15 Works

Data from: Decipher soil organic carbon dynamics and driving forces across China using machine learning

Huiwen Li, Yiping Wu, Shuguang Liu, Jingfeng Xiao, Wenzhi Zhao, Ji Chen, Georgii Alexandrov & Yue Cao
The dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) play a critical role in modulating global warming. However, the long-term spatiotemporal changes of SOC at large scale and the impacts of driving forces remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of SOC in different soil layers across China through the 1980s to 2010s using a machine learning approach and quantified the impacts of the key factors based on factorial simulation experiments. Our results showed that...

Data from: Biodiversity and yield trade-offs for organic farming

Yi Zou, Shanxing Gong, Jenny Hodgson, Teja Tscharntke, Yunhui Liu, Wopke Van Der Werf, Péter Batáry & Johannes Knops
Organic farming supports higher biodiversity than conventional farming, but at the cost of lower yields. We conducted a meta-analysis quantifying the trade-off between biodiversity and yield, comparing conventional and organic farming. We developed a compatibility index to assess whether biodiversity gains from organic farming exceed yield losses, and a substitution index to assess whether organic farming would increase biodiversity in an area if maintaining total production under organic farming would require cultivating more land at...

Biomass allocation in response to salinity and competition in native and invasive species

Long Tang, Qingshi Zhou, Yang Gao & Peng Li
Biomass allocation to different plant parts affects the subsequent capture rate of resources and reproduction. Thus, many studies have been conducted on the biomass allocation to learn growth, reproduction and competitive ability of plants. However, few researches have explored how biomass allocation responses to non-resource factor and interspecific competition over time. We experimentally investigated the effects of soil salinity and competition on root:shoot ratio (RS), reproductive effort (RE; seed biomass:total biomass ratio), the relationship between...

Modelling the impact of antibody-dependent enhancement on disease severity of ZIKV and DENV sequential and co-infection

Biao Tang, Yanni Xiao, Beate Sander, Manisha A. Kulkarni & Jianhong Wu
Human infections with viruses of the genus Flavivirus, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), are of increasing global importance. Due to antibody dependent enhancement, secondary infection with one Flavivirus following primary infection with another {\it Flavivirus} can result in a significantly larger peak viral load with a much higher risk of severe disease. Although several mathematical models have been developed to quantify the virus dynamics in the primary and secondary infections of DENV,...

Environmental range per unit space determines a unimodal pattern of species richness along a heterogeneity gradient

Qingshi Zhou, Yang Gao, Long Tang & Zongcheng Ma
Although many studies have focused on the effects of the environment and area on local patterns of species richness, few studies have demonstrated how to reconcile the availability of more niches with smaller habitat areas in heterogeneous localities. Here, the environmental range that a species prefers was defined as a niche; a space was defined as an available space if the environmental range of the space matches a niche; and the metric “environmental range per...

Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis prevents high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in mice by gut-liver axis modulating properties

Meng Wang, Wenxin Xu, Jie Yu, Yingying Liu, Haotian Ma, Chunli Ji, Chunhui Zhang, Jinai Xue, Runzhi Li & Hongli Cui
Scope: Evidence is mounting that astaxanthin (ATX), a xanthophyll carotenoid, used as a nutritional supplement to prevent chronic metabolic diseases. The present study aims to identify the potential function of ATX supplementation in preventing steatohepatitis and hepatic oxidative stress in diet-induced obese mice. Methods and Results: In this study, ATX as dose of 0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75% have orally administered to mice along with a high-fat diet (HFD) to investigate the role of ATX in...

Data from: Population transcriptomes reveal synergistic responses of DNA polymorphism and RNA expression to extreme environments on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau in a predatory bird

Shengkai Pan, Tongzuo Zhang, Zhengqin Rong, Li Hu, Zhongru Gu, Qi Wu, Shanshan Dong, Qiong Liu, Zhenzhen Lin, Lucia Deutschova, Xin-Hai Li, Andrew Dixon, Michael W. Bruford, Xiangjiang Zhan & Xinhai Li
Low oxygen and temperature pose key physiological challenges for endotherms living on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Molecular adaptations to high-altitude living have been detected in the genomes of Tibetans, their domesticated animals and a few wild species, but the contribution of transcriptional variation to altitudinal adaptation remains to be determined. Here we studied a top QTP predator, the saker falcon, and analysed how the transcriptome has become modified to cope with the stresses of hypoxia...

Data from: Corrosion resistance of graphene/waterborne epoxy composite coatings in CO2-satarated NaCl solution

Hao Xu, Haijun Hu, Hongmei Wang, Yongjun Li & Yun Li
This study investigated the corrosion resistance of graphene/waterborne epoxy composite coatings in CO2-satarated NaCl solution. The coatings were prepared by dispersing graphene in waterborne epoxy with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose sodium. The structure and composition of the coatings were characterized by SEM, TEM, FTIR and Raman spectroscopies. The corrosion resistance of the composite coatings was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Composite coatings with more uniform surfaces and far fewer defects than...

Data from: Phosphorescence monitoring of hypoxic microenvironment in solid-tumors to evaluate chemotherapeutic effects using the hypoxia-sensitive iridium (III) coordination compound

Yun Zeng, Yang Liu, Jin Shang, Jingwen Ma, Rong Wang, Lei Deng, Youmin Guo, Fan Zhong, Mingfeng Bai, Shaojuan Zhang & Daocheng Wu
Objectives: To utilize phosphorescence to monitor hypoxic microenvironment in solid-tumors and investigate cancer chemotherapeutic effects in vivo. Methods: A hypoxia-sensitive probe named BTP was used to monitor hypoxic microenvironment in solid-tumors. The low-dose metronomic treatment with cisplatin was used in anti-angiogenetic chemotherapeutic programs. The phosphorescence properties of BTP were detected by a spectrofluorometer. BTP cytotoxicity utilized cell necrosis and apoptosis, which were evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion and Hoechst33342 plus propidium iodide assays. Tumor-bearing...

Data from: Forensic efficiency estimate and phylogenetic analysis for Chinese Kyrgyz ethnic group revealed by a panel of 21 short tandem repeats

Yuxin Guo, Chong Chen, Tong Xie, Wei Cui, Haotian Meng, Xiaoye Jin & Bofeng Zhu
Short tandem repeats (STRs) with high level of polymorphisms and convenient detection method play an indispensable role in human population and forensic genetics. Recently, we detected the 21 autosomal non-combined DNA index system (non-CODIS) STR loci in Kyrgyz ethnic group; calculated their forensic parameters; and analyzed its genetic relationships with reference populations from China. In total, 168 alleles were observed at 21 non-CODIS STRs with corresponding allelic frequencies from 0.0020 to 0.4790. No significant deviations...

Data from: Early antiretroviral therapy and potent second-line drugs could decrease HIV incidence of drug resistance

Mingwang Shen, Yanni Xiao, Libin Rong, Lauren Ancel Meyers, Steve E. Bellan & Steven E. Bellan
Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the risk of drug-sensitive HIV transmission but may increase the transmission of drug-resistant HIV. We used a mathematical model to estimate the long-term population-level benefits of ART and determine the scenarios under which earlier ART (treatment at 1 year post-infection, on average) could decrease simultaneously both total and drug-resistant HIV incidence (new infections). We constructed an infection-age-structured mathematical model that tracked the transmission rates over the course of...

Using demographic model selection to untangle allopatric divergence and diversification mechanisms in the Rheum palmatum complex in the Eastern Asiatic Region

Li Feng, Markus Ruhsam, Yi-Han Wang, Zhong-Hu Li & Xu-Mei Wang
Allopatric divergence is often initiated by geological uplift and restriction to sky-islands, climate oscillations, or river capture. However, it can be difficult to establish which mechanism was the most likely to generate the current phylogeographic structure of a species. Recently, genomic data in conjunction with a model testing framework have been applied to address this issue in animals. To test whether such an approach is also likely to be successful in plants we used population...

Effectiveness and feasibility of convalescent blood transfusion to reduce COVID-19 fatality ratio

Xi Huo, Xiaodan Sun, Nicola Bragazzi & Jianhong Wu
As of December 2020, COVID-19 has spread all over the world with more than 81 million cases and more than 1.8 million deaths. The rapidly increasing number of patients mandates the consideration of potential treatments for patients under severe and critical conditions. Convalescent plasma (CP) treatment refers to the approach of infusing patients with plasma from recently recovered patients. CP appears to be a possible therapeutic option to manage patients suffering from severe or even...

Moisture-tagging simulation to investigate the link between the moisture sources and interannual oxygen isotope variability of the Indian Summer Monsoon precipitation

Gayatri Kathayat
The primary influences on the spatio-temporal variability of oxygen isotope compositions in precipitation over the Indian summer monsoon domain are inadequately constrained by the limited observational record. Consequently, the climatic significance of isotopic signatures of precipitation preserved in proxy archives from the region remains unclear. Here we present simulations with an isotope-enabled climate model (IsoGSM2) with the moisture-tagging capability to investigate the role of relative contributions of moisture from oceanic and terrestrial sources to the...

Impact of national drug pricing policy 2018 on access to medicines in Lahore Division, Pakistan: A pre-post survey study using WHO/HAI methodology

Amna Saeed, Yu Fang, Hamid Saeed, Zikria Saleem, Caijun Yang, Minghuan Jiang, Mingyue Zhao, Wenjing Ji, Muhammad Majid Aziz, Faiz Ullah Khan, Ali Hassan Gillani, Naveel Atif, Yu Fang & Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar
Objective: To evaluate the impact of new national drug pricing policy (NDPP) 2018 on the access to medicines in terms of prices, availability, and affordability. Design: Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken before and after the launch of NDPP 2018, using a modified WHO/HAI methodology. Setting: Four districts of Lahore division, Pakistan. Participants: 16 public sector hospitals and 16 private sector retail pharmacies. Measures: The pre- and post-survey data on prices and availability of Lowest Price...

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