28 Works

Data from: The geography of spatial synchrony

Jonathan A. Walter, Lawrence W. Sheppard, Thomas L. Anderson, Jude H. Kastens, Ottar N. Bjornstad, Andrew M. Liebhold & Daniel C. Reuman
Spatial synchrony, defined as correlated temporal fluctuations among populations, is a fundamental feature of population dynamics, but many aspects of synchrony remain poorly understood. Few studies have examined detailed geographical patterns of synchrony; instead most focus on how synchrony declines with increasing linear distance between locations, making the simplifying assumption that distance decay is isotropic. By synthesising and extending prior work, we show how geography of synchrony, a term which we use to refer to...

Data from: Depletion of heterogeneous source species pools predicts future invasion rates

Andrew M. Liebhold, Eckehard G. Brockerhoff & Mark Kimberley
Predicting how increasing rates of global trade will result in new establishments of potentially damaging invasive species is a question of critical importance to the development of national and international policies aimed at minimizing future invasions. Centuries of historical movement and establishment of invading species may have depleted the supply of species available for future invasions, and it has been suggested that the problem of invasions will diminish as a result of this. However, the...

Weak spatial-genetic structure in a native invasive, the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis), across the eastern United States

Ryan Garrick, Ísis Arantes, Megan Stubbs & Nathan Havill
The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, is a native pest of pine trees that has recently expanded its range into the northeastern United States. Understanding its colonization, dispersal, and connectivity will be critical for mitigating negative economic and ecological impacts in the newly invaded areas. Characterization of spatial-genetic structure can contribute to this; however, previous studies have reached different conclusions about regional population genetic structure, with one study reporting a weak east-west pattern, and the...

Introduced plants induce outbreaks of a native pest and facilitate invasion in the plants’ native range: Evidence from the emerald ash borer

Yingqiao Dang, Ke Wei, Xiaoyi Wang, Jian Duan, David Jennings & Therese Poland
1. Biological invasions are among the most serious threats to native forest ecosystems worldwide due to ever-increasing international trade and global change. Understanding the invasion processes and ecology of invasive pests in both newly invaded and native habitats is necessary to effectively manage the risks they pose. 2. The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is one of the most devastating invasive forest insect pests in North America and has also invaded European Russia and...

Data from: Retention forestry influences understory diversity and functional identity

Miranda Curzon, Christel Kern, Susan Baker, Brian Palik & Anthony D'Amato
In recent decades, a paradigm shift in forest management and associated policies has led to greater emphasis on harvest practices that retain mature, overstory trees in forest stands that would otherwise be clearcut. While it is often assumed that the maintenance of compositional and structural complexity, such as that achieved through retention forestry approaches, will also mitigate negative impacts to functional diversity, empirical evidence of this relationship is sparse. We examined the effects of an...

MHC variation is similar in little brown bats before and after white-nose syndrome outbreak

Xueling Yi, Emily Latch, Deahn Donner, Paula Marquardt, Jonathan Palmer, Michelle Jusino, Jacqueline Frair & Daniel Lindner
White-nose syndrome (WNS), caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), has driven alarming declines in North American hibernating bats, such as little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus). During hibernation, infected little brown bats are able to initiate anti-Pd immune responses, indicating pathogen-mediated selection on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. However, such immune responses may not be protective as they interrupt torpor, elevate energy costs, and potentially lead to higher mortality rates. To assess whether...

Data from: Megaphylogeny resolves global patterns of mushroom evolution

Torda Varga, Krisztina Krizsán, Csenge Földi, Bálint Dima, Marisol Sánchez-García, Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez, Gergely J. Szöllősi, János G. Szarkándi, Viktor Papp, László Albert, William Andreopoulos, Claudio Angelini, Vladimír Antonín, Kerrie W. Barry, Neale L. Bougher, Peter Buchanan, Bart Buyck, Viktória Bense, Pam Catcheside, Mansi Chovatia, Jerry Cooper, Wolfgang Dämon, Dennis Desjardin, Péter Finy, József Geml … & László G. Nagy
Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfill diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree...

Data from: Transient synchrony among populations of five foliage-feeding Lepidoptera

Maartje J. Klapwijk, Jonathan A. Walter, Aniko Hirka, György Csóka, Christer Björkman & Andrew M. Liebhold
1. Studies of transient population dynamics have largely focused on temporal changes in dynamical behavior, such as the transition between periods of stability and instability. The present study explores a related dynamic pattern, namely transient synchrony during a 49-year period among populations of five sympatric species of forest insects that share host tree resources. The long time-series allows a more comprehensive exploration of transient synchrony patterns than most previous studies. Considerable variation existed in the...

Data from: Influence of climate change and post-delisting management on long-term population viability of the conservation-reliant Kirtland’s warbler

Donald Brown, Deahn Donner, Christine A. Ribic & Carol Bocetti
Rapid global climate change is resulting in novel abiotic and biotic conditions and interactions. Identifying management strategies that maximize probability of long-term persistence requires an understanding of the vulnerability of species to environmental changes. We sought to quantify the vulnerability of Kirtland’s Warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii), a rare Neotropical migratory songbird that breeds almost exclusively in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and winters in the Bahamian Archipelago, to projected environmental changes on the breeding and wintering...

Data from: Disentangling the drivers of invasion spread in a vector-borne tree disease

Yutaka Osada, Takehisa Yamakita, Etsuko Shoda-Kagaya, Andrew M. Liebhold & Takehiko Yamanaka
1. Pine wilt disease (PWD) invaded southern Japan in the early 1900’s and has gradually expanded its range to northern Honshu (Japanese mainland). The disease is caused by a pathogenic North American nematode, which is transmitted by native pine sawyer beetles. Recently the disease has invaded other portions of East Asia and Europe where extensive mortality of host pines is anticipated to resemble historical patterns seen in Japan. 2. There is a critical need to...

Data from: Examining carry‐over effects of winter habitat on breeding phenology and reproductive success in prairie warblers (Setophaga discolor)

Michael E. Akresh, David I. King & Peter P. Marra
Winter habitat quality can influence breeding phenology and reproductive success of migratory birds. Using stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) from bird claws and red blood cells collected in Massachusetts, USA, we assessed if winter habitat occupancy carried over to affect prairie warbler (Setophaga discolor) breeding arrival dates, body condition upon arrival, pairing success, first-egg dates, and reproductive success. In two of three years (in 2011 and 2012, but not in 2013), after-second-year (ASY) males...

Data from: Simulating nutrient release from parental carcasses increases the growth, biomass and genetic diversity of juvenile Atlantic salmon

Darryl McLennan, Sonya K. Auer, Graeme J. Anderson, Thomas C. Reid, Ronald D. Bassar, David C. Stewart, Eef Cauwelier, James Sampayo, Simon McKelvey, Keith H. Nislow, John D. Armstrong & Neil B. Metcalfe
1. The net transport of nutrients by migratory fish from oceans to inland spawning areas has decreased due to population declines and migration barriers. Restoration of nutrients to increasingly oligotrophic upland streams (that were historically salmon spawning areas) have shown short-term benefits for juvenile salmon, but the longer-term consequences are little known. 2. Here we simulated the deposition of a small number of adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar carcasses at the end of the spawning...

Data from: Quantifying flooding regime in floodplain forests to guide river restoration

Christian O. Marks, Keith H. Nislow & Francis J. Magilligan
Determining the flooding regime needed to support distinctive floodplain forests is essential for effective river conservation under the ubiquitous human alteration of river flows characteristic of the Anthropocene Era. At over 100 sites throughout the Connecticut River basin, the largest river system in New England, we characterized species composition, valley and channel morphology, and hydrologic regime to define conditions promoting distinct floodplain forest assemblages. Species assemblages were dominated by floodplain-associated trees on surfaces experiencing flood...

Data from: Historic disturbance regimes promote tree diversity only under low browsing regimes in eastern deciduous forest

Tim Nuttle, Alejandro A. Royo, Mary Beth Adams & Walter P. Carson
Eastern deciduous forests are changing in species composition and diversity outside of classical successional trajectories. Three disturbance mechanisms appear central to this phenomenon: fire frequency is reduced, canopy gaps are smaller, and browsers are more abundant. Which factor is most responsible is a matter of great debate and remains unclear, at least partly because few studies have simultaneously investigated more than one process. We conducted a large-scale experiment in mesophytic forests of West Virginia, USA,...

Data from: Spatial variation in the relationship between performance and metabolic rate in wild juvenile Atlantic salmon

Grethe Robertsen, John D. Armstrong, Keith H. Nislow, Ivar Herfindal, Simon McKelvey & Sigurd Einum
1. Maintenance metabolic rate (MR, the energy cost of self-maintenance) is linked to behavioural traits and fitness and varies substantially within populations. Despite having received much attention, the causes and consequences of this variation remain obscure. 2. Theoretically, such within-population variation in fitness-related traits can be maintained by environmental heterogeneity in selection patterns, but for MR this has rarely been tested in nature. 3. Here, we experimentally test if the relationship between MR and performance...

Data from: Guidelines and considerations for designing field experiments simulating precipitation extremes in forest ecosystems

Heidi Asbjornsen, John L. Campbell, Katie A. Jennings, Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur, Cameron McIntire, Pamela H. Templer, Richard P. Phillips, Taryn L. Bauerle, Michael C. Dietze, Serita D. Frey, Peter M. Groffman, Rosella Guerrieri, Paul J. Hanson, Eric P. Kelsey, Alan K. Knapp, Nathan G. McDowell, Patrick Meir, Kimberly A. Novick, Scott V. Ollinger, Will T. Pockman, Paul G. Schaberg, Stan D. Wullschleger, Melinda D. Smith & Lindsey E. Rustad
1. Context. Precipitation regimes are changing in response to climate change, yet understanding of how forest ecosystems respond to extreme droughts and pluvials remains incomplete. As future precipitation extremes will likely fall outside the range of historical variability, precipitation manipulation experiments (PMEs) are critical to advancing knowledge about potential ecosystem responses. However, few PMEs have been conducted in forests compared to short-statured ecosystems, and forest PMEs have unique design requirements and constraints. Moreover, past forest...

Data from: A cross-continental comparison of plant and beetle responses to retention of forest patches during timber harvest

Susan C. Baker, Charles B. Halpern, Timothy J. Wardlaw, Christel Kern, Graham J. Edgar, Russell J. Thomson, Richard E. Bigley, Jerry F. Franklin, Kamal J.K. Gandhi, Lena Gustafsson, Samuel Johnson, Brian J. Palik, Thomas A. Spies, E. Ashley Steel, Jan Weslien, Joachim Strengbom & Kamal J. K. Gandhi
Timber harvest can adversely affect forest biota. Recent research and application suggest that retention of mature forest elements (‘retention forestry’), including unharvested patches (or ‘aggregates’) within larger harvested units, can benefit biodiversity compared to clearcutting. However, it is unclear whether these benefits can be generalized among the diverse taxa and biomes in which retention forestry is practiced. Lack of comparability in methods for sampling and analysing responses to timber harvest and edge creation presents a...

Data from: Population spatial synchrony enhanced by periodicity and low detuning with environmental forcing

Kyle J. Haynes, Jonathan A. Walter & Andrew M. Liebhold
Explaining why fluctuations in abundances of spatially disjunct populations often are correlated through time is a major goal of population ecologists. We address two hypotheses receiving little to no testing in wild populations: a) that population cycling facilitates synchronization given weak coupling among populations, and b) that the ability of periodic external forces to synchronize oscillating populations is a function of the mismatch in timescales (detuning) between the force and the population. Here, we apply...

Data for: The long-term impacts of deer herbivory in determining temperate forest stand and canopy structural complexity

Samuel Reed, Alejandro Royo, Alexander Fotis, Kathleen Knight, Charles Flower & Peter Curtis
1. Ungulates place immense consumptive pressure on forest vegetation globally, leaving legacies of reduced biodiversity and simplified vegetative structure. However, what remains unresolved is whether browse-induced changes occurring early in succession ultimately manifest themselves in the developed forest canopy. Understanding the development and persistence of these legacies is critical as canopy structure is an important determinant of forest ecosystem functions like carbon sequestration and wildlife habitat. 2. We measured how white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) browse...

Invasion disharmony in the global biogeography of native and non-native beetle species

Andrew Liebhold
These data consist of a comprehensive list (as of 2020) of all known non-native Coleoptera (beetle) species established in 10 world regions: North America (excluding Mexico), Japan, the Okinawa and Ogasawara Islands, the Hawaiian Islands, South Korea, Europe (including the European part of Russia), New Zealand, Australia, and the Galapagos Islands. It does not include species that were known to have been intentionally introduced, species that failed to establish or species that only exist indoors...

Data from: Rapid assessment of forest canopy and light regime using smartphone hemispherical photography

Simone Bianchi, Christine Cahalan, Sophie Hale & James Michael Gibbons
Hemispherical photography (HP), implemented with cameras equipped with “fisheye” lenses, is a widely used method for describing forest canopies and light regimes. A promising technological advance is the availability of low-cost fisheye lenses for smartphone cameras. However, smartphone camera sensors cannot record a full hemisphere. We investigate whether smartphone HP is a cheaper and faster but still adequate operational alternative to traditional cameras for describing forest canopies and light regimes. We collected hemispherical pictures with...

Data from: Life-stage differences in spatial genetic structure in an irruptive forest insect: implications for dispersal and spatial synchrony

Patrick M. A. James, Barry Cooke, Bryan Brunet, Lisa Lumley, Felix Sperling, Marie-Josée Fortin, Vanessa S. Quinn, Brian R. Sturtevant, Bryan M. T. Brunet, Lisa M. Lumley & Felix A. H. Sperling
Dispersal determines the flux of individuals, energy, and information and is therefore a key determinant of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Yet, it remains difficult to quantify its importance relative to other factors. This is particularly true in cyclic populations in which demography, drift, and dispersal contribute to spatio-temporal variability in genetic structure. Improved understanding of how dispersal influences spatial genetic structure is needed to disentangle the multiple processes that give rise to spatial synchrony in...

Data from: Spatio-temporal dynamics of a tree-killing beetle and its predator

Aaron S. Weed, Matthew P. Ayres, Andrew M. Liebhold & Ronald F. Billings
Resolving linkages between local-scale processes and regional-scale patterns in abundance of interacting species is important for understanding long-term population stability across spatial scales. Landscape patterning in consumer population dynamics may be largely the result of interactions between consumers and their predators, or driven by spatial variation in basal resources. Empirical testing of these alternatives has been limited by the lack of suitable data. In this study, we analyzed an extensive network of spatially replicated time...

Data from: Severity of impacts of an introduced species corresponds with regional eco-evolutionary experience

Kimberley T. Davis, Ragan M. Callaway, Alex Fajardo, Anibal Pauchard, Martin A Nunez, Rob W Brooker, Bruce D. Maxwell, Romina D Dimarco, Duane A Peltzer, Bill Mason, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Anne C S McIntosh, Robin J Pakeman, Alyssa Laney Smith & Michael Gundale
Invasive plant impacts vary widely across introduced ranges. We tested the hypothesis that differences in the eco-evolutionary experience of native communities with the invader correspond with the impacts of invasive species on native vegetation, with impacts increasing with ecological novelty. We compared plant species richness and composition beneath Pinus contorta to that in adjacent vegetation and other P. contorta stands across a network of sites in its native (Canada and USA) and non-native (Argentina, Chile,...

Data and Code for: An index for measuring functional extension and evenness in trait space

Tao Zhang, Grant M. Domke, Matthew B. Russell & Jeremy W. Lichstein
Most existing functional diversity indices focus on single specific facet of functional diversity. Although they help scrutinize the details of functional diversity from their own angles, they often present some limitations in estimating functional diversity from a broad perspective. Here we presented a functional extension and evenness (FEE) index that encloses two important aspects of functional diversity. This index is based on a straightforward notion that a community has high diversity when its species are...

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