328 Works

UBIPose

Skanda Muralidhar, Laurent Son Nguyen, Denise Frauendorfer, Jean-Marc Odobez, Marianne Schmid Mast, Daniel Gatica-Perez, Yu Yu & Kenneth Alberto Funes Mora
The UBIPose dataset is intended for the evaluation of head pose estimation algorithms in natural and challenging cenarios. This dataset provides the annotation of the positions of 6 facial landmarks (two corners of two eyes, nasal root and nose tip) in 14.4 K frames and 3D head poses (roll, pitch, yaw) in 10.4 K frames.

Data from: Disentangling the processes driving plant assemblages in mountain grasslands across spatial scales and environmental gradients

Daniel Scherrer, Heidi K. Mod, Julien Pottier, Anne Dubuis-Litsios, Loïc Pellissier, Pascal Vittoz, Lars Götzenberger, Martin Zobel & Antoine Guisan
Habitat filtering and limiting similarity are well‐documented ecological assembly processes that hierarchically filter species across spatial scales, from a regional pool to local assemblages. However, information on the effects of fine‐scale spatial partitioning of species, working as an additional mechanism of coexistence, on community patterns is much scarcer. In this study, we quantified the importance of fine‐scale spatial partitioning, relative to habitat filtering and limiting similarity in structuring grassland communities in the western Swiss Alps....

Data from: Isotopic variation ccross the Audubon’s-myrtle warbler hybrid zone

David P. L. Toews, Alan Brelsford & Darren E. Irwin
Differences in seasonal migratory behaviours are thought to be an important component of reproductive isolation in many organisms. Stable isotopes have been used with success in estimating the location and qualities of disjunct breeding and wintering areas. However, few studies have used isotopic data to estimate the movements of hybrid offspring in species that form hybrid zones. Here, we use stable hydrogen to estimate the wintering locations and migratory patterns of two common and widespread...

Data from: Spatially varying selection shapes life history clines among populations of Drosophila melanogaster from sub-Saharan Africa

Daniel K. Fabian, Justin B. Lack, Vinayak Mathur, Christian Schlötterer, Paul S. Schmidt, John E. Pool & Thomas Flatt
Clines in life history traits, presumably driven by spatially varying selection, are widespread. Major latitudinal clines have been observed, for example, in Drosophila melanogaster, an ancestrally tropical insect from Africa that has colonized temperate habitats on multiple continents. Yet, how geographic factors other than latitude, such as altitude or longitude, affect life history in this species remains poorly understood. Moreover, most previous work has been performed on derived European, American and Australian populations, but whether...

Data from: Predation drives local adaptation of phenotypic plasticity

Julia Reger, Martin I. Lind, Matthew R. Robinson & Andrew P. Beckerman
Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of an individual genotype to alter aspects of its phenotype depending on the current environment. It is central to the persistence, resistance and resilience of populations facing variation in physical or biological factors. Genetic variation in plasticity is pervasive, which suggests its local adaptation is plausible. Existing studies on the adaptation of plasticity typically focus on single traits and a few populations, while theory about interactions among genes (for example,...

Data from: Low reproductive isolation and highly variable levels of gene flow reveal limited progress toward speciation between European river and brook lampreys

Quentin Rougemont, Arnaud Gaigher, Emilien Lasne, Jessica Côte, Maïra Coke, Anne-Laure Besnard, Sophie Launey & Guillaume Evanno
Ecologically based divergent selection is a factor that could drive reproductive isolation even in the presence of gene flow. Population pairs arrayed along a continuum of divergence provide a good opportunity to address this issue. Here we used a combination of mating trials, experimental crosses and population genetics analyses to investigate the evolution of reproductive isolation between two closely related species of lampreys with distinct life histories. We used microsatellite markers to genotype over 1000...

Data from: Patterns of earthworm, enchytraeid and nematode diversity and community structure in urban soils of different ages

Joël Amossé, Klára Dózsa-Farkas, Gergely Boros, Guy Rochat, Gauthier Sandoz, Bertrand Fournier, Edward A.D. Mitchell & Renée-Claire Le Bayon
Annelids (Lumbricidae and Enchytraeidae) and nematodes are common soil organisms and play important roles in organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling and creation of soil structure and porosity. However, these three groups have rarely been studied together and only few studies exist for urban soils. We studied the diversity and community composition of annelids and nematodes in soils spanning more than two centuries of urban soil development in Neuchâtel (Switzerland) and assessed the relationships 1) among...

Data from: Hybridization as a threat in climate relict Nuphar pumila (Nymphaeaceae)

Nils Arrigo, Sébastien Bétrisey, Larissa Graff, Julia Bilat, Emmanuel Gerber & Gregor Kozlowski
Field studies and conceptual work on hybridization-mediated extinction risk in climate relicts are extremely rare. Nuphar pumila (Nymphaeaceae) is one of the most emblematic climate relicts in Europe with few isolated populations in the Alpine arc. The extent of introgression with related lowland and generalist species Nuphar lutea has never been studied using molecular methods. All biogeographical regions where N. pumila naturally occurs in the neighbourhood of the Alpine arc were sampled and studied using...

Data from: Group-size diversity in public goods games

Jorge Peña
Public goods games are models of social dilemmas where cooperators pay a cost for the production of a public good while defectors free ride on the contributions of cooperators. In the traditional framework of evolutionary game theory, the payoffs of cooperators and defectors result from interactions in groups formed by binomial sampling from an infinite population. Despite empirical evidence showing that group-size distributions in nature are highly heterogeneous, most models of social evolution assume that...

Data from: Profound genetic divergence and asymmetric parental genome contributions as hallmarks of hybrid speciation in polyploid toads

Caroline Betto-Colliard, Sylvia Hofmann, Roberto Sermier, Nicolas Perrin & Matthias Stöck
The evolutionary causes and consequences of allopolyploidization, an exceptional pathway to instant hybrid speciation, are poorly investigated in animals. In particular, when and why hybrid polyploids versus diploids are produced, and constraints on sources of paternal and maternal ancestors, remain underexplored. Using the Palearctic green toad radiation (including bisexually reproducing species of three ploidy levels) as model, we generate a range-wide multi-locus phylogeny of 15 taxa and present four new insights: (i) At least five...

Data from: A melanin-based trait is more strongly related to body size in the tropics than in temperate regions in the globally distributed barn owl family

Alexandre Roulin, Vera Uva & Andrea Romano
Life history traits differ between organisms living in the tropics, northern and southern hemispheres, and sexual selection is thought to be stronger close to the equator than in temperate regions. Although birds are often supposed to be more brightly coloured in the tropics, the current evidence of geographic variation in the intensity of sexual selection and sex-specific natural selection is equivocal. Whether sex-specific traits signal aspects of individual quality better in the tropics than in...

Data from: Selection for associative learning of color stimuli reveals correlated evolution of this learning ability across multiple stimuli and rewards.

Maartje Liefting, Katja M. Hoedjes, Cécile Le Lann, Hans M. Smid & Jacintha Ellers
We are only starting to understand how variation in cognitive ability can result from local adaptations to environmental conditions. A major question in this regard is to what extent selection on cognitive ability in a specific context affects that ability in general through correlated evolution. To address this question we performed artificial selection on visual associative learning in female Nasonia vitripennis wasps. Using appetitive conditioning in which a visual stimulus was offered in association with...

Data from: Broad-scale genetic diversity of Cannabis for forensic applications

Christophe Dufresnes, Catherine Jan, Friederike Bienert, Jérôme Goudet & Luca Fumagalli
Cannabis (hemp and marijuana) is an iconic yet controversial crop. On the one hand, it represents a growing market for pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors. On the other hand, plants synthesizing the psychoactive THC produce the most widespread illicit drug in the world. Yet, the difficulty to reliably distinguish between Cannabis varieties based on morphological or biochemical criteria impedes the development of promising industrial programs and hinders the fight against narcotrafficking. Genetics offers an appropriate alternative...

Data from: Natural selection in a post-glacial range expansion: the case of the colour cline in the European barn owl

Sylvain Antoniazza, Ricardo Kanitz, Samuel Neuenschwander, Reto Burri, Arnaud Gaigher, Alexandre Roulin & Jérôme Goudet
Gradients of variation – or clines – have always intrigued biologists. Classically, they have been interpreted as the outcomes of antagonistic interactions between selection and gene flow. Alternatively, clines may also establish neutrally with isolation-by-distance or secondary contact between previously isolated populations. The relative importance of natural selection and these two neutral processes in the establishment of clinal variation can be tested by comparing genetic differentiation at neutral genetic markers and at the studied trait....

Data from: Sex-specific estimates of dispersal show female philopatry and male dispersal in a promiscuous amphibian, the alpine salamander (Salamandra atra)

Véronique Helfer, Thomas Broquet & Luca Fumagalli
Amphibians display wide variations in life-history traits and life cycles that should prove useful to explore the evolution of sex-biased dispersal, but quantitative data on sex-specific dispersal patterns are scarce. Here we focused on Salamandra atra, an endemic alpine species showing peculiar life-history traits. Strictly terrestrial and viviparous, the species has a promiscuous mating system and females reproduce only every three to four years. In the present study, we provide quantitative estimates of asymmetries in...

Data from: Evolutionary dynamics of interlinked public goods traits: an experimental study of siderophore production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Adin Ross-Gillespie, Zoé Dumas & Rolf Kümmerli
Public goods cooperation is common in microbes, and there is much interest in understanding how such traits evolve. Research in recent years has identified several important factors that shape the evolutionary dynamics of such systems, yet few studies have investigated scenarios involving interactions between multiple public goods. Here we offer general predictions about the evolutionary trajectories of two public goods traits having positive, negative or neutral regulatory influence on one another's expression, and we report...

Data from: Comparison of self-perceived cardiovascular disease risk among smokers with Framingham and PROCAM scores: a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a randomised controlled trial

Benoit Desgraz, Tinh-Hai Collet, Nicolas Rodondi, Jacques Cornuz & Carole Clair
Objectives: Previous studies suggest that smokers have a misperception of their 10-year cardiovascular risk. We aimed to compare 10-year cardiovascular risk self-perception and calculated risk among smokers willing to quit and assess the determinants of a possible misperception. Design: Cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial of smoking cessation. Participants: 514 participants, mean age 51.1 years, 46% women, 98% Caucasian. Eligible participants were regular smokers, aged between 40 and 70 years,...

Data from: Genetic and phenotypic population divergence on a microgeographic scale in brown trout

Rike B. Stelkens, Geoffrey Jaffuel, Matthias Escher & Claus Wedekind
Salmonid populations of many rivers are rapidly declining. One possible explanation is that habitat fragmentation increases genetic drift and reduces the populations’ potential to adapt to changing environmental conditions. We measured the genetic and eco-morphological diversity of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Swiss stream system, using multivariate statistics and Bayesian clustering. We found large genetic and phenotypic variation within only 40 km of stream length. Eighty-eight percent of all pairwise FST comparisons and 50%...

Data from: The causes and ecological correlates of head scale asymmetry and fragmentation in a tropical snake

Gregory P. Brown, Thomas Madsen, Sylvain Dubey & Rick Shine
The challenge of identifying the proximate causes and ecological consequences of phenotypic variation can be facilitated by studying traits that are usually but not always bilaterally symmetrical; deviations from symmetry likely reflect disrupted embryogenesis. Based on a 19-year mark-recapture study of >1300 slatey-grey snakes (Stegonotus cucullatus) in tropical Australia, and incubation of >700 eggs, we document developmental and ecological correlates of two morphological traits: asymmetry and fragmentation of head scales. Asymmetry was directional (more scales...

Data from: Chromosomal rearrangements do not seem to affect the gene flow in hybrid zones between karyotypic races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus)

Agnès Horn
Chromosomal rearrangements are proposed to promote genetic differentiation between chromosomally differentiated taxa and therefore promote speciation. Due to their remarkable karyotypic polymorphism, the shrews of the Sorex araneus group were used to investigate the impact of chromosomal rearrangements on gene flow. Five intraspecific chromosomal hybrid zones characterized by different levels of karyotypic complexity were studied using 16 microsatellites markers. We observed low levels of genetic differentiation even in the hybrid zones with the highest karyotypic...

Data from: Bidirectional shifts in colony queen number in a socially polymorphic ant population

Jessica Purcell & Michel Chapuisat
The breeding system of social organisms affects many important aspects of social life. Some species vary greatly in the number of breeders per group, but the mechanisms and selective pressures contributing to the maintenance of this polymorphism in social structure remain poorly understood. Here, we take advantage of a genetic dataset that spans 15 years to investigate the dynamics of colony queen number within a socially polymorphic ant species. Our study population of Formica selysi...

Data from: Testing local adaptation in a natural great tit-malaria system: an experimental approach

Tania Jenkins, Jessica Delhaye & Philippe Christe
Finding out whether Plasmodium spp. are coevolving with their vertebrate hosts is of both theoretical and applied interest and can influence our understanding of the effects and dynamics of malaria infection. In this study, we tested for local adaptation as a signature of coevolution between malaria blood parasites, Plasmodium spp. and its host, the great tit, Parus major. We conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment of birds in the field, where we exposed birds from two...

Distinct genomic signals of lifespan and life history evolution in response to postponed reproduction and larval diet in Drosophila

Katja Hoedjes, Joost Van Den Heuvel, Martin Kapun, Laurent Keller, Thomas Flatt & Bas Zwaan
Reproduction and diet are two major factors controlling the physiology of aging and life history, but how they interact to affect the evolution of longevity is unknown. Moreover, while studies of large-effect mutants suggest an important role of nutrient sensing pathways in regulating aging, the genetic basis of evolutionary changes in lifespan remains poorly understood. To address these questions, we analyzed the genomes of experimentally evolved Drosophila melanogaster populations subjected to a factorial combination of...

Post-embryonic development of Fritzolenellus suggests the ancestral morphology of the early developmental stages in Trilobita

Lukáš Laibl, Jörg Maletz & Pascal Olschewski
Trilobite development has been intensively explored during past decades, but information about ancestral character combinations in the early developmental stages of trilobites remains virtually unknown. Trilobites of the superfamily Olenelloidea are one of the earliest diverging groups. Study of their development coupled with the development of other early diverging trilobite groups can provide crucial information about the ancestral morphology of trilobite early stages. Herein we describe numerous well-preserved specimens of the olenelloid trilobite Fritzolenellus lapworthi....

Testing for population differences in evolutionary responses to pesticide pollution in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

David Nusbaumer, Lucas Marques Da Cunha & Claus Wedekind
Pesticides are often toxic to non-target organisms, especially to those living in rivers that drain agricultural land. The brown trout (Salmo trutta) is a keystone species in many such rivers, and natural populations have hence been chronically exposed to pesticides over multiple generations. The introduction of pesticides decades ago could have induced evolutionary responses within these populations. Such a response would be predicted to reduce the toxicity over time but also deplete any additive genetic...

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