72 Works

Data from: Effects of gene action, marker density, and time since selection on the performance of landscape genomic scans of local adaptation

Jeremy B. Yoder & Peter Tiffin
Genomic “scans” to identify loci that contribute to local adaptation are becoming increasingly common. Many methods used for such studies have assumed that local adaptation is created by loci experiencing antagonistic pleiotropy and that the selected locus itself is assayed, and few consider how signals of selection change through time. However, most empirical data sets have marker density too low to assume that a selected locus itself is assayed, researchers seldom know when selection was...

Data from: Linking social and spatial networks to viral community phylogenetics reveals subtype-specific transmission dynamics in African lions

Nicholas M. Fountain-Jones, Craig Packer, Jennifer L. Troyer, Kimberly VanderWaal, Stacie Robinson, Maude Jacquot & Meggan E. Craft
1.Heterogeneity within pathogen species can have important consequences for how pathogens transmit across landscapes; however, discerning different transmission routes is challenging. 2.Here we apply both phylodynamic and phylogenetic community ecology techniques to examine the consequences of pathogen heterogeneity on transmission by assessing subtype specific transmission pathways in a social carnivore. 3.We use comprehensive social and spatial network data to examine transmission pathways for three subtypes of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIVPle) in African lions (Panthera leo)...

Data from: Cold adaptation drives variability in needle structure and anatomy in Pinus sylvestris L. along a 1,900 km temperate–boreal transect

Artur Jankowski, Tomasz P. Wyka, Roma Żytkowiak, Bengt Nihlgård, Peter B. Reich, J. Oleksyn & Jacek Oleksyn
1. Occupancy of cold habitats by evergreen species requires structural modification of photosynthetic organs for stress resistance and longevity. Such modifications have been described at inter-specific level while intra-specific variation has been underexplored. 2. To identify structural and anatomical traits that may be adaptive in cold environments, we studied intra-specific variability of needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), a wide-ranging tree, along a 1900 km temperate-boreal transect in Europe. 3. Needles from 20 sites...

Data from: Identifying environmental drivers of greenhouse gas emissions under warming and reduced rainfall in boreal-temperate forests

Catarina S. C. Martins, Loïc Nazaries, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Catriona A. Macdonald, Ian C. Anderson, Sarah E. Hobbie, Rhodney T. Venterea, Peter B. Reich, Brajesh K. Singh & Rodney T. Venterea
1.Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are predicted to increase as a consequence of fossil fuel emissions and the impact on biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Forest ecosystems in general, and forest soils in particular, can be sinks or sources for CO2, CH4, and N2O. Environmental studies traditionally target soil temperature and moisture as the main predictors of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) flux from different ecosystems; however, these emissions are primarily biologically...

Data from: Sympatric parallel diversification of major oak clades in the Americas and the origins of Mexican species diversity

Andrew L. Hipp, Paul S. Manos, Antonio Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Marlene Hahn, Matthew Kaproth, John D. McVay, Susana Valencia Avalos, Jeannine Cavender-Bares & Susana Valencia Avalos
Oaks (Quercus, Fagaceae) are the dominant tree genus of North America in species number and biomass, and Mexico is a global center of oak diversity. Understanding the origins of oak diversity is key to understanding biodiversity of northern temperate forests. A phylogenetic study of biogeography, niche evolution and diversification patterns in Quercus was performed using 300 samples, 146 species. Next-generation sequencing data were generated using the restriction-site associated DNA (RAD-seq) method. A time-calibrated maximum likelihood...

Data from: Using beta diversity to inform agricultural policies and conservation actions on Mediterranean farmland

Joana Santana, Miguel Porto, Luis Reino, Francisco Moreira, Paulo Flores Ribeiro, José Lima Santo, John T. Rotenberry & Pedro Beja
1. Spatial variation in species composition (β-diversity) is an important component of farmland biodiversity, which together with local richness (α-diversity) drives the number of species in a region (γ-diversity). However, β-diversity is seldom used to inform conservation, due to limited understanding of its responses to agricultural management, and lack of clear links between β-diversity changes and conservation outcomes. 2. We explored the value of β-diversity to guide conservation on farmland, by quantifying the contribution of...

Data from: Comparing forest structure and biodiversity on private and public land: secondary tropical dry forests in Costa Rica

Moana McClellan, Rebecca Montgomery, Kristen Nelson & Justin Becknell
Secondary forests constitute a substantial proportion of tropical forestlands. These forests occur on both public and private lands and different underlying environmental variables and management regimes may affect post‐abandonment successional processes and resultant forest structure and biodiversity. We examined whether differences in ownership led to differences in forest structure, tree diversity, and tree species composition across a gradient of soil fertility and forest age. We collected soil samples and surveyed all trees in 82 public...

Data from: Correlates of decisional dynamics in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex

Habiba Azab & Benjamin Y. Hayden
We hypothesized that during binary economic choice, decision makers use the first option they attend as a default to which they compare the second. To test this idea, we recorded activity of neurons in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of macaques choosing between gambles presented asynchronously. We find that ensemble encoding of the value of the first offer includes both choice-dependent and choice-independent aspects, as if reflecting a partial decision. That is, its responses...

Data from: Varyingly hungry caterpillars: predictive models and foliar chemistry suggest how to eat a rainforest

Simon T. Segar, Martin Volf, Brus Isua, Mentap Sisol, Conor M. Redmond, Margaret E. Rosati, Bradley Gewa, Kenneth Molem, Chris Dahl, Jeremy D. Holloway, Yves Basset, Scott E. Miller, George D. Weiblen, Juha-Pekka Salminen & Vojtech Novotny
A long-term goal in evolutionary ecology is to explain the incredible diversity of insect herbivores and patterns of plant host use in speciose groups like tropical Lepidoptera. Here we used standardised food-web data, multigene phylogenies of both trophic levels and plant chemistry data to model interactions between Lepidoptera larvae (caterpillars) from two lineages (Geometridae and Pyraloidea) and plants in species-rich lowland rainforest in New Guinea. Model parameters were used to make and test blind predictions...

Data from: White matter alterations in Parkinson's disease with normal cognition precede grey matter atrophy

Ivan Rektor, Alena Svátková, Lubomir Vojtísek, Iva Zikmundova, Jirí Vanicek, András Király & Nikoletta Szabó
Introduction: While progressive MRI brain changes characterize advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), little has been discovered about structural alterations in the earliest phase of the disease, i.e. in patients with motor symptoms and with normal cognition. Our study aimed to detect grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes in PD patients without cognitive impairment. Methods: Twenty PD patients and twenty-one healthy controls (HC) were tested for attention, executive function, working memory, and visuospatial and language...

Data from: Global biogeography of mating system variation in seed plants

David A. Moeller, Ryan D. Briscoe Runquist, Annika M. Moe, Monica A. Geber, Carol Goodwillie, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou, Christopher G. Eckert, Elizabeth Elle, Mark O. Johnston, Susan Kalisz, Richard H. Ree, Risa D. Sargent, Mario Vallejo-Marin & Alice A. Winn
Latitudinal gradients in biotic interactions have been suggested as causes of global patterns of biodiversity and phenotypic variation. Plant biologists have long speculated that outcrossing mating systems are more common at low than high latitudes owing to a greater predictability of plant–pollinator interactions in the tropics; however, these ideas have not previously been tested. Here, we present the first global biogeographic analysis of plant mating systems based on 624 published studies from 492 taxa. We...

Data from: Restored tallgrass prairies have reduced phylogenetic diversity compared with remnants

Rebecca S. Barak, Evelyn W. Williams, Andrew L. Hipp, Marlin L. Bowles, Gabriela M. Carr, Robert Sherman & Daniel J. Larkin
Ecological restoration is critical for mitigating habitat loss and providing ecosystem services. However, restorations often have lower diversity than remnant, reference sites. Phylogenetic diversity is an important component of biodiversity and ecosystem function that has only recently been used to evaluate restoration outcomes. To move towards prediction in the restoration of biodiversity, it is necessary to understand how phylogenetic diversity of restorations compares with that of reference sites, and where deficits are found, to evaluate...

Data from: Integrating viability and fecundity selection to illuminate the adaptive nature of genetic clines

Susana M Wadgymar, S. Caroline Daws, Jill Anderson, Susana M. Wadgymar & Jill T. Anderson
Genetically-based trait variation across environmental gradients can reflect adaptation to local environments. However, natural populations that appear well-adapted often exhibit directional, not stabilizing, selection on ecologically-relevant traits. Temporal variation in the direction of selection could lead to stabilizing selection across multiple episodes of selection, which might be overlooked in short-term studies that evaluate relationships of traits and fitness under only one set of conditions. Furthermore, non-random mortality prior to trait expression can bias inferences about...

Data from: Abiotic and biotic predictors of macroecological patterns in bird and butterfly coloration

Rhiannon L. Dalrymple, Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Darrell J. Kemp, Thomas E. White, Shawn W. Laffan, Frank A. Hemmings, Timothy D. Hitchcock & Angela T. Moles
Animal color phenotypes are invariably influenced by both their biotic community and the abiotic environments. A host of hypotheses have been proposed for how variables such as solar radiation, habitat shadiness, primary productivity, temperature, rainfall and community diversity might affect animal color traits. However, while individual factors have been linked to coloration in specific contexts, little is known about which factors are most important across broad taxonomic and geographic scales. Using data collected from 570...

Data from: Optimal management strategy of insecticide resistance under various insect life histories: heterogeneous timing of selection and inter-patch dispersal

Masaaki Sudo, Daisuke Takahashi, David A. Andow, Yoshito Suzuki & Takahiko Yamanaka
Although theoretical studies have shown that the mixture strategy, which uses multiple toxins simultaneously, can effectively delay the evolution of insecticide resistance, whether it is the optimal management under different insect life histories and insecticide types remains unknown. To test the robustness of the management strategy over the life histories, we developed a series of simulation models which cover almost all the diploid insect types and have the same basic structure describing pest population dynamics...

Data from: Increasing procaspase 8 expression using repurposed drugs to induce HIV infected cell death in ex vivo patient cells

Rahul Sampath, Nathan W. Cummins, Sekar Natesampillai, Gary D. Bren, Thomas D. Chung, Jason Baker, Keith Henry, Amelie Pagliuzza & Andrew D. Badley
HIV persists because a reservoir of latently infected CD4 T cells do not express viral proteins and are indistinguishable from uninfected cells. One approach to HIV cure suggests that reactivating HIV will activate cytotoxic pathways; yet when tested in vivo, reactivating cells do not die sufficiently to reduce cell-associated HIV DNA levels. We recently showed that following reactivation from latency, HIV infected cells generate the HIV specific cytotoxic protein Casp8p41 which is produced by HIV...

Data from: Microbial richness and composition independently drive soil multifunctionality

Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Pankaj Trivedi, Chanda Trivedi, David J. Eldridge, Peter B. Reich, Thomas C. Jeffries & Brajesh K. Singh
Soil microbes provide multiple ecosystem functions such as nutrient cycling, decomposition and climate regulation. However, we lack a quantitative understanding of the relative importance of microbial richness and composition in controlling multifunctionality. This knowledge gap limits our capacity to understand the influence of biotic attributes in the provision of services and functions on which humans depend. We used two independent approaches (i.e. experimental and observational), and applied statistical modeling to identify the role and relative...

Data from: Using soil amendments and plant functional traits to select native tropical dry forest species for the restoration of degraded Vertisols

Leland K. Werden, Pedro J. Alvarado, Sebastian Zarges, Erick M. Calderón, Erik M. Schilling, Milena L. Gutiérrez & Jennifer S. Powers
Tropical dry forests (TDFs) are critically endangered, and their restoration is understudied. Large-scale passive restoration efforts in north-west (NW) Costa Rica have catalysed TDF regeneration but are not effective on degraded Vertisols, where active restoration is necessary due to high content of shrink–swell clays that impede regeneration following degradation. We established a large-scale restoration experiment in degraded former pastures in NW Costa Rica to determine (1) the restoration potential of native TDF tree species on...

Data from: Watershed versus within-lake drivers of nitrogen: phosphorus dynamics in shallow lakes

Luke J. Ginger, Kyle D. Zimmer, Brian R. Herwig, Mark A. Hanson, William O. Hobbs, Gaston E. Small & James B. Cotner
Research on lake eutrophication often identifies variables affecting amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in lakes, but understanding factors influencing N:P ratios is important given its influence on species composition and toxin production by cyanobacteria. We sampled 80 shallow lakes in Minnesota (USA) for three years to assess effects of watershed size, proportion of watershed as both row crop and natural area, fish biomass, and lake alternative state (turbid versus clear) on total N:...

Data from: Transcriptomic basis of genome by genome variation in a legume-rhizobia mutualism

Liana T. Burghardt, Joseph Guhlin, Chan Lan Chun, Junqi Liu, Robert M. Stupar, Michael J. Sadowsky, Nevin D. Young & Peter Tiffin
In the legume-rhizobia mutualism, the benefit each partner derives from the other depends on the genetic identity of both host and rhizobial symbiont. To gain insight into the extent of genome x genome interactions on hosts at the molecular level and to identify potential mechanisms responsible for the variation, we examined host gene expression within nodules (the plant organ where the symbiosis occurs) of four genotypes of Medicago truncatula grown with either Ensifer meliloti or...

Data from: Do temperate tree species diversity and identity influence soil microbial community function and composition?

Rim Khlifa, Alain Paquette, Christian Messier, Peter Reich, Alison Munson, Peter B. Reich & Alison D. Munson
Studies of biodiversity-ecosystem function in treed ecosystems have generally focused on aboveground functions. The present study investigates inter-trophic links between tree diversity and soil microbial community function and composition.We examined how microbial communities in surface mineral soil responded to experimental gradients of tree species richness (SR), functional diversity (FD), community-weighted mean trait value (CWM) and tree identity. The site was a 4-yr-old common garden experiment near Montreal, Canada, consisting of deciduous and evergreen tree species...

Plant Respiration Modelling with JULES for a changing climate (1860-2100)

C. Huntingford, O.K. Atkin, A. Martinez-De La Torre, L.M. Mercado, M.A. Heskel, A.B. Harper, K.J. Bloomfield, O.S. O'Sullivan, P.B. Reich, K.R. Wythers, E.E. Butler, M. Chen, K.L. Griffin, P. Meir, M.G. Tjoelker, M.H. Turnbull, S. Sitch, A. Wiltshire & Y. Malhi
The dataset contains annual global plant respiration (and related diagnostics, such as Net Primary Productivity, Gross Primary Productivity and soil respiration), applicable for pre-industrial times (taken as year 1860) through to the end of the 21st Century (year 2100). The spatial resolution of the data is 2.5 degrees latitude x 3.75 degrees longitude. These diagnostics are outputs from the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES land surface model) under four different approaches to calcluate leaf...

Data from: Multivariate phenotypic selection on a complex sexual signal

Jessie C. Tanner, Jessica L. Ward, Ruth G. Shaw & Mark A. Bee
Animal signals are complex, comprising multiple components that receivers may use to inform their decisions. Components may carry information of differing value to receivers, and selection on one component could modulate or reverse selection on another, necessitating a multivariate approach to estimating selection gradients. However, surprisingly few empirical studies have estimated the strength of phenotypic selection on complex signals with appropriate design and adequate power to detect non-linear selection. We used phonotaxis assays to measure...

Data from: Evolution of mammalian migrations for refuge, breeding, and food

Gitanjali E. Gnanadesikan, William D. Pearse & Allison K. Shaw
Many organisms migrate between distinct habitats, exploiting variable resources while profoundly affecting ecosystem services, disease spread, and human welfare. However, the very characteristics that make migration captivating and significant also make it difficult to study, and we lack a comprehensive understanding of which species migrate and why. Here we show that, among mammals, migration is concentrated within Cetacea and Artiodactyla but also diffusely spread throughout the class (found in 12 of 27 orders). We synthesize...

Data from: Exams disadvantage women in introductory biology

Sehoya Cotner, Shima Salehi & Cissy J. Ballen
The gender gap in STEM fields has prompted a great deal of discussion, but what factors underlie performance deficits remain poorly understood. We show that female students underperformed on exams compared to their male counterparts across ten large introductory biology course sections in fall 2016 (N > 1500 students). Females also reported higher levels of test anxiety and course-relevant science interest. Results from mediation analyses revealed an intriguing pattern: for female students only, and regardless...

Registration Year

  • 2017

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Minnesota
  • Western Sydney University
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • Australian National University
  • United States Geological Survey
  • Stanford University
  • Northwestern University
  • Field Museum of Natural History
  • University of Georgia
  • Oregon State University