41 Works

Data from: Urban trees reduce nutrient leaching to groundwater

Daniel A. Nidzgorski & Sarah E. Hobbie
Many urban waterways suffer from excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) feeding algal blooms, which cause lower water clarity and oxygen levels, bad odor and taste, and the loss of desirable species. Nutrient movement from land to water is likely to be influenced by urban vegetation, but there are few empirical studies addressing this. In this study, we examined whether or not urban trees can reduce nutrient leaching to groundwater, an important nutrient export pathway...

Data from: Cryptic individual scaling relationships and the evolution of morphological scaling

Austin P. Dreyer, Omid Saleh Ziabari, Eli Swanson, Akshita Chawla, W. Anthony Frankino, Alexander W. Shingleton & Eli M. Swanson
Morphological scaling relationships between organ and body size—also known as allometries—describe the shape of a species, and the evolution of such scaling relationships is central to the generation of morphological diversity. Despite extensive modeling and empirical tests, however, the modes of selection that generate changes in scaling remain largely unknown. Here, we mathematically model the evolution of the group-level scaling as an emergent property of individual-level variation in the developmental mechanisms that regulate trait and...

Data from: Determining epistatic selection in admixed populations

Molly Schumer & Yaniv Brandvain
When two diverging species begin hybridizing, selection against hybridization is likely driven not by single substitutions, but by interactions between incompatible mutations. To identify these incompatibilities in natural populations, researchers examine the extent of non-random associations between ancestry at physically unlinked loci in admixed populations. In this approach, which we call “AD scans”, locus-pairs with significantly positive “ancestry disequilibrium” (AD, i.e. locus-pairs that positively covary by ancestry) represent incompatible alleles. Past research has uniformly revealed...

Data from: Developmental lead exposure has mixed effects on butterfly cognitive processes

Kinsey H. Philips, Megan E. Kobiela & Emilie C. Snell-Rood
While the effects of lead pollution have been well studied in vertebrates, it is unclear to what extent lead may negatively affect insect cognition. Lead pollution in soils can elevate lead in plant tissues, suggesting it could negatively affect neural development of insect herbivores. We used the cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) as a model system to study the effect of lead pollution on insect cognitive processes, which play an important role in how insects...

Data from: Local context drives infection of grasses by vector-borne generalist viruses

Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Charles E. Mitchell & Alison G. Power
Host characteristics commonly determine infection risk, but infection can also be mediated by regional- or local-scale variation in the biotic and abiotic environment. Experiments can clarify the relative importance of these factors. We quantified drivers of infection by barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses (B/CYDV), a group of generalist, vector-borne grass pathogens, at hierarchically nested spatial scales (105–1 m) by planting individuals of six common grass species into five Pacific Coast grassland sites spanning 7°...

Data from: Phylogenetic evidence for cladogenetic polyploidization in land plants

Shing Hei Zhan, Michal Drori, Emma E. Goldberg, Sarah P. Otto & Itay Mayrose
Premise of the study: Polyploidization is a common and recurring phenomenon in plants and is often thought to be a mechanism of "instant speciation." Whether polyploidization is associated with the formation of new species ("cladogenesis") or simply occurs over time within a lineage ("anagenesis") has never, however, been assessed systematically. Methods: Here, we tested this hypothesis using phylogenetic and karyotypic information from 235 plant genera (mostly angiosperms). We first constructed a large database of combined...

Data from: Sex differences and allee effects shape the dynamics of sex-structured invasions

Allison K. Shaw, Hanna Kokko & Michael G. Neubert
The rate at which a population grows and spreads can depend on individual behaviour and interactions with others. In many species with two sexes, males and females differ in key life history traits (e.g. growth, survival, dispersal), which can scale up to affect population rates of growth and spread. In sexually reproducing species, the mechanics of locating mates and reproducing successfully introduce further complications for predicting the invasion speed (spread rate), as both can change...

Data from: Nutrition shapes life-history evolution across species

Eli M. Swanson, Anne Espeset, Ihab Mikati, Isaac Bolduc, Robert Kulhanek, William A. White, Susan Kenzie & Emilie C. Snell-Rood
Nutrition is a key component of life-history theory, yet we know little about how diet quality shapes life-history evolution across species. Here, we test whether quantitative measures of nutrition are linked to life-history evolution across 96 species of butterflies representing over 50 independent diet shifts. We find that butterflies feeding on high nitrogen host plants as larvae are more fecund, but their eggs are smaller relative to their body size. Nitrogen and sodium content of...

Data from: Long-term impacts of variable retention harvesting on ground-layer plant communities in Pinus resinosa forests

Margaret W. Roberts, Anthony W. D'Amato, Christel C. Kern & Brian J. Palik
Concerns about loss of biodiversity and structural complexity in managed forests have recently increased and led to the development of new management strategies focused on restoring or maintaining ecosystem functions while also providing wood outputs. Variable Retention Harvest (VRH) systems, in which mature overstorey trees are retained in various spatial arrangements across harvested areas, represent one potential approach to this problem. However, long-term evaluations of the effectiveness of this strategy at sustaining plant community composition...

Data from: The legacy of large regime shifts in shallow lakes

Joy M. Ramstack Hobbs, William O. Hobbs, Mark B. Edlund, Kyle D. Zimmer, Kevin M. Theissen, Natalie Hoidal, Leah M. Domine, Mark A. Hanson, Brian R. Herwig & James B. Cotner
Ecological shifts in shallow lakes from clear-water macrophyte-dominated to turbid-water phytoplankton-dominated are generally thought of as rapid short-term transitions. Diatom remains in sediment records from shallow lakes in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America provide new evidence that the long-term ecological stability of these lakes is defined by the legacy of large regime shifts. Here we examine the modern and historical stability of eleven shallow lakes. Currently, four of the lakes are in a...

Data from: Climate modifies response of non-native and native species richness to nutrient enrichment

Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Peter B. Reich, Eric M. Lind, Lauren L. Sullivan, Eric W. Seabloom, Laura Yahdjian, Andrew S. MacDougall, Lara G. Reichmann, Juan Alberti, Selene Báez, Jonathan D. Bakker, Marc W. Cadotte, Maria C. Caldeira, Enrique J. Chaneton, Carla M. D'Antonio, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Oscar Iribarne, Kevin P. Kirkman, Johannes M. H. Knops, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Ramesh Laungani, Andrew D. B. Leakey … & Elizabeth T. Borer
Ecosystem eutrophication often increases domination by non-natives and causes displacement of native taxa. However, variation in environmental conditions may affect the outcome of interactions between native and non-native taxa in environments where nutrient supply is elevated. We examined the interactive effects of eutrophication, climate variability and climate average conditions on the success of native and non-native plant species using experimental nutrient manipulations replicated at 32 grassland sites on four continents. We hypothesized that effects of...

Data from: Partitioning the effect of composition and diversity of tree communities on leaf litter decomposition and soil respiration

Mark Davidson Jewell, Bill Shipley, Etienne Low-Decarie, Cornelia M. Tobner, Alain Paquette, Christian Messier & Peter B. Reich
The decomposition of plant material is an important ecosystem process influencing both carbon cycling and soil nutrient availability. Quantifying how plant diversity affects decomposition is thus crucial for predicting the effect of the global decline in plant diversity on ecosystem functioning. Plant diversity could affect the decomposition process both directly through the diversity of the litter, and/or indirectly through the diversity of the host plant community and its affect on the decomposition environment. Using a...

Data from: Choosing wavelet methods, filters, and lengths for functional brain network construction

Zitong Zhang, Qawi K. Telesford, Chad Giusti, Kelvin O. Lim & Danielle S. Bassett
Wavelet methods are widely used to decompose fMRI, EEG, or MEG signals into time series representing neurophysiological activity in fixed frequency bands. Using these time series, one can estimate frequency-band specific functional connectivity between sensors or regions of interest, and thereby construct functional brain networks that can be examined from a graph theoretic perspective. Despite their common use, however, practical guidelines for the choice of wavelet method, filter, and length have remained largely undelineated. Here,...

Data from: Disentangling relationships between plant diversity and decomposition processes under forest restoration

Saori Fujii, Akira S. Mori, Dai Koide, Kobayashi Makoto, Shunsuke Matsuoka, Takashi Osono & Forest Isbell
Biodiversity has been elucidated to be one of the major factors sustaining ecosystem functioning. The vast majority of studies showing a relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning have come from experiments, and this knowledge has not yet been applied to most real-world cases of conservation and management. This is especially true in forest ecosystems, characterized by the dominance of long-lived organisms (trees) and high levels of structural complexity and environmental heterogeneity. To apply biodiversity–function relationships...

Data from: Recent selection for self-compatibility in a population of Leavenworthia alabamica

Adam C. Herman & Daniel J. Schoen
The evolution of self-compatibility (SC) is the first step in the evolutionary transition in plants from outcrossing enforced by self-incompatibility (SI) to self-fertilization. In the Brassicaceae, SI is controlled by alleles of two tightly linked genes at the S-locus. Despite permitting inbreeding, mutations at the S-locus leading to SC may be selected if they provide reproductive assurance and/or gain a transmission advantage in a population when SC plants self- and outcross. Positive selection can leave...

Data from: Living in the city: urban environments shape the evolution of a native annual plant

Mohamed Yakub & Peter Tiffin
Urban environments are warmer, have higher levels of atmospheric CO2, and altered patterns of disturbance and precipitation than nearby rural areas. These differences can be important for plant growth and are likely to create distinct selective environments. We planted a common garden experiment with seeds collected from natural populations of the native annual plant Lepidium virginicum, growing in five urban and nearby rural areas in the northern United States to determine whether and how urban...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    41

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    41

Affiliations

  • University of Minnesota
    41
  • Michigan State University
    4
  • United States Department of Agriculture
    3
  • University of Toronto
    3
  • Cornell University
    3
  • University of Pennsylvania
    2
  • Columbia University
    2
  • Princeton University
    2
  • Université de Sherbrooke
    2
  • University of Vermont
    2