368 Works

UBIPose

Skanda Muralidhar, Laurent Son Nguyen, Denise Frauendorfer, Jean-Marc Odobez, Marianne Schmid Mast, Daniel Gatica-Perez, Yu Yu & Kenneth Alberto Funes Mora
The UBIPose dataset is intended for the evaluation of head pose estimation algorithms in natural and challenging cenarios. This dataset provides the annotation of the positions of 6 facial landmarks (two corners of two eyes, nasal root and nose tip) in 14.4 K frames and 3D head poses (roll, pitch, yaw) in 10.4 K frames.

Full-factorial breeding experiment with lake char (Lake Geneva, winter 2017/2018)

Laura Garaud, David Nusbaumer, Christian De Guttry, Laurie Ançay, Stéphan Jacquet, Emilien Lasne & Claus Wedekind
We sampled 16 wild lake char (Salvelinus umbla) and used their gametes to investigate the genetic consequences of different mating scenarios. A full-factorial breeding was used to separate additive genetic from maternal environmental effects, and embryos were raised singly after sublethal exposures to a pathogen, a common pollutant, or water only. In all treatment groups, embryo development was strongly reduced with increased genetic relatedness between the parents. Contrary to predictions of ‘good genes’ sexual selection,...

Distinct genomic signals of lifespan and life history evolution in response to postponed reproduction and larval diet in Drosophila

Katja Hoedjes, Joost Van Den Heuvel, Martin Kapun, Laurent Keller, Thomas Flatt & Bas Zwaan
Reproduction and diet are two major factors controlling the physiology of aging and life history, but how they interact to affect the evolution of longevity is unknown. Moreover, while studies of large-effect mutants suggest an important role of nutrient sensing pathways in regulating aging, the genetic basis of evolutionary changes in lifespan remains poorly understood. To address these questions, we analyzed the genomes of experimentally evolved Drosophila melanogaster populations subjected to a factorial combination of...

Post-embryonic development of Fritzolenellus suggests the ancestral morphology of the early developmental stages in Trilobita

Lukáš Laibl, Jörg Maletz & Pascal Olschewski
Trilobite development has been intensively explored during past decades, but information about ancestral character combinations in the early developmental stages of trilobites remains virtually unknown. Trilobites of the superfamily Olenelloidea are one of the earliest diverging groups. Study of their development coupled with the development of other early diverging trilobite groups can provide crucial information about the ancestral morphology of trilobite early stages. Herein we describe numerous well-preserved specimens of the olenelloid trilobite Fritzolenellus lapworthi....

Sexual selection reveals a cost of pathogen resistance undetected in life history assays

Tadeusz J. Kawecki
Mechanisms of resistance to pathogens and parasites are thought to be costly and thus to lead to evolutionary trade-offs between resistance and life history traits expressed in the absence of the infective agents. On the other hand, sexually selected traits are often proposed to indicate "good genes" for resistance, which implies a positive genetic correlation between resistance and success in sexual selection. Here I show that experimental evolution of improved resistance to the intestinal pathogen...

Density-dependent selection and the maintenance of colour polymorphism in barn owls

Thomas Kvalnes, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Steinar Engen & Alexandre Roulin
The capacity of natural selection to generate adaptive changes is according to the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection proportional to the additive genetic variance in fitness. In spite of its importance for development of new adaptations to a changing environment, processes affecting the magnitude of the genetic variance in fitness-related traits are poorly understood. Here we show that the red-white colour polymorphism in female barn owls is subject to density-dependent selection at the phenotypic and...

Data from: Sex-chromosome differentiation parallels post-glacial range expansion in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea).

Christophe Dufresnes, Youna Bertholet, Jérôme Wassef, Karim Ghali, Romain Savary, Baptiste Pasteur, Alan Brelsford, Beata Rozenblut-Kościsty, Maria Ogielska, Matthias Stöck & Nicolas Perrin
Occasional XY recombination is a proposed explanation for the sex-chromosome homomorphy in European tree frogs. Numerous laboratory crosses, however, failed to detect any event of male recombination, and a detailed survey of NW-European Hyla arborea populations identified male-specific alleles at sex-linked loci, pointing to the absence of XY recombination in their recent history. Here we address this paradox in a phylogeographic framework, by genotyping sex-linked microsatellite markers in populations and sibships from the entire species...

Data from: Sex-specific estimates of dispersal show female philopatry and male dispersal in a promiscuous amphibian, the alpine salamander (Salamandra atra)

Véronique Helfer, Thomas Broquet & Luca Fumagalli
Amphibians display wide variations in life-history traits and life cycles that should prove useful to explore the evolution of sex-biased dispersal, but quantitative data on sex-specific dispersal patterns are scarce. Here we focused on Salamandra atra, an endemic alpine species showing peculiar life-history traits. Strictly terrestrial and viviparous, the species has a promiscuous mating system and females reproduce only every three to four years. In the present study, we provide quantitative estimates of asymmetries in...

Data from: Natural selection in a post-glacial range expansion: the case of the colour cline in the European barn owl

Sylvain Antoniazza, Ricardo Kanitz, Samuel Neuenschwander, Reto Burri, Arnaud Gaigher, Alexandre Roulin & Jérôme Goudet
Gradients of variation – or clines – have always intrigued biologists. Classically, they have been interpreted as the outcomes of antagonistic interactions between selection and gene flow. Alternatively, clines may also establish neutrally with isolation-by-distance or secondary contact between previously isolated populations. The relative importance of natural selection and these two neutral processes in the establishment of clinal variation can be tested by comparing genetic differentiation at neutral genetic markers and at the studied trait....

Data from: Spatially varying selection shapes life history clines among populations of Drosophila melanogaster from sub-Saharan Africa

Daniel K. Fabian, Justin B. Lack, Vinayak Mathur, Christian Schlötterer, Paul S. Schmidt, John E. Pool & Thomas Flatt
Clines in life history traits, presumably driven by spatially varying selection, are widespread. Major latitudinal clines have been observed, for example, in Drosophila melanogaster, an ancestrally tropical insect from Africa that has colonized temperate habitats on multiple continents. Yet, how geographic factors other than latitude, such as altitude or longitude, affect life history in this species remains poorly understood. Moreover, most previous work has been performed on derived European, American and Australian populations, but whether...

Data from: Evolutionary melting pots: a biodiversity hotspot shaped by ring diversifications around the Black Sea in the Eastern tree frog (Hyla orientalis)

Christophe Dufresnes, Spartak N. Litvinchuk, Julien Leuenberger, Karim Ghali, Oleksandr Zinenko, Matthias Stöck & Nicolas Perrin
Hotspots of intraspecific genetic diversity, which are of primary importance for the conservation of species, have been associated with glacial refugia, that is areas where species survived the Quaternary climatic oscillations. However, the proximate mechanisms generating these hotspots remain an open issue. Hotspots may reflect the long-term persistence of large refugial populations; alternatively, they may result from allopatric differentiation between small and isolated populations, that later admixed. Here, we test these two scenarios in a...

Data from: Evolutionary dynamics of interlinked public goods traits: an experimental study of siderophore production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Adin Ross-Gillespie, Zoé Dumas & Rolf Kümmerli
Public goods cooperation is common in microbes, and there is much interest in understanding how such traits evolve. Research in recent years has identified several important factors that shape the evolutionary dynamics of such systems, yet few studies have investigated scenarios involving interactions between multiple public goods. Here we offer general predictions about the evolutionary trajectories of two public goods traits having positive, negative or neutral regulatory influence on one another's expression, and we report...

Data from: Comparison of self-perceived cardiovascular disease risk among smokers with Framingham and PROCAM scores: a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a randomised controlled trial

Benoit Desgraz, Tinh-Hai Collet, Nicolas Rodondi, Jacques Cornuz & Carole Clair
Objectives: Previous studies suggest that smokers have a misperception of their 10-year cardiovascular risk. We aimed to compare 10-year cardiovascular risk self-perception and calculated risk among smokers willing to quit and assess the determinants of a possible misperception. Design: Cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial of smoking cessation. Participants: 514 participants, mean age 51.1 years, 46% women, 98% Caucasian. Eligible participants were regular smokers, aged between 40 and 70 years,...

Data from: Bidirectional shifts in colony queen number in a socially polymorphic ant population

Jessica Purcell & Michel Chapuisat
The breeding system of social organisms affects many important aspects of social life. Some species vary greatly in the number of breeders per group, but the mechanisms and selective pressures contributing to the maintenance of this polymorphism in social structure remain poorly understood. Here, we take advantage of a genetic dataset that spans 15 years to investigate the dynamics of colony queen number within a socially polymorphic ant species. Our study population of Formica selysi...

Data from: Chromosomal rearrangements do not seem to affect the gene flow in hybrid zones between karyotypic races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus)

Agnès Horn
Chromosomal rearrangements are proposed to promote genetic differentiation between chromosomally differentiated taxa and therefore promote speciation. Due to their remarkable karyotypic polymorphism, the shrews of the Sorex araneus group were used to investigate the impact of chromosomal rearrangements on gene flow. Five intraspecific chromosomal hybrid zones characterized by different levels of karyotypic complexity were studied using 16 microsatellites markers. We observed low levels of genetic differentiation even in the hybrid zones with the highest karyotypic...

Data from: The causes and ecological correlates of head scale asymmetry and fragmentation in a tropical snake

Gregory P. Brown, Thomas Madsen, Sylvain Dubey & Rick Shine
The challenge of identifying the proximate causes and ecological consequences of phenotypic variation can be facilitated by studying traits that are usually but not always bilaterally symmetrical; deviations from symmetry likely reflect disrupted embryogenesis. Based on a 19-year mark-recapture study of >1300 slatey-grey snakes (Stegonotus cucullatus) in tropical Australia, and incubation of >700 eggs, we document developmental and ecological correlates of two morphological traits: asymmetry and fragmentation of head scales. Asymmetry was directional (more scales...

Data from: Broad-scale genetic diversity of Cannabis for forensic applications

Christophe Dufresnes, Catherine Jan, Friederike Bienert, Jérôme Goudet & Luca Fumagalli
Cannabis (hemp and marijuana) is an iconic yet controversial crop. On the one hand, it represents a growing market for pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors. On the other hand, plants synthesizing the psychoactive THC produce the most widespread illicit drug in the world. Yet, the difficulty to reliably distinguish between Cannabis varieties based on morphological or biochemical criteria impedes the development of promising industrial programs and hinders the fight against narcotrafficking. Genetics offers an appropriate alternative...

Data from: Wheat alleles introgress into selfing wild relatives: empirical estimates from Approximate Bayesian Computation in Aegilops triuncialis.

Mila Pajkovic, Sylvain Lappe, Rachel Barman, Christian Parisod, Samuel Neuenschwander, Jerome Goudet, Nadir Alvarez, Robero Guadagnuolo, Francois Felber, Nils Arrigo & Roberto Guadagnuolo
Extensive gene flow between wheat (Triticum sp.) and several wild relatives of the genus Aegilops has recently been detected despite notoriously high levels of selfing in these species. Here, we assess and model the spread of wheat alleles into natural populations of the barbed goatgrass (Aegilops triuncialis), a wild wheat relative prevailing in the Mediterranean flora. Our sampling, based on an extensive survey of 31 Ae. triuncialis populations collected along a 60 km x 20...

Data from: Morphological, ecological and genetic aspects associated with endemism in the Fly Orchid group

Yann Triponez, Nils Arrigo, Loïc Pellissier, Bertrand Schatz & Nadir Alvarez
The European genus Ophrys (Orchidaceae) is famous for its insect-like floral morphology, an adaptation for a pseudocopulatory pollination strategy involving Hymenoptera males. A large number of endemic Ophrys species have recently been described, especially within the Mediterranean Basin, which is one of the major species diversity hotspots. Subtle morphological variation and specific pollinator dependence are the two main perceptible criteria for describing numerous endemic taxa. However, the degree to which endemics differ genetically remains a...

Data from: Genetic and phenotypic population divergence on a microgeographic scale in brown trout

Rike B. Stelkens, Geoffrey Jaffuel, Matthias Escher & Claus Wedekind
Salmonid populations of many rivers are rapidly declining. One possible explanation is that habitat fragmentation increases genetic drift and reduces the populations’ potential to adapt to changing environmental conditions. We measured the genetic and eco-morphological diversity of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Swiss stream system, using multivariate statistics and Bayesian clustering. We found large genetic and phenotypic variation within only 40 km of stream length. Eighty-eight percent of all pairwise FST comparisons and 50%...

Data from: Inbreeding depression is high in a self-incompatible perennial herb population but absent in a self-compatible population showing mixed mating

Marie Voillemot & John R. Pannell
Background: High inbreeding depression is thought to be one of the major factors preventing evolutionary transitions in hermaphroditic plants from self-incompatibility (SI) and outcrossing toward self-compatibility (SC) and selfing. However, when selfing does evolve, inbreeding depression can be quickly purged, allowing the evolution of complete self-fertilization. In contrast, populations that show intermediate selfing rates (a mixed mating system) typically show levels of inbreeding depression similar to those in outcrossing species, suggesting that selection against inbreeding...

Data from: Molecular proxies for climate maladaptation in a long-lived tree (Pinus pinaster Aiton, Pinaceae)

Juan Pablo Jaramilo-Correa, Isabel Rodríguez-Quilón, Delphine Grivet, Camille Lepoittevin, Federico Sebastiani, Myriam Heuertz, Pauline H. Garnier-Géré, Ricardo Alía, Christophe Plomion, Giovanni G. Vendramin, Santiago C. González-Martínez, J.-P. Jaramillo-Correa, S. C. Gonzalez-Martinez & P. H. Garnier-Gere
Understanding adaptive genetic responses to climate change is a main challenge for preserving biological diversity. Successful predictive models for climate-driven range shifts of species depend on the integration of information on adaptation, including that derived from genomic studies. Long-lived forest trees can experience substantial environmental change across generations, which results in a much more prominent adaptation lag than in annual species. Here, we show that candidate-gene SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) can be used as predictors...

Data from: A clinal polymorphism in the insulin signaling transcription factor foxo contributes to life-history adaptation in Drosophila

Esra Durmaz, Subhash Rajpurohit, Nicolas Betancourt, Daniel K. Fabian, Martin Kapun, Paul Schmidt & Thomas Flatt
A fundamental aim of adaptation genomics is to identify polymorphisms that underpin variation in fitness traits. In D. melanogaster latitudinal life-history clines exist on multiple continents and make an excellent system for dissecting the genetics of adaptation. We have previously identified numerous clinal SNPs in insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS), a pathway known from mutant studies to affect life history. However, the effects of natural variants in this pathway remain poorly understood. Here we investigate...

Data from: Disruption of gene expression in hybrids of the fire ants Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri

Lino Ometto, Kenneth G. Ross, D. DeWayne Shoemaker & Laurent Keller
Transcriptome analysis is a powerful tool for unveiling the distribution and magnitude of genetic incompatibilities between hybridizing taxa. The nature of such incompatibilities is closely associated with the evolutionary histories of the parental species and may differ across tissues and between the sexes. In eusocial insects, the presence of castes that experience divergent selection regimes may result in additional distinct patterns of caste-specific hybrid incompatibilities. We analyzed levels of expression of >14,000 genes in two...

Data from: Disentangling the effects of key innovations on the diversification of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae)

Daniele Silvestro, Georg Zizka & Katharina Schulte
The evolution of key innovations, novel traits that promote diversification, is often seen as major driver for the unequal distribution of species richness within the tree of life. In this study, we aim to determine the factors underlying the extraordinary radiation of the subfamily Bromelioideae, one of the most diverse clades among the neotropical plant family Bromeliaceae. Based on an extended molecular phylogenetic data set, we examine the effect of two putative key innovations, that...

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