40 Works

Data from: The causes and ecological correlates of head scale asymmetry and fragmentation in a tropical snake

Gregory P. Brown, Thomas Madsen, Sylvain Dubey & Rick Shine
The challenge of identifying the proximate causes and ecological consequences of phenotypic variation can be facilitated by studying traits that are usually but not always bilaterally symmetrical; deviations from symmetry likely reflect disrupted embryogenesis. Based on a 19-year mark-recapture study of >1300 slatey-grey snakes (Stegonotus cucullatus) in tropical Australia, and incubation of >700 eggs, we document developmental and ecological correlates of two morphological traits: asymmetry and fragmentation of head scales. Asymmetry was directional (more scales...

Data from: No evidence for social immunity in co-founding queen associations

Timothée Brütsch, Amaury Avril & Michel Chapuisat
Ant queens often associate to found new colonies, yet the benefits of this behaviour remain unclear. A major hypothesis is that queens founding in groups are protected by social immunity and can better resist disease than solitary queens, due to mutual grooming, sharing of antimicrobials, or higher genetic diversity among their workers. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating the number of queens in incipient colonies of Lasius niger and measuring their resistance to the fungal...

Data from: Estimating age-dependent extinction: contrasting evidence from fossils and phylogenies

Oskar Hagen, Tobias Andermann, Tiago B. Quental, Alexandre Antonelli & Daniele Silvestro
The estimation of diversification rates is one of the most vividly debated topics in modern systematics, with considerable controversy surrounding the power of phylogenetic and fossil-based approaches in estimating extinction. Van Valen’s seminal work from 1973 proposed the “Law of constant extinction” which states that the probability of extinction of taxa is not dependent on their age. This assumption of age-independent extinction has prevailed for decades with its assessment based on survivorship curves, which, however,...

Data from: Stocking activities for the Arctic charr in Lake Geneva: genetic effects in space and time

Romain Savary, Christophe Dufresnes, Alexis Champigneulle, Arnaud Caudron, Sylvain Dubey, Nicolas Perrin & Luca Fumagalli
Artificial stocking practices are widely used by resource managers worldwide, in order to sustain fish populations exploited by both recreational and commercial activities, but their benefits are controversial. Former practices involved exotic strains, although current programs rather consider artificial breeding of local fishes (supportive breeding). Understanding the complex genetic effects of these management strategies is an important challenge with economic and conservation implications, especially in the context of population declines. In the present study, we...

Data from: Inbreeding depression is high in a self-incompatible perennial herb population but absent in a self-compatible population showing mixed mating

Marie Voillemot & John R. Pannell
Background: High inbreeding depression is thought to be one of the major factors preventing evolutionary transitions in hermaphroditic plants from self-incompatibility (SI) and outcrossing toward self-compatibility (SC) and selfing. However, when selfing does evolve, inbreeding depression can be quickly purged, allowing the evolution of complete self-fertilization. In contrast, populations that show intermediate selfing rates (a mixed mating system) typically show levels of inbreeding depression similar to those in outcrossing species, suggesting that selection against inbreeding...

Data from: Predation drives local adaptation of phenotypic plasticity

Julia Reger, Martin I. Lind, Matthew R. Robinson & Andrew P. Beckerman
Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of an individual genotype to alter aspects of its phenotype depending on the current environment. It is central to the persistence, resistance and resilience of populations facing variation in physical or biological factors. Genetic variation in plasticity is pervasive, which suggests its local adaptation is plausible. Existing studies on the adaptation of plasticity typically focus on single traits and a few populations, while theory about interactions among genes (for example,...

Data from: Broad-scale genetic diversity of Cannabis for forensic applications

Christophe Dufresnes, Catherine Jan, Friederike Bienert, Jérôme Goudet & Luca Fumagalli
Cannabis (hemp and marijuana) is an iconic yet controversial crop. On the one hand, it represents a growing market for pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors. On the other hand, plants synthesizing the psychoactive THC produce the most widespread illicit drug in the world. Yet, the difficulty to reliably distinguish between Cannabis varieties based on morphological or biochemical criteria impedes the development of promising industrial programs and hinders the fight against narcotrafficking. Genetics offers an appropriate alternative...

Data from: Patterns of earthworm, enchytraeid and nematode diversity and community structure in urban soils of different ages

Joël Amossé, Klára Dózsa-Farkas, Gergely Boros, Guy Rochat, Gauthier Sandoz, Bertrand Fournier, Edward A.D. Mitchell & Renée-Claire Le Bayon
Annelids (Lumbricidae and Enchytraeidae) and nematodes are common soil organisms and play important roles in organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling and creation of soil structure and porosity. However, these three groups have rarely been studied together and only few studies exist for urban soils. We studied the diversity and community composition of annelids and nematodes in soils spanning more than two centuries of urban soil development in Neuchâtel (Switzerland) and assessed the relationships 1) among...

Data from: Major histocompatibility complex-linked social signalling affects female fertility

Dominik Burger, Selina Thomas, Helen Aepli, Margaux Dreyer, Guillaume Fabre, Eliane Marti, Harald Sieme, M. R. Robinson & Claus Wedekind
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been shown to influence social signalling and mate preferences in many species, including humans. First observations suggest that MHC signalling may also affect female fertility. To test this hypothesis, we exposed 191 female horses (Equus caballus) to either a MHC-similar or a MHC-dissimilar stimulus male around the time of ovulation and conception. A within-subject experimental design controlled for non-MHC linked male characteristics, and instrumental insemination with semen...

Data from: Beyond mean allelic effects: a locus at the major color gene MC1R associates also with differing levels of phenotypic and genetic (co)variance for coloration in barn owls

Luis Martin San-Jose, Valérie Ducret, Anne-Lyse Ducrest, Céline Simon & Alexandre Roulin
The mean phenotypic effects of a discovered variant help to predict major aspects of the evolution and inheritance of a phenotype. However, differences in the phenotypic variance associated to distinct genotypes are often overlooked despite being suggestive of processes that largely influence phenotypic evolution, such as interactions between the genotypes with the environment or the genetic background. We present empirical evidence for a mutation at the melanocortin-1-receptor gene, a major vertebrate coloration gene, affecting phenotypic...

Data from: Disentangling biotic interactions, environmental filters, and dispersal limitation as drivers of species co-occurrence

Manuela D'Amen, Heidi K. Mod, Nicholas J. Gotelli & Antoine Guisan
A key focus in ecology is to search for community assembly rules. Here we compare two community modelling frameworks that integrate a combination of environmental and spatial data to identify positive and negative species associations from presence-absence matrices, and incorporate an additional comparison using joint species distribution models (JSDM). The frameworks use a dichotomous logic tree that distinguishes dispersal limitation, environmental requirements, and interspecific interactions as causes of segregated or aggregated species pairs. The first...

Data from: Adaptation to chronic nutritional stress leads to reduced dependence on microbiota in Drosophila melanogaster

Berra Erkosar, Sylvain Kolly, Jan R. Van Der Meer & Tadeusz J. Kawecki
Numerous studies have shown that animal nutrition is tightly linked to gut microbiota, especially under nutritional stress. In Drosophila melanogaster, microbiota are known to promote juvenile growth, development, and survival on poor diets, mainly through enhanced digestion leading to changes in hormonal signaling. Here, we show that this reliance on microbiota is greatly reduced in replicated Drosophila populations that became genetically adapted to a poor larval diet in the course of over 170 generations of...

Data from: Patterns and mechanisms in instances of endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis

Wen-Juan Ma, Tanja Schwander & W.-J. Ma
Female-producing parthenogenesis can be induced by endosymbionts that increase their transmission by manipulating host reproduction. Our literature survey indicates that such endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis is known or suspected in 124 host species from seven different arthropod taxa, with Wolbachia as the most frequent endosymbiont (in 56-75% of host species). Most host species (81%, 100 out of 124) are characterized by haplo-diploid sex determination, but a strong ascertainment bias likely underestimates the frequency of endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis in...

Data from: Dmrt1 polymorphism and sex-chromosome differentiation in Rana temporaria

Nicolas Rodrigues, Tania Studer, Christophe Dufresnes, Wen-Juan Ma, Paris Veltsos & Nicolas Perrin
Sex-determination mechanisms vary both within and among populations of common frogs, opening opportunities to investigate the molecular pathways and ultimate causes shaping their evolution. We investigated the association between sex-chromosome differentiation (as assayed from microsatellites) and polymorphism at the candidate sex-determining gene Dmrt1 in two Alpine populations. Both populations harboured a diversity of X-linked and Y-linked Dmrt1 haplotypes. Some males had fixed male-specific alleles at all markers (“differentiated” Y chromosomes), others only at Dmrt1 (“proto-”...

Data from: Evolution and comparative ecology of parthenogenesis in haplodiploid arthropods

Casper J. Van Der Kooi, Cyril Matthey-Doret & Tanja Schwander
Changes from sexual reproduction to female-producing parthenogenesis (thelytoky) have great evolutionary and ecological consequences, but how many times parthenogenesis evolved in different animal taxa is unknown. We present the first exhaustive database covering 765 cases of parthenogenesis in haplodiploid arthropods, and estimate frequencies of parthenogenesis in different taxonomic groups. We show that the frequency of parthenogenetic lineages extensively varies among groups (0-38% among genera), that many species have both sexual and parthenogenetic lineages and that...

Data from: Adaptation to fluctuating environments in a selection experiment with Drosophila melanogaster

Olga Kubrak, Sören Nylin, Thomas Flatt, Dick Nässel & Olof Leimar
A fundamental question in life-history evolution is how organisms cope with fluctuating environments, including variation between stressful and benign conditions. For short-lived organisms, environments commonly vary between generations. Using a novel experimental design, we exposed wild-derived Drosophila melanogaster to three different selection regimes: one where generations alternated between starvation and benign conditions, and starvation was always preceded by early exposure to cold; another where starvation and benign conditions alternated in the same way, but cold...

Data from: Stallion semen quality depends on MHC matching to teaser mare

Elise Jeannerat, Eliane Marti, Catherine Berney, Fredi Janett, Heinrich Bollwein, Harald Sieme, Dominik Burger & Claus Wedekind
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has repeatedly been found to influence mate choice of vertebrates, with MHC-dissimilar mates typically being preferred over MHC-similar mates. We used horses (Equus caballus) to test whether MHC matching also affects male investment into ejaculates after short exposure to a female. Semen characteristics varied much among stallions. Controlling for this variance with a full-factorial within-subject experimental design, we found that a short exposure to an MHC-dissimilar mare enhanced male plasma...

Data from: Sex differentiation in grayling (Salmonidae) goes through an all-male stage and is delayed in genetic males who instead grow faster

Diane Maitre, Oliver M. Selmoni, Anshu Uppal, Lucas Marques Da Cunha, Laetitia G. E. Wilkins, Julien Roux, Kenyon B. Mobley, Isabelle Castro, Susanne Knörr, Marc Robinson-Rechavi & Claus Wedekind
Fish populations can be threatened by distorted sex ratios that arise during sex differentiation. Here we describe sex differentiation in a wild grayling (Thymallus thymallus) population that suffers from distorted sex ratios. We verified that sex determination is linked to the sex determining locus (sdY) of salmonids. This allowed us to study sex-specific gene expression and gonadal development. Sex-specific gene expression could be observed during embryogenesis and was strong around hatching. About half of the...

Data from: Maternal allocation of carotenoids increases tolerance to bacterial infection in brown trout

Laetitia G. E. Wilkins, Lucas Marques Da Cunha, Laure Menin, Daniel Ortiz, Véronique Vocat-Mottier, Matay Hobil, David Nusbaumer & Claus Wedekind
Life-history theory predicts that iteroparous females allocate their resources differently among different breeding seasons depending on their residual reproductive value. In iteroparous salmonids there is typically much variation in egg size, egg number, and in the compounds that females allocate to their clutch. These compounds include various carotenoids whose functions are not sufficiently understood yet. We sampled 37 female and 35 male brown trout from natural streams, collected their gametes for in vitro fertilizations, experimentally...

Data from: Fossils matter: improved estimates of divergence times in Pinus reveal older diversification

Bianca Saladin, Andrew B. Leslie, Rafael O. Wueest, Glenn Litsios, Elena Conti, Nicolas Salamin & Niklaus E. Zimmermann
Background: The taxonomy of pines (genus Pinus) is widely accepted and a robust gene tree based on entire plastome sequences exists. However, there is a large discrepancy in estimated divergence times of major pine clades among existing studies, mainly due to differences in fossil placement and dating methods used. We currently lack a dated molecular phylogeny that makes use of the rich pine fossil record, and this study is the first to estimate the divergence...

Data from: Long-term in situ persistence of biodiversity in tropical sky-islands revealed by landscape genomics

Alicia Mastretta-Yanes, Alexander T. Xue, Alejandra Moreno-Letelier, Tove H. Jørgensen, Nadir Alvarez, Daniel Piñero, Brent C. Emerson & Tove H. Jorgensen
Tropical mountains are areas of high species richness and endemism. Two historical phenomena may have contributed to this: (1) fragmentation and isolation of habitats may have promoted the genetic differentiation of populations and increased the possibility of allopatric divergence and speciation, and; (2) the mountain areas may have allowed long-term population persistence during global climate fluctuations. These two phenomena have been studied using either species occurrence data or estimating species divergence times. However, only few...

Data from: Less favorable climates constrain demographic strategies in plants

Anna M. Csergo, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Olivier Broennimann, Shaun R. Coutts, Antoine Guisan, Amy L. Angert, Erik Welk, Iain Stott, Brian J. Enquist, Brian McGill, Jens-Christian Svenning, Cyrille Violle & Yvonne M. Buckley
Correlative species distribution models are based on the observed relationship between species’ occurrence and macroclimate or other environmental variables. In climates predicted less favourable populations are expected to decline, and in favourable climates they are expected to persist. However, little comparative empirical support exists for a relationship between predicted climate suitability and population performance. We found that the performance of 93 populations of 34 plant species worldwide – as measured by in situ population growth...

Data from: Environmental stress linked to consumption of maternally derived carotenoids in brown trout embryos (Salmo trutta)

Laetitia G. E. Wilkins, Lucas Marques Da Cunha, Gaëtan Glauser, Armelle Vallat & Claus Wedekind
The yellow, orange, or red colors of salmonid eggs are due to maternally derived carotenoids whose functions are not sufficiently understood yet. Here, we studied the significance of naturally acquired carotenoids as maternal environmental effects during embryo development in brown trout (Salmo trutta). We collected eggs from wild females, quantified their egg carotenoid content, fertilized them in vitro in full-factorial breeding blocks to separate maternal from paternal effects, and raised 3,278 embryos singly at various...

Data from: Range expansion compromises adaptive evolution in an outcrossing plant

Santiago C. Gonzalez-Martinez, Kate Ridout & John R. Pannell
Neutral genetic diversity gradients have long been used to infer the colonization history of species, but range expansion may also influence the efficacy of natural selection and patterns of non-synonymous polymorphism in different parts of a species’ range. Recent theory predicts both an accumulation of deleterious mutations and a reduction in the efficacy of positive selection as a result of range expansion. These signatures have been sought in a number of studies of the human...

Data from: HyRAD-X, a versatile method combining exome capture and RAD sequencing to extract genomic information from ancient DNA

Sarah Schmid, Rémi Genevest, Erika Gobet, Tomasz Suchan, Christoph Sperisen, Willy Tinner & Nadir Alvarez
Over the last decade, protocols aimed at reproducibly sequencing reduced-genome subsets in non-model organisms have been widely developed. Their use is however limited to DNA of relatively high molecular weight. During the last year, several methods exploiting hybridization capture using probes based on RAD-sequencing loci have circumvented this limitation and opened avenues to the study of samples characterized by degraded DNA, such as historical specimens. Here, we present a major update to those methods, namely...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    40

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    40

Affiliations

  • University of Lausanne
    40
  • University of Neuchâtel
    4
  • University of Bern
    4
  • University of East Anglia
    3
  • University of Zurich
    3
  • Uppsala University
    3
  • University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover
    2
  • Aarhus University
    2
  • University of Geneva
    2
  • French National Institute for Agricultural Research
    2