maternal provisioning of offspring in response to environmental conditions has been argued as ‘the missing link’ in plant life histories. Although empirical evidence suggests that maternal provisioning responses to abiotic conditions are common, there is little understanding of how differences in maternal provisioning manifest in response to competition. Frequency manipulations are commonly employed in ecological studies to assess the strength of interspecific competition, relative to intraspecific competition, and we used frequency manipulations to test...

Data from: Targeted multiplex next-generation sequencing: Advances in techniques of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequencing for population genomics

Brittany Hancock-Hanser, Amy Frey, Matthew S. Leslie, Peter H. Dutton, Frederick I. Archer, Phillip A. Morin & Brittany L. Hancock-Hanser
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is emerging as an efficient and cost-effective tool in population genomic analyses of nonmodel organisms, allowing simultaneous resequencing of many regions of multi-genomic DNA from multiplexed samples. Here, we detail our synthesis of protocols for targeted resequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear loci by generating indexed genomic libraries for multiplexing up to 100 individuals in a single sequencing pool, and then enriching the pooled library using custom DNA capture arrays. Our use of...

Data from: Differences in combinatorial calls among the 3 elephant species cannot be explained by phylogeny

Michael A. Pardo, Joyce H. Poole, Angela S. Stoeger, Peter H. Wrege, Caitlin E. O'Connell-Rodwell, Udaha Kapugedara Padmalal & Shermin De Silva
Understanding why related species combine calls in different ways could provide insight into the selection pressures on the evolution of combinatorial communication. African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana), African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis), and Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) all combine broadband calls (roars, barks, and cries) and low-frequency calls (rumbles) into single utterances known as “combination calls.” We investigated whether the structure of such calls differs among species and whether any differences are better explained by...

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