35 Works

Data from: Long-term, high frequency in situ measurements of intertidal mussel bed temperatures using biomimetic sensors

Brian Helmuth, Francis Choi, Allison Matzelle, Jessica L. Torossian, Scott L. Morella, K. A. S. Mislan, Lauren Yamane, Denise Strickland, P. Lauren Szathmary, Sarah Gilman, Alyson Tockstein, Thomas J. Hilbish, Michael T. Burrows, Anne Marie Power, Elizabeth Gosling, Nova Mieszkowska, Christopher D. G. Harley, Michael Nishizaki, Emily Carrington, Bruce Menge, Laura Petes, Melissa M. Foley, Angela Johnson, Megan Poole, Mae M. Noble … & Gerardo Zardi
At a proximal level, the physiological impacts of global climate change on ectothermic organisms are manifest as changes in body temperatures. Especially for plants and animals exposed to direct solar radiation, body temperatures can be substantially different from air temperatures. We deployed biomimetic sensors that approximate the thermal characteristics of intertidal mussels at 71 sites worldwide, from 1998-present. Loggers recorded temperatures at 10–30 min intervals nearly continuously at multiple intertidal elevations. Comparisons against direct measurements...

Data from: Spatio-temporal genetic structure and the effects of long-term fishing in two partially sympatric offshore demersal fishes

Romina Henriques, Sophie Von Der Heyden, Marek R. Lipinski, Nina Du Toit, Paulus Kainge, Paulette Bloomer & Conrad A. Matthee
Environmental gradients have been shown to disrupt gene flow in marine species, yet their influence in structuring populations at depth remains poorly understood. The Cape hakes (Merluccius paradoxus and M. capensis) are demersal species co-occurring in the Benguela Current system, where decades of intense fishing resulted in severely depleted stocks in the past. Previous studies identified conflicting mtDNA genetic substructuring patterns and thus contrasting evolutionary trajectories for both species. Using 10 microsatellite loci, the control...

Secondary contacts and genetic admixture shape colonisation by an amphiatlantic epibenthic invertebrate

Jamie Hudson, Kerstin Johannesson, Christopher McQuaid & Marc Rius
Research on the genetics of invasive species often focuses on patterns of genetic diversity and population structure within the introduced range. However, a growing body of literature is demonstrating the need to study the native range, and how native genotypes affect both ecological and evolutionary mechanisms within the introduced range. Here we used genotyping-by-sequencing to study both native and introduced ranges [based on 1,653 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)] of the amphiatlantic marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis....

Raw data used for analysis of parental care from video footage of breeding Cape Rockjumpers (Chaetops frenatus), from the Western Cape of South Africa

Krista Oswald
Demonstrated negative effects of increased temperatures on avian reproductive success suggest a mechanism by which climate change may impact species persistence. High temperatures can result in reduced parental care and reduced nestling condition in passerines with dependent young, resulting in lowered fledging success and population recruitment. We examined provisioning rate and nestling condition in a South African mountain endemic, the Cape Rockjumper Chaetops frenatus, whose population declines correlate with warming habitat. Our aim was to...

Determination of mean effective shore level to delineate periods of emersion and immersion for intertidal rocky shores

Kevin C. K. Ma, Jonathan R. Monsinjon, P. William Froneman & Christopher D. McQuaid
This dataset contains data described in the paper entitled "Environmental filtering causes increasingly negative effects towards the range limit of an invasive mussel". Data include: the R script to estimate temperature thresholds and calculate effective shore levels (esl_function.R); data files associated with this R script (material.RData); mean effective shore levels determined for the five South African rocky-shore sites where submersible temperature data loggers were installed (esl_overall_results.csv); measurements of mussel shell lengths, level of endolithic infestation,...

Collaboration for conservation: assessing country-wide carnivore occupancy dynamics from sparse data

Leanne Van Der Weyde, Mathias Tobler, Marie Charlotte Gielen, Gabriele Cozzi, Florian Weise, Tempe Adams, Dominik Bauer, Emily Bennitt, Matthew Bowles, Alienor Brassine, Femke Broekhuis, Michael Chase, Kai Collins, Genevieve Finerty, Krystyna Golabek, Robyn Hartley, Steve Henley, Jessica Isden, Derek Keeping, Kristina Kesch, Rebecca Klein, Morulaganyi Kokole, Robynne Kotze, Eric LeFlore, Glyn Maude … & Michael Flyman
Aim: Assessing the distribution and persistence of species across their range is a crucial component of wildlife conservation. It demands data at adequate spatial scales and over extended periods of time, which may only be obtained through collaborative efforts, and the development of methods that integrate heterogeneous datasets. We aimed to combine existing data on large carnivores to evaluate population dynamics and improve knowledge on their distribution nationwide. Location: Botswana Methods: Between 2010 – 2016,...

Growth and photosynthetic responses of encroaching tree seedlings to CO2 and stress interactions

Sarah Raubenheimer
1. Woody encroachment in southern African savanna has been partly attributed to rising atmospheric CO2 fertilising the growth of C3 trees but less so that of competing C4 grasses. However, growth conditions (resource availability, competition, rooting space, and herbivory) must be suitable for the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) to be realised. 2. This research investigated the interactions between the positive effect of eCO2 on tree seedling growth and limitations imposed by drought, disturbance, and...

Data from: Sacrificial males: the potential role of copulation and predation in contributing to copepod sex-skewed ratios

Ryan J. Wasserman, Mark Weston, Olaf L.F. Weyl, P. William Froneman, Rebecca J. Welch, Tim J.F. Vink, Tatenda Dalu & Tim J. F. Vink
Predation is thought to play a selective role in the emergence of behavioural traits in prey. Differences in behaviour between prey demographics may, therefore, be driven by predation with select components of the population being less vulnerable to predators. While under controlled conditions prey demography has been shown to have consequences for predation success, investigations linking these implications to natural prey population demographics are scarce. Here we assess predator-prey dynamics between notonectid predators (backswimmers) and...

Data from: Sex-specific and individual preferences for hunting strategies in white sharks

Alison V. Towner, Vianey Leos-Barajas, Roland Langrock, Robert S. Schick, Malcolm J. Smale, Tami Kaschke, Oliver J.D. Jewell, Yannis P. Papastamatiou & Oliver J. D. Jewell
Fine-scale predator movements may be driven by many factors including sex, habitat, and distribution of resources. There may also be individual preferences for certain movement strategies within a population which can be hard to quantify. Within top predators, movements are also going to be directly related to the mode of hunting; for example sit-and-wait or actively searching for prey. Although there is mounting evidence that different hunting modes can cause opposing trophic cascades, there has...

Data from: Forest degradation and invasive species synergistically impact Mimusops andongensis (Sapotaceae) in Lama Forest Reserve, Benin

Gisele K.S. Sinasson, Charlie M. Shackleton, Romain L. Glèlè Kakaï & Brice Sinsin
Harvesting of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) can threaten target species, especially those with limited distribution and density. Exploited species also face threats from habitat fragmentation, fire, and invasive species. We assessed the impact of human disturbances and invasive species on the population of a key multipurpose NTFP species, Mimusops andongensis, in Lama Forest reserve (Benin). The densities of adult trees and regenerative stems decreased with increasing degradation. Mimusops andongensis contributed less to total tree density...

Data from: Population connectivity and phylogeography of a coastal fish, Atractoscion aequidens (Sciaenidae), across the Benguela Current region: evidence of an ancient vicariant event.

Romina Henriques, Warren M. Potts, Carmen V. Santos, Warwick H. H. Sauer & Paul W. Shaw
Contemporary patterns of genetic diversity and population connectivity within species can be influenced by both historical and contemporary barriers to gene flow. In the marine environment, present day oceanographic features such as currents, fronts and upwelling systems can influence dispersal of eggs/larvae and/juveniles/adults, shaping population substructuring. The Benguela Current system in the southeastern Atlantic is one of the oldest upwelling systems in the world, and provides a unique opportunity to investigate the relative influence of...

Sperm competition risk affects ejaculate strategy in terms of sperm number but not sperm size in squid

Yoko Iwata, Noriyosi Sato, Noritaka Hirohashi, Yoshiro Watanabe, Warwick Sauer & Paul Shaw
In polygamous species, the mode of sperm storage in females influences evolution of sperm quantitative and qualitative traits because it provides the arena for sperm competition, cryptic female choice and fertilization processes. In this study, we compared ejaculate traits of two squid species, Heterololigo bleekeri and Loligo reynaudii. Both species show dimorphic sperm traits associated with alternative reproductive tactics where consort and sneaker males transfer sperm to different storage sites within a female (on the...

Data from: Multiple mating, paternity and complex fertilisation patterns in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudi

Marie-Jose Naud, Warwick H. H. Sauer, Niall J. McKeown, Paul W. Shaw & Marie-Jose Naud
Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods...

Data from: C4 anatomy can evolve via a single developmental change

Marjorie R. Lundgren, Luke T. Dunning, Jill K. Olofsson, Jose J. Moreno Villena, Jacques W. Bouvier, Tammy L. Sage, Roxana Khosravesh, Stefanie Sultmanis, Matt Stata, Brad S. Ripley, Maria S. Vorontsova, Guillaume Besnard, Claire Adams, Nicholas Cuff, Anthony Mapaura, Matheus E. Bianconi, Christine M. Long, Pascal-Antoine Christin, Colin P. Osborne, Roxana Khoshravesh & Jose J. Moreno-Villena
C4 photosynthesis boosts productivity in warm environments. Paradoxically, this complex physiological process evolved independently in numerous plant lineages, despite requiring specialized leaf anatomy. The anatomical modifications underlying C4 evolution have previously been evaluated through interspecific comparisons, which capture numerous changes besides those needed for C4 functionality. Here, we quantify the anatomical changes accompanying the transition between non-C4 and C4 phenotypes by sampling widely across the continuum of leaf anatomical traits in the grass Alloteropsis semialata....

Data from: Secondary contact and asymmetrical gene flow in a cosmopolitan marine fish across the Benguela upwelling zone

Kerry Reid, Thierry B. Hoareau, John E. Graves, Warren M. Potts, Sandrina M. R. Do Santos, Arrie W. Klopper & Paulette Bloomer
The combination of oceanographic barriers and habitat heterogeneity are known to reduce connectivity and leave specific genetic signatures in the demographic history of marine species. However, barriers to gene flow in the marine environment are almost never impermeable which inevitably allows secondary contact to occur. In this study eight sampling sites (five along the South African coastline, one each in Angola, Senegal and Portugal) were chosen to examine the population genetic structure and phylogeographic history...

Scope for growth data

Aldwin Ndhlovu
This data set was used to calculate the energy budget and to calculate scope for growth for ecological engineers (intertidal mussels) comparing those that are affected by endolithic cyanobacterial parasites and clean intertidal mussels. It has data for growth, both whole body and shell biomineralization, and the reproductive potential of infested individuals. There is also data for components of scope for growth, feeding rates, ammonium exctretion, standard metabolic rates and lethal temperature measurements data.

Trait strengthening in mussels

Laurent Seuront, Katy Nicastro, Christopher McQuaid & Gerardo Zardi
Plastic pollution is ubiquitous with increasing recognition of its direct effects on species’ fitness. Little is known, however, about its more subtle effects, including the influence of plastic pollution on the morphological, functional and behavioural traits of organisms that are central to their ability to withstand disturbances. Among the least obvious but most pernicious forms of plastic-associated pollution are the chemicals that leach from microplastics. Here, we investigate how such leachates influence species’ traits by...

Historical and contemporary records of the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in southern Africa

Kevin C. K. Ma, Molline N. C. Gusha, Gerardo I. Zardi, Katy R. Nicastro, Jonathan R. Monsinjon & Christopher D. McQuaid
This dataset contains data described in the paper entitled "Biogeographic drivers of distribution and abundance in an alien ecosystem engineer: Transboundary range expansion, barriers to spread, and spatial structure". Data include: (1) historical and contemporary records of the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis to re-construct its invasion history and patterns of spread across biogeographic regions of southern Africa; (2) densities of M. galloprovincialis at different shore heights measured from multiple sites across South Africa; (3) semi-quantitative...

Data from: Weather and topography regulate the benefit of a conditionally helpful parasite

Jonathan Monsinjon, Christopher McQuaid, Katy Nicastro, Laurent Seuront, Mauricio Oróstica & Gerardo Zardi
Heat-induced mass mortalities involving ecosystem engineers may have long-lasting detrimental effects at the community level, eliminating the ecosystem services they provide. Intertidal mussels are ecologically and economically valuable with some populations facing unprecedented heat-induced mass mortalities. Critically, mussels are also frequently infested by endolithic parasites that modify shell albedo, hence reducing overheating and mortality rates under heat stress. Using a biophysical model, we explored the topographical and meteorological conditions under which endolithically-driven thermal buffering becomes...

Body temperature, evaporative water loss and resting metabolic rate data for six southern African bats

Zenon Czenze, Ben Smit, Barry Van Jaarsveld, Marc Freeman & Andrew McKechnie
1. The microsites that animals occupy during the rest phase of their circadian activity cycle influence their physiology and behaviour, but relatively few studies have examined correlations between interspecific variation in thermal physiology and roost microclimate. Among bats, there is some evidence that species exposed to high roost temperatures (Troost) possess greater heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity, but the small number of species for which both thermal physiology and roost microclimate data exist mean...

Data from: Using functional responses to quantify interaction effects among predators

Ryan J. Wasserman, Mhairi E. Alexander, Tatenda Dalu, Bruce R. Ellender, Horst Kaiser & Olaf L. F. Weyl
1. Predator diversity alterations have been observed in most ecosystems as a result of the loss and/ or addition of species. This has implications for predator-prey dynamics as non-trophic interactions among predators, so called multiple predator effects (MPE), are known to influence predation success. In addition, there is often a density-dependant relationship between prey availability and prey consumption (functional response). While MPE investigations are common in the literature, functional responses have rarely been incorporated into...

Data from: Ecosystem-scale impacts of non-timber forest product harvesting: effects on soil nutrients

Sheunesu Ruwanza & Charlie M. Shackleton
1. The harvesting of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) is a global phenomenon, the sustainability of which has been studied for many species at the individual and population level. However, the broader scale impacts of NTFP harvesting have been acknowledged but rarely examined. 2. We assessed plant size and the soil attributes undercanopy and in the open, in replicate, paired harvested and non-harvested sites for three NTFPs differing in the extent of biomass removed, i.e. timber...

Data from: The mayfly nymph Austrophlebioides pusillus Harker defies common osmoregulatory assumptions

Renee Dowse, Carolyn G. Palmer, Kasey Hills, Fraser Torpy & Ben J. Kefford
Osmoregulation is a key physiological function, critical for homeostasis. The basic physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are thought to be well established. However, through a series of experiments exposing the freshwater mayfly nymph Austrophlebioides pusillus (Ephemeroptera) to increasing salinities, we present research that challenges the extent of current understanding of the relationship between osmoregulation and mortality. A. pusillus had modelled 96 h LC10, LC50 and LC99 of 2.4, 4.8 and 10 g l−1 added synthetic marine...

Heat dissipation behaviour of birds in seasonally hot, arid-zones: are there global patterns?

Nicholas Pattinson, Michelle Thompson, Michael Griego, Grace Russell, Nicola Mitchell, Rowan Martin, Blair Wolf, Ben Smit, Susan Cunningham & Andrew McKechnie
Quantifying organismal sensitivity to heat stress provides one means for predicting vulnerability to climate change. Birds are ideal for investigating this approach, as they display quantifiable fitness consequences associated with behavioural and physiological responses to heat stress. We used a recently developed method that examines correlations between readily-observable behaviours and air temperature (Tair) to investigate interspecific variation in avian responses to heat stress in seasonally hot, arid regions on three continents: the southwestern United States,...

Data from: Developing and applying a macroinvertebrate‐based multimetric index for urban rivers in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

Augustine O. Edegbene, Francis O. Arimoro & Oghenekaro N. Odume
Urban pollution of riverine ecosystem is a serious concern in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. No biomonitoring tool exists for the routine monitoring of effects of urban pollution on riverine systems within the region. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and apply a macroinvertebrate-based multimetric index for assessing water quality condition of impacted urban river systems in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. Macroinvertebrate and physico-chemical samples were collected from 11...

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