351 Works

Testing for population differences in evolutionary responses to pesticide pollution in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

David Nusbaumer, Lucas Marques Da Cunha & Claus Wedekind
Pesticides are often toxic to non-target organisms, especially to those living in rivers that drain agricultural land. The brown trout (Salmo trutta) is a keystone species in many such rivers, and natural populations have hence been chronically exposed to pesticides over multiple generations. The introduction of pesticides decades ago could have induced evolutionary responses within these populations. Such a response would be predicted to reduce the toxicity over time but also deplete any additive genetic...

Data: Generalized evidence for Bergmann’s rule body size variation in a cosmopolitan owl genus

Andrea Romano, Robin Séchaud & Alexandre Roulin
Aim: The eco-geographic Bergmann’s rule predicts that animals have smaller body size in warmer regions than in cold environments because of thermoregulatory reasons. Although this rule has been widely investigated, intraspecific analyses on cosmopolitan taxa are rare. We examined whether geographic variation in wing length, a proxy of body size, shows a Bergmannian pattern and can be explained by three mechanisms known to affect animal body size (heat conservation, resource availability and starvation resistance) in...

Data from: Pushing Raman spectroscopy over the edge: purported signatures of organic molecules in fossil animals are instrumental artefacts

Julien Alleon, Gilles Montagnac, Bruno Reynard, Thibault Brulé, Mathieu Thoury & Pierre Gueriau
Widespread preservation of fossilized biomolecules in many fossil animals has recently been reported in six studies, based on Raman microspectroscopy. Here, we show that the putative Raman signatures of organic compounds in these fossils are actually instrumental artefacts resulting from intense background luminescence. Raman spectroscopy is based on the detection of photons scattered inelastically by matter upon its interaction with a laser beam. For many natural materials, this interaction also generates a luminescence signal that...

Data from: Different distribution of malaria parasite in left and right extremities of vertebrate hosts translates into differences in parasite transmission

Romain Pigeault, Julie Isaïa, Rakiswendé S. Yerbanga, Jean-Bosco Ouédraogo, Anna Cohuet, Thierry Lefèvre & Philippe Christe
Malaria, a vector-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp., remains a major global cause of mortality. Optimization of disease control strategies requires a thorough understanding of the processes underlying parasite transmission. While the number of transmissible stages (gametocytes) of Plasmodium in blood is frequently used as an indicator of host-to-mosquito transmission potential, this relationship is not always clear. Significant effort has been made in developing molecular tools that improve gametocyte density estimation and therefore prediction of...

Sexual selection reveals a cost of pathogen resistance undetected in life history assays

Tadeusz J. Kawecki
Mechanisms of resistance to pathogens and parasites are thought to be costly and thus to lead to evolutionary trade-offs between resistance and life history traits expressed in the absence of the infective agents. On the other hand, sexually selected traits are often proposed to indicate "good genes" for resistance, which implies a positive genetic correlation between resistance and success in sexual selection. Here I show that experimental evolution of improved resistance to the intestinal pathogen...

A linear time solution to the Labeled Robinson-Foulds Distance problem

Samuel Briand, Christophe Dessimoz, Nadia El Mabrouk & Yannis Nevers
Motivation: Comparing trees is a basic task for many purposes, and especially in phylogeny where different tree reconstruction tools may lead to different trees, likely representing contradictory evolutionary information. While a large variety of pairwise measures of similarity or dissimilarity have been developed for comparing trees with no information on internal nodes, very few address the case of inner node-labeled trees. Yet such trees are common; for instance reconciled gene trees have inner nodes labeled...

Data from: Selection on a genetic polymorphism counteracts ecological speciation in a stick insect

Aaron A. Comeault, Samuel M. Flaxman, Rüdiger Riesch, Emma Curran, Víctor Soria-Carrasco, Zachariah Gompert, Timothy E. Farkas, Moritz Muschick, Thomas L. Parchman, Tanja Schwander, Jon Slate & Patrik Nosil
The interplay between selection and aspects of the genetic architecture of traits (such as linkage, dominance, and epistasis) can either drive or constrain speciation. Despite accumulating evidence that speciation can progress to “intermediate” stages—with populations evolving only partial reproductive isolation—studies describing selective mechanisms that impose constraints on speciation are more rare than those describing drivers. The stick insect Timema cristinae provides an example of a system in which partial reproductive isolation has evolved between populations...

Data from: Wheat alleles introgress into selfing wild relatives: empirical estimates from Approximate Bayesian Computation in Aegilops triuncialis.

Mila Pajkovic, Sylvain Lappe, Rachel Barman, Christian Parisod, Samuel Neuenschwander, Jerome Goudet, Nadir Alvarez, Robero Guadagnuolo, Francois Felber, Nils Arrigo & Roberto Guadagnuolo
Extensive gene flow between wheat (Triticum sp.) and several wild relatives of the genus Aegilops has recently been detected despite notoriously high levels of selfing in these species. Here, we assess and model the spread of wheat alleles into natural populations of the barbed goatgrass (Aegilops triuncialis), a wild wheat relative prevailing in the Mediterranean flora. Our sampling, based on an extensive survey of 31 Ae. triuncialis populations collected along a 60 km x 20...

Data from: Morphological, ecological and genetic aspects associated with endemism in the Fly Orchid group

Yann Triponez, Nils Arrigo, Loïc Pellissier, Bertrand Schatz & Nadir Alvarez
The European genus Ophrys (Orchidaceae) is famous for its insect-like floral morphology, an adaptation for a pseudocopulatory pollination strategy involving Hymenoptera males. A large number of endemic Ophrys species have recently been described, especially within the Mediterranean Basin, which is one of the major species diversity hotspots. Subtle morphological variation and specific pollinator dependence are the two main perceptible criteria for describing numerous endemic taxa. However, the degree to which endemics differ genetically remains a...

Data from: Evolutionary melting pots: a biodiversity hotspot shaped by ring diversifications around the Black Sea in the Eastern tree frog (Hyla orientalis)

Christophe Dufresnes, Spartak N. Litvinchuk, Julien Leuenberger, Karim Ghali, Oleksandr Zinenko, Matthias Stöck & Nicolas Perrin
Hotspots of intraspecific genetic diversity, which are of primary importance for the conservation of species, have been associated with glacial refugia, that is areas where species survived the Quaternary climatic oscillations. However, the proximate mechanisms generating these hotspots remain an open issue. Hotspots may reflect the long-term persistence of large refugial populations; alternatively, they may result from allopatric differentiation between small and isolated populations, that later admixed. Here, we test these two scenarios in a...

Data from: Sex-chromosome differentiation parallels post-glacial range expansion in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea).

Christophe Dufresnes, Youna Bertholet, Jérôme Wassef, Karim Ghali, Romain Savary, Baptiste Pasteur, Alan Brelsford, Beata Rozenblut-Kościsty, Maria Ogielska, Matthias Stöck & Nicolas Perrin
Occasional XY recombination is a proposed explanation for the sex-chromosome homomorphy in European tree frogs. Numerous laboratory crosses, however, failed to detect any event of male recombination, and a detailed survey of NW-European Hyla arborea populations identified male-specific alleles at sex-linked loci, pointing to the absence of XY recombination in their recent history. Here we address this paradox in a phylogeographic framework, by genotyping sex-linked microsatellite markers in populations and sibships from the entire species...

Data from: Disruption of gene expression in hybrids of the fire ants Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri

Lino Ometto, Kenneth G. Ross, D. DeWayne Shoemaker & Laurent Keller
Transcriptome analysis is a powerful tool for unveiling the distribution and magnitude of genetic incompatibilities between hybridizing taxa. The nature of such incompatibilities is closely associated with the evolutionary histories of the parental species and may differ across tissues and between the sexes. In eusocial insects, the presence of castes that experience divergent selection regimes may result in additional distinct patterns of caste-specific hybrid incompatibilities. We analyzed levels of expression of >14,000 genes in two...

Data from: Molecular proxies for climate maladaptation in a long-lived tree (Pinus pinaster Aiton, Pinaceae)

Juan Pablo Jaramilo-Correa, Isabel Rodríguez-Quilón, Delphine Grivet, Camille Lepoittevin, Federico Sebastiani, Myriam Heuertz, Pauline H. Garnier-Géré, Ricardo Alía, Christophe Plomion, Giovanni G. Vendramin, Santiago C. González-Martínez, J.-P. Jaramillo-Correa, S. C. Gonzalez-Martinez & P. H. Garnier-Gere
Understanding adaptive genetic responses to climate change is a main challenge for preserving biological diversity. Successful predictive models for climate-driven range shifts of species depend on the integration of information on adaptation, including that derived from genomic studies. Long-lived forest trees can experience substantial environmental change across generations, which results in a much more prominent adaptation lag than in annual species. Here, we show that candidate-gene SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) can be used as predictors...

Data from: Estimating age-dependent extinction: contrasting evidence from fossils and phylogenies

Oskar Hagen, Tobias Andermann, Tiago B. Quental, Alexandre Antonelli & Daniele Silvestro
The estimation of diversification rates is one of the most vividly debated topics in modern systematics, with considerable controversy surrounding the power of phylogenetic and fossil-based approaches in estimating extinction. Van Valen’s seminal work from 1973 proposed the “Law of constant extinction” which states that the probability of extinction of taxa is not dependent on their age. This assumption of age-independent extinction has prevailed for decades with its assessment based on survivorship curves, which, however,...

Data from: Species divergence and maintenance of species cohesion of three closely related Primula species in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

Guangpeng Ren, Rubén G. Mateo, Antoine Guisan, Elena Conti & Nicolas Salamin
Aim: Understanding the relative roles of geography and ecology in driving speciation, population divergence and maintenance of species cohesion is of great interest to molecular ecology. Closely related species that are parapatrically distributed in mountainous areas provide an ideal model to evaluate these key issues, especially when genomic data are analyzed within a spatially and ecologically explicit context. Here we used three closely related species of Primula that occur in the Himalayas, the Hengduan Mountains...

Data from: No evidence for social immunity in co-founding queen associations

Timothée Brütsch, Amaury Avril & Michel Chapuisat
Ant queens often associate to found new colonies, yet the benefits of this behaviour remain unclear. A major hypothesis is that queens founding in groups are protected by social immunity and can better resist disease than solitary queens, due to mutual grooming, sharing of antimicrobials, or higher genetic diversity among their workers. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating the number of queens in incipient colonies of Lasius niger and measuring their resistance to the fungal...

Data from: Positive selection on sociobiological traits in invasive fire ants

Eyal Privman, Pnina Cohen, Amir B. Cohanim, Oksana Riba-Grognuz, DeWayne Shoemaker & Laurent Keller
The fire ant Solenopsis invicta and its close relatives are highly invasive. Enhanced social cooperation may facilitate invasiveness in these and other invasive ant species. We investigated whether invasiveness in Solenopsis fire ants was accompanied by positive selection on sociobiological traits by applying a phylogenomics approach to infer ancient selection, and a population genomics approach to infer recent and ongoing selection in both native and introduced S. invicta populations. A combination of whole-genome sequencing of...

Data from: An inversion supergene in Drosophila underpins latitudinal clines in survival traits

Esra Durmaz, Clare Benson, Martin Kapun, Paul Schmidt & Thomas Flatt
Chromosomal inversions often contribute to local adaptation across latitudinal clines, but the underlying selective mechanisms remain poorly understood. We and others have previously shown that a clinal inversion polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster, In(3R)Payne, underpins body size clines along the North American and Australian east coasts. Here we ask whether this polymorphism also contributes to clinal variation in other fitness-related traits, namely survival traits (lifespan, survival upon starvation, and survival upon cold shock). We generated homokaryon...

Data from: A dedicated target capture approach reveals variable genetic markers across micro- and macro-evolutionary time scales in palms

Marylaure De La Harpe, Jaqueline Hess, Oriane Loiseau, Nicolas Salamin, Christian Lexer & Margot Paris
Understanding the genetics of biological diversification across micro- and macro-evolutionary time scales is a vibrant field of research for molecular ecologists as rapid advances in sequencing technologies promise to overcome former limitations. In palms, an emblematic, economically and ecologically important plant family with high diversity in the tropics, studies of diversification at the population and species levels are still hampered by a lack of genomic markers suitable for the genotyping of large numbers of recently...

Data from: Inter- and intra-specific genomic divergence in Drosophila montana shows evidence for cold adaptation

Darren J. Parker, R. Axel W. Wiberg, Urmi Trivedi, Venera I. Tyukmaeva, Karim Gharbi, Roger K. Butlin, Anneli Hoikkala, Maaria Kankare & Michael G. Ritchie
D. montana gff fileGenome annotation file for D. montana genome (Accession number: LUVX00000000)D.mont_freeze_v1.4.gff.txt

Data from: Trans-species variation in Dmrt1 is associated with sex determination in four European tree-frog species

Alan Brelsford, Christophe Dufresnes & Nicolas Perrin
Empirical studies on the relative roles of occasional XY recombination versus sex-chromosome turnover in preventing sex-chromosome differentiation may shed light on the evolutionary forces acting on sex-determination systems. Signatures of XY recombination are difficult to distinguish from those of homologous transitions (i.e., transitions in sex-determination systems that keep sex-chromosome identity): both models predict X and Y alleles at sex-linked genes to cluster by species. However, the XY-recombination model specifically predicts the reverse pattern (clustering by...

Data from: Bacterial communities within Phengaris (Maculinea) alcon caterpillars are shifted following transition from solitary living to social parasitism of Myrmica ant colonies

Mark A. Szenteczki, Camille Pitteloud, Luca Pietro Casacci, Lucie Kešnerová, Melissa R. L. Whitaker, Philipp Engel, Roger Vila & Nadir Alvarez
Bacterial symbionts are known to facilitate a wide range of physiological processes and ecological interactions for their hosts. In spite of this, caterpillars with highly diverse life histories appear to lack resident microbiota. Gut physiology, endogenous digestive enzymes, and limited social interactions may contribute to this pattern, but the consequences of shifts in social activity and diet on caterpillar microbiota are largely unknown. Phengaris alcon caterpillars undergo particularly dramatic social and dietary shifts when they...

Data from: Disentangling the effects of key innovations on the diversification of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae)

Daniele Silvestro, Georg Zizka & Katharina Schulte
The evolution of key innovations, novel traits that promote diversification, is often seen as major driver for the unequal distribution of species richness within the tree of life. In this study, we aim to determine the factors underlying the extraordinary radiation of the subfamily Bromelioideae, one of the most diverse clades among the neotropical plant family Bromeliaceae. Based on an extended molecular phylogenetic data set, we examine the effect of two putative key innovations, that...

Data from: Stocking activities for the Arctic charr in Lake Geneva: genetic effects in space and time

Romain Savary, Christophe Dufresnes, Alexis Champigneulle, Arnaud Caudron, Sylvain Dubey, Nicolas Perrin & Luca Fumagalli
Artificial stocking practices are widely used by resource managers worldwide, in order to sustain fish populations exploited by both recreational and commercial activities, but their benefits are controversial. Former practices involved exotic strains, although current programs rather consider artificial breeding of local fishes (supportive breeding). Understanding the complex genetic effects of these management strategies is an important challenge with economic and conservation implications, especially in the context of population declines. In the present study, we...

Data from: A clinal polymorphism in the insulin signaling transcription factor foxo contributes to life-history adaptation in Drosophila

Esra Durmaz, Subhash Rajpurohit, Nicolas Betancourt, Daniel K. Fabian, Martin Kapun, Paul Schmidt & Thomas Flatt
A fundamental aim of adaptation genomics is to identify polymorphisms that underpin variation in fitness traits. In D. melanogaster latitudinal life-history clines exist on multiple continents and make an excellent system for dissecting the genetics of adaptation. We have previously identified numerous clinal SNPs in insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS), a pathway known from mutant studies to affect life history. However, the effects of natural variants in this pathway remain poorly understood. Here we investigate...

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