203 Works

Data from: Physiological, morphological, and ecological tradeoffs influence vertical habitat use of deep-diving toothed-whales in the Bahamas

Trevor W. Joyce, John W. Durban, Diane E. Claridge, Charlotte A. Dunn, Holly Fearnbach, Kim M. Parsons, Russel D. Andrews & Lisa T. Ballance
Dive capacity among toothed whales (suborder: Odontoceti) has been shown to generally increase with body mass in a relationship closely linked to the allometric scaling of metabolic rates. However, two odontocete species tagged in this study, the Blainville’s beaked whale Mesoplodon densirostris and the Cuvier’s beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris, confounded expectations of a simple allometric relationship, with exceptionally long (mean: 46.1 min & 65.4 min) and deep dives (mean: 1129 m & 1179 m), and...

Social trematodes parasites increase standing army size in areas of greater invasion threat

Emlyn Resetarits, Mark Torchin & Ryan Hechinger
Organisms or societies are resource limited, causing important trade-offs between reproduction and defence. Given such trade-offs, optimal allocation theory predicts that, for animal societies with a soldier caste, allocation to soldiers should reflect local external threats. Although both threat intensity and soldier allocation can vary widely in nature, we currently lack strong evidence that spatial variation in threat can drive corresponding variation in soldier allocation. The diverse guild of trematode parasites of the California horn...

Data from: Validation of serum neurofilaments as prognostic & potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers for ALS

Michael Benatar, Lanyu Zhang, Lily Wang, Volkan Granit, Jeffrey Statland, Richard Barohn, Andrea Swenson, John Ravitz, Carlayne Jackson, Ted Burns, Jaya Trivedi, Erik Pioro, James Caress, Jonathan Katz, Jacob McCauley, Rosa Rademakers, Andrea Malaspina, Lyle Ostrow & Joanne Wuu
Objective. Identify preferred neurofilament assays, and clinically validate serum NfL and pNfH as prognostic and potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers relevant to ALS therapy development. Methods. Prospective, multi-center, longitudinal observational study of patients with ALS (n=229), primary lateral sclerosis (PLS, n=20) and progressive muscular atrophy (PMA, n=11). Biological specimens were collected, processed and stored according to strict standard operating procedures (SOPs) 1. Neurofilament assays were performed in a blinded manner by independent contract research organizations (CROs). Results....

Aldosterone and dexamethasone activate African lungfish mineralocorticoid receptor: Increased activation after removal of the amino-terminal domain

Michael Baker
Aldosterone, the main physiological mineralocorticoid in humans and other terrestrial vertebrates, first appears in lungfish, which are lobe-finned fish that are forerunners of terrestrial vertebrates. Aldosterone activation of the MR regulates internal homeostasis of water, sodium and potassium, which was critical in the conquest of land by vertebrates. We studied transcriptional activation of the slender African lungfish MR by aldosterone, other corticosteroids and progesterone and find that aldosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol and progesterone have half-maximal responses...

Gorilla herpes simplexvirus phylogenetic analysis

Joel Wertheim
Viruses closely related to human pathogens can reveal the origins of human infectious diseases. Human herpes simplexvirus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) are hypothesized to have arisen via host-virus co-divergence and cross-species transmission. We report the discovery of novel herpes simplexviruses during a large-scale screening of fecal samples from wild gorillas, bonobos, and chimpanzees. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that, contrary to expectation, simplexviruses from these African apes are all more closely related to HSV-2...

Triennial migration and philopatry in the critically endangered soupfin shark (Galeorhinus galeus)

Andrew Nosal, Daniel Cartamil, Arnold Ammann, Lyall Bellquist, Noah Ben-Aderet, Kayla Blincow, Echelle Burns, Eric Chapman, Ryan Freedman, Peter Klimley, Ryan Logan, Christopher Lowe, Brice Semmens, Connor White & Philip Hastings
Globally, one-quarter of shark and ray species is threatened with extinction due to overfishing. Effective conservation and management can facilitate population recoveries; however, these efforts depend on robust data on movement patterns and stock structure, which are lacking for many threatened species, including the Critically Endangered soupfin shark (Galeorhinus galeus), a circumglobal coastal-pelagic species. Using passive acoustic telemetry, we continuously tracked 34 mature female soupfin sharks, surgically implanted with coded acoustic transmitters, for seven years...

Analysis of independent cohorts of outbred CFW mice reveals novel loci for behavioral and physiological traits and identifies factors determining reproducibility

Jennifer Zou, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, Clarissa Parker, Jerome Nicod, Richard Mott, Na Cai, Arimantas Lionikas, Robert Davies, Abraham Palmer & Jonathan Flint
Combining samples for genetic association is standard practice in human genetic analysis of complex traits, but is rarely undertaken in rodent genetics. Here, using 23 phenotypes and genotypes from two independent laboratories, we obtained a sample size of 3,076 commercially available outbred mice and identified 70 loci, more than double the number of loci identified in the component studies. Fine-mapping in the combined sample reduced the number of likely causal variants, with a median reduction...

Adaptation of the Texas Christian University Organisational Readiness for Change Short Form (TCU-ORC-SF) for use in primary health facilities in South Africa

Carrie Brooke-Sumner, Petal Petersen-Williams, Emma Wagener, Katherine Sorsdahl, Gregory Aarons & Bronwyn Meyers
Objectives: The Texas Christian University Organisational Readiness for Change Scale (TCU-ORC) assesses factors influencing adoption of evidence-based practices. It has not been validated in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). This study assessed its psychometric properties in a South African setting with the aim of adapting it into a shorter measure. Methods: This study was conducted in 24 South African primary health care clinics in the Western Cape Province. The TCU-ORC and two other measures, the...

Legacy effects of fish but not elevation influence lake ecosystem response to environmental change

Celia Symons, Marika Schulhof, Hamanda Cavalheri & Jonathan Shurin
How communities reorganize during climate change depends on the distribution of diversity within ecosystems and across landscapes. Understanding how environmental and evolutionary history constrain community resilience is critical to predicting shifts in future ecosystem function. The goal of our study was to understand how communities with different histories respond to environmental change with regard to shifts in elevation (temperature, nutrients) and introduced predators. We hypothesized that community responses to the environment would differ in ways...

Kelp forests at the end of the earth: 45 years later

Alan Friedlander, Enric Ballesteros, Tom Bell, Jennifer Caselle, Claudio Campagna, Mathias Hune, Alex Munoz, Pelayo Salinas-De-Leon, Enric Sala & Paul Dayton
The kelp forests of southern South America are some of the least disturbed on the planet. The remoteness of this region has, until recently, spared it from many of the direct anthropogenic stressors that have negatively affected these ecosystems elsewhere. Re-surveys of 11 locations at the easternmost extent of Tierra del Fuego originally conducted in 1973 showed no significant differences in the densities of adult and juvenile Macrocystis pyrifera kelp or kelp holdfast diameter between...

Data from: Phytoplankton growth and stoichiometric responses to warming, nutrient addition and grazing depend on lake productivity and cell size

Dedmer Van De Waal, Marika A. Schulhof, Jonathan B. Shurin & Steven A. J. Declerck
Global change involves shifts in multiple environmental factors that act in concert to shape ecological systems in ways that depend on local biotic and abiotic conditions. Little is known about the effects of combined global change stressors on phytoplankton communities, and particularly how these are mediated by distinct community properties such as productivity, grazing pressure and size distribution. Here, we tested for the effects of warming and eutrophication on phytoplankton net growth rate and C:N:P...

Impact of Helicoverpa zea salivary GOX on stomatal conductance and volatile emission of host plants

Po-An Lin, Yintong Chen, Duverney Chaverra-Rodriguez, Chan Chin Heu, Nursyafiqi Bin Zainuddin, Jagdeep Singh Sidhu, Michelle Peiffer, Ching-Wen Tan, Anjel Helms, Donghun Kim, Jared Ali, Jason Rasgon, Jonathan Lynch, Charles Anderson & Gary Felton
This data set contain raw data associated with the manuscript titled "Silencing the alarm: An insect salivary enzyme closes plant stomata and inhibits volatile release". Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are widely recognized as ecologically important to plant. While the majority of studies focused on the induction of this “cry for help”, little is known about whether insect herbivores have evolved mechanisms to reduce the release of HIPVs. Here we show that a caterpillar (Helicoverpa zea)...

Mitonuclear mismatch alters performance and reproductive success in naturally-introgressed populations of a montane leaf beetle

Nathan Rank, Nathan E Rank, Patrick Mardulyn, Sarah J Heidl, Kevin T Roberts, Nicolas A Zavala, John T Smiley & Elizabeth P Dahlhoff
Coordination between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes is critical to metabolic processes underlying animals' ability to adapt to local environments, yet consequences of mitonuclear interactions have rarely been investigated in populations where individuals with divergent mitochondrial and nuclear genomes naturally interbreed. Genetic variation in the leaf beetle Chrysomela aeneicollis was assessed along a latitudinal thermal gradient in California's Sierra Nevada. Variation at mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and the nuclear gene phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) shows concordance...

Data from: Anticholinergic medications: A potentially modifiable risk factor for development of MCI

Alexandra Weigand, Mark W. Bondi, Kelsey R. Thomas, Noll L Campbell, Douglas Galasko, David P. Salmon, Daniel Sewell, James B. Brewer, Howard H Feldman & Lisa Delano-Wood
Objective: To determine the cognitive consequences of anticholinergic medications (aCH) in cognitively normal older adults as well as interactive effects of genetic and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk factors. Methods: 688 cognitively normal participants from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative were evaluated (mean age = 73.5, 49.6% female). Cox regression examined risk of progression to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) over a 10-year period, and linear mixed effects models examined 3-year rates of decline...

Data from: Allocation of gene products to daughter cells is determined by the age of the mother in single Escherichia coli cells

Ulla Rang, Chao Shi, Lin Chao, Audrey Proenca, Andrew Qiu & Jasper Chao
Gene expression and growth rate are highly stochastic in E. coli. Some of the growth rate variations result from the deterministic and asymmetric partitioning of damage by the mother to its daughters. One daughter, denoted the old daughter, receives more damage, grows more slowly, and ages. To determine if expressed gene products are also allocated asymmetrically, we compared the levels of expressed green fluorescence protein in growing daughters descending from the same mother. Our results...

Oxygen exposure of common benthic megafauna off San Diego, CA

Ed Parnell
Oxygen decline poses increasing risks to global shelf communities. This study was conducted to measure species oxygen exposures in situ, and to assess risks of low oxygen based on the hypothesis that species risk varies spatially and is dependent on the interaction of shelf oxygen dynamics with habitat pattern, species mobility and tolerance to low oxygen. Here, we report concomitant observations of oxygen, depth, and habitat for the most common benthic and epibenthic megafauna on...

Phylogenomic analysis and morphological data suggest left-right swimming behavior evolved prior to the origin of the pelagic Phylliroidae (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia)

Jessica Goodheart & Heike Wägele
Evolutionary transitions from benthic to pelagic habitats are major adaptive shifts. Investigations into such shifts are critical for understanding the complex interaction between co-opting existing traits for new functions and novel traits that originate during or post-transition. Gastropod mollusks are of particular interest in regard to benthic-pelagic evolutionary transitions, as shifts from benthic to pelagic habitats are uncommon. Phylliroe is one such pelagic lineage in Phylliroidae, a family of holoplanktonic nudibranchs with a highly aberrant...

Data from: Parallel changes in gut microbiome composition and function during colonization, local adaptation and ecological speciation

Diana J. Rennison, Seth M. Rudman & Dolph Schluter
The processes of local adaptation and ecological speciation are often strongly shaped by biotic interactions such as competition and predation. One of the strongest lines of evidence that biotic interactions drive evolution comes from repeated divergence of lineages in association with repeated changes in the community of interacting species. Yet, relatively little is known about the repeatability of changes in gut microbial communities and their role in adaptation and divergence of host populations in nature....

Early removal of senescent cells protects retinal ganglion cells loss in experimental ocular hypertension

Michal Krawczyk, Lorena Raquel Rocha, Viet Anh Nguyen Huu, Claudia Palomino La Torre, Qianlan Xu, Mary Jabari, Robert N. Weinreb & Dorota Skowronska-Krawczyk
Experimental ocular hypertension induces senescence of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that mimicks events occurring in human glaucoma. Senescence-related chromatin remodeling leads to profound transcriptional changes including the upregulation of a subset of genes that encode multiple proteins collectively referred to as the senescenceassociated secretory phenotype (SASP). Emerging evidence suggests that the presence of these proinflammatory and matrix-degrading molecules has deleterious effects in a variety of tissues. In the current study, we demonstrated in a transgenic...

Metabolic theory of ecology successfully predicts distinct scaling of ectoparasite load on hosts

Ryan Hechinger, Kate Sheehan & Andrew Turner
The impacts of parasites on hosts and the role that parasites play in ecosystems must be underlain by the load of parasites in individual hosts. To help explain and predict parasite load across broad swaths of species, quantitative theory has been developed based on fundamental relationships between organism size, temperature, and metabolic rate. Here, we elaborate on an aspect of that “scaling theory for parasitism”, and test a previously unexplored prediction, using new data for...

Data from: APPLES: Scalable distance-based phylogenetic placement with or without alignments

Metin Balaban, Shahab Sarmashghi & Siavash Mirarab
Placing a new species on an existing phylogeny has increasing relevance to several applications. Placement can be used to update phylogenies in a scalable fashion and can help identify unknown query samples using (meta-)barcoding, skimming, or metagenomic data. Maximum likelihood (ML) methods of phylogenetic placement exist, but these methods are not scalable to reference trees with many thousands of leaves, limiting their ability to enjoy benefits of dense taxon sampling in modern reference libraries. They...

Data from: Sierra Nevada mountain lake microbial communities are structured by temperature, resources, and geographic location

Marika Schulhof, Andrew Allen, Eric Allen, Natalie Mladenov, John McCrow, Natalie Jones, Jessica Blanton, Hamanda Badona Cavalheri, Drishti Kaul, Celia Symons & Jonathan Shurin
Warming, eutrophication (nutrient fertilization) and brownification (increased loading of allochthonous organic matter) are three global trends impacting lake ecosystems. However, the independent and synergistic effects of resource addition and warming on autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms are largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the independent and interactive effects of temperature, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, both allochthonous and autochthonous), and nitrogen (N) supply, in addition to the effect of spatial variables, on the composition, richness, and...

Data from: An intronic transposon insertion associates with a trans-species color polymorphism in Midas cichlid fishes

Claudius Kratochwil, Andreas Kautt, Alexander Nater, Andreas Härer, Yipeng Liang, Frederico Henning & Axel Meyer
Polymorphisms have fascinated biologists for a long time, but their genetic underpinnings often remained elusive. Here, we aimed to uncover the genetic basis of the gold/dark polymorphism that is eponymous of Midas cichlid fish (Amphilophus spp.) adaptive radiations in Nicaraguan crater lakes. While most Midas cichlids are of the melanic “dark morph”, about 10% of individuals lose their melanic pigmentation during their ontogeny and transition into a conspicuous “gold morph”. Using a new haplotype-resolved long-read...

Photobehavior for octopus (‘Octopus bimaculatus’) and squid (‘Doryteuthis opalescens’) paralarvae during exposure to 9 light irradiance levels and 4 oxygen conditions in trials conducted in April of 2019

Lillian McCormick, Lisa Levin & Nicholas Oesch
This dataset gives the results of photobehavior experiments under different oxygen conditions in larvae of the market squid (‘Doryteuthis opalescens’) and two-spot octopus (‘Octopus bimaculatus’). Photobehavior experiments were conducted to determine whether the impairment of visual physiology observed in marine invertebrate larvae (McCormick et al., 2019) is subsequently affecting visual behavior in marine larvae.

Current status and future strategies for mentoring women in neurology

Christa San Luis Nobleza, Amtul Farheen, Ilena George, Divya Singhal, Regina Troxell, Jyoti Pillai, Logan Schneider, Catherine Lomen-Hoerth, Jennifer Graves & Stefano Sandrone
The American Academy of Neurology's (AAN) 2017 Gender Disparity Report identified improving mentorship as a key intervention to fill the leadership and pay gaps for women in neurology. Here we summarize the literature on mentoring women, provide an outline of ideal components of programs geared toward closing gender gaps, and present a mentoring program for AAN members. The strategies discussed share similarities with those for closing gaps related to race, ethnicity and religion. Developing effective...

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