Data from: The impact of Quaternary climate oscillations on divergence times and historical population sizes in Thylamys opossums from the AndesThomas C. Giarla & Sharon A. Jansa
Climate oscillations during the Quaternary altered the distributions of terrestrial animals at a global scale. In mountainous regions, temperature fluctuations may have led to shifts in range size and population size as species tracked their shifting habitats upslope or downslope. This creates the potential for both allopatric speciation and population size fluctuations, as species are either constrained to smaller patches of habitat at higher elevations or able to expand into broader areas at higher latitudes....
Size-selective harvesting is assumed to alter life histories of exploited fish populations, thereby negatively affecting population productivity, recovery, and yield. However, demonstrating that fisheries-induced phenotypic changes in the wild are at least partly genetically determined has proved notoriously difficult. Moreover, the population-level consequences of fisheries-induced evolution are still being controversially discussed. Using an experimental approach, we found that five generations of size-selective harvesting altered the life histories and behavior, but not the metabolic rate, of...
Data from: Dioecy does not consistently accelerate or slow lineage diversification across multiple genera of angiospermsNiv Sabath, Emma E. Goldberg, Lior Glick, Moshe Einhorn, Tia-Lynn Ashman, Ray Ming, Sarah P. Otto, Jana Vamosi, Itay Mayrose & Jana C. Vamosi
Dioecy, the sexual system in which male and female organs are found in separate individuals, allows greater specialization for sex-specific functions and can be advantageous under various ecological and environmental conditions. However, dioecy is rare among flowering plants. Previous studies identified contradictory trends regarding the relative diversification rates of dioecious lineages vs their nondioecious counterparts, depending on the methods and data used. We gathered detailed species-level data for dozens of genera that contain both dioecious...
Premise of the study: Flower color is one of the best-studied floral traits in terms of its genetic basis and ecological significance, yet few studies have examined the processes that shape its evolution across deep timescales. Advances in comparative methods along with larger phylogenies for floral radiations offer new opportunities for investigating the macroevolution of flower color. Methods: We examined the tempo and mode of flower color evolution in four clades (Antirrhineae, Iochrominae, Loeselieae, Quamoclit)...
Species' geographic ranges vary enormously, and even closest relatives may differ in range size by several orders of magnitude. With data from hundreds of species spanning 20 genera in 15 families, we show that plant species that autonomously reproduce via self-pollination consistently have larger geographic ranges than their close relatives that generally require two parents for reproduction. Further analyses strongly implicate autonomous self-fertilisation in causing this relationship, as it is not driven by traits such...
Data from: An indexed, mapped mutant library enables reverse genetics studies of biological processes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtiiXiaobo Li, Ru Zhang, Weronika Patena, Spencer S. Gang, Sean R. Blum, Nina Ivanova, Rebecca Yue, Jacob M. Robertson, Paul A. Lefebvre, Sorel T. Fitz-Gibbon, Arthur R. Grossman & Martin C. Jonikas
The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a leading single-celled model for dissecting biological processes in photosynthetic eukaryotes. However, its usefulness has been limited by difficulties in obtaining mutants in genes of interest. To allow generation of large numbers of mapped mutants, we developed high-throughput methods which: (1) Enable easy propagation on agar and cryogenic maintenance of tens of thousands of C. reinhardtii strains; (2) Identify mutant insertion sites and physical coordinates in such collections; (3)...
Data from: Host associations and beta diversity of fungal endophyte communities in New Guinea rainforest treesJohn B. Vincent, George D. Weiblen & Georgiana May
Processes shaping the distribution of foliar fungal endophyte species remain poorly understood. Despite increasing evidence that these cryptic fungal symbionts of plants mediate interactions with pathogens and herbivores, there remain basic questions regarding the extent to which dispersal limitation and host specificity might shape fungal endophyte community composition in rainforests. To assess the relative importance of spatial pattern and host specificity, we isolated fungi from a sample of mapped trees in lowland Papua New Guinea....
Comparative analyses of central molecular networks uncover variation that can be targeted by biomedical research to develop insights and interventions into disease. The insulin/insulin-like signaling and target of rapamycin (IIS/TOR) molecular network regulates metabolism, growth, and aging. With the development of new molecular resources for reptiles, we show that genes in IIS/TOR are rapidly evolving within amniotes (mammals and reptiles, including birds). Additionally, we find evidence of natural selection that diversified the hormone-receptor binding relationships...
Data from: Raccoon contact networks predict seasonal susceptibility to rabies outbreaks and limitations of vaccinationJennifer J. H. Reynolds, Ben T. Hirsch, Stanley D. Gehrt & Meggan E. Craft
1. Infectious disease transmission often depends on the contact structure of host populations. Although it is often challenging to capture the contact structure in wild animals, new technology has enabled biologists to obtain detailed temporal information on wildlife social contacts. In this study, we investigated the effects of raccoon contact patterns on rabies spread using network modelling. 2. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) play an important role in the maintenance of rabies in the United States. It...
Memory is among the most important and neglected forces that shapes animal movement patterns. Research on the movement-memory interface is crucial to understand how animals use spatial learning to navigate across space because memory-biased navigation is directly linked to animals’ space use and home range behaviour; however, because memory cannot be measured directly, it is difficult to account for. Here, we incorporated spatial memory into Step Selection Functions (SSF) to understand how resource selection and...
Data from: Plasticity in social communication and its implications for the colonization of novel habitatsTerry J. Ord, Grace K. Charles, Meredith Palmer & Judy A. Stamps
Behavioral plasticity is expected to facilitate the colonization of novel habitats by allowing populations to respond rapidly to abrupt environmental change. We studied contextual plasticity—a form of plasticity that allows an immediate phenotypic response to stimuli—in the territorial communication of Puerto Rican Anolis lizards and considered the role it might play in facilitating colonization. In these lizards, the detection of territorial visual displays by receivers is acutely dependent on fluctuating levels of visual noise from...
Geckos are the only major lizard group consisting mostly of nocturnal species. Nocturnality is presumed to have evolved early in gecko evolution and geckos possess numerous adaptations to functioning in low light and at low temperatures. However, not all gecko species are nocturnal and most diurnal geckos have their own distinct adaptations to living in warmer, sunlit environments. We reconstructed the evolution of gecko activity patterns using a newly generated time-calibrated phylogeny. Our results provide...
University of Minnesota37
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute4
University of California System3
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor2
United States Department of Agriculture2
University of Wisconsin-Madison2
Western Sydney University2