460 Works

Data from: Computational performance and statistical accuracy of *BEAST and comparisons with other methods

Huw A. Ogilvie, Joseph Heled, Dong Xie & Alexei J. Drummond
Under the multispecies coalescent model of molecular evolution, gene trees have independent evolutionary histories within a shared species tree. In comparison, supermatrix concatenation methods assume that gene trees share a single common genealogical history, thereby equating gene coalescence with species divergence. The multispecies coalescent is supported by previous studies which found that its predicted distributions fit empirical data, and that concatenation is not a consistent estimator of the species tree. *BEAST, a fully Bayesian implementation...

Data from: Cryptic lineage diversity, body size divergence and sympatry in a species complex of Australian lizards (Gehyra)

Craig C. Moritz, Renae C. Pratt, Sarah Bank, Gayleen Bourke, Jason G. Bragg, Paul Doughty, J. Scott Keogh, Rebecca J. Laver, Sally Potter, Luisa C. Teasdale, Leonardo G. Tedeschi & Paul M. Oliver
Understanding the joint evolutionary and ecological underpinnings of sympatry among close relatives remains a key challenge in biology. This problem can be addressed through joint phylogenomic and phenotypic analysis of complexes of closely related lineages within, and across, species and hence representing the speciation continuum. For a complex of tropical geckos from northern Australia – Gehyra nana and close relatives – we combine mtDNA phylogeography, exon-capture sequencing and morphological data to resolve independently evolving lineages...

Data from: New findings in a 400 million-year-old Devonian placoderm shed light on jaw structure and function in basal gnathostomes

Yuzhi Hu, Jing Lu & Gavin C. Young
Arthodire placoderms have been proposed as the sister group of Chinese ‘maxillate’ placoderms plus all the more crownward gnathostomes. These basal groups provide key information for understanding the early evolution of jaws. Here, we test previous assumptions about placoderm jaw structure and function by using high-resolution computed tomography, digital dissection, and enlarged 3D printouts on a unique articulated 400 million-year-old buchanosteid arthrodire. The upper jaw has a double ethmoid and a palatobasal connection, but no...

Data from: Why pair? Evidence of aggregative mating in a socially monogamous marine fish (Siganus doliatus, Siganidae)

Rebecca J. Fox, David R. Bellwood & Michael D. Jennions
Many species live in stable pairs, usually to breed and raise offspring together, but this cannot be assumed. Establishing whether pairing is based on mating, or an alternative cooperative advantage, can be difficult, especially where species show no obvious sexual dimorphism and where the act of reproduction itself is difficult to observe. In the tropical marine fishes known as rabbitfish (Siganidae), half of extant species live in socially monogamous, territorial pairs. It has been assumed...

Data from: Where do animals come from during post-fire population recovery? Implications for ecological and genetic patterns in post-fire landscapes

Sam C. Banks, Lachlan McBurney, David Blair, Ian D. Davies & David B. Lindenmayer
Identifying where animals come from during population recovery can help to understand the impacts of disturbance events and regimes on species distributions and genetic diversity. Alternative recovery processes for animal populations affected by fire include external recolonization, nucleated recovery from refuges, or in situ survival and population growth. We used simulations to develop hypotheses about ecological and genetic patterns corresponding to these alternative models. We tested these hypotheses in a study of the recovery of...

Data from: Demography and growth of subadult savanna trees: interactions of life history, size, fire season, and grassy understory

Patricia A. Werner & Lynda D. Prior
Tree populations in mesic (>650 mm precipitation/yr) savannas of the world have strong demographic bottlenecks to the transition of subadult trees to the canopy layer. Although such bottlenecks are a major determinant of savanna physiognomy, the factors that allow subadults to traverse the bottleneck are little studied. In a landscape-scale field experiment in a northern Australia savanna, we determined the survival and growth of 1506 permanently marked juveniles (<150 cm tall) and saplings (150–599 cm...

Data from: Relative costs of offspring sex and offspring survival in a polygynous mammal

Hannah Froy, Craig A. Walling, Josephine M. Pemberton, Tim H. Clutton-Brock, Loeske E.B. Kruuk & Loeske E. B. Kruuk
Costs of reproduction are expected to be ubiquitous in wild animal populations and understanding the drivers of variation in these costs is an important aspect of life-history evolution theory. We use a 43 year dataset from a wild population of red deer to examine the relative importance of two factors that influence the costs of reproduction to mothers, and to test whether these costs vary with changing ecological conditions. Like previous studies, our analyses indicate...

Data from: Why does inbreeding reduce male paternity? Effects on sexually selected traits

Jason N. Marsh, Regina Vega-Trejo, Michael Dawson Jennions & Megan L. Head
Why does inbreeding reduce paternity? Effects on sexually selected traitsThis is the data associated with the manuscript "Why does inbreeding reduce paternity? Effects on sexually selected traits". The data file contains 5 worksheets. The first "association data" contains data from experiment 1 of the associated paper looking at female association time with inbred and outbred males. The second third and fourth contain data associated with the second experiment of the associated paper looking at the...


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This array is part of the WOMBAT rolling array. It consist of ~60 short-period (Lennartz 3D-Lite MkII) recording at 25hz. Station spacing is approximately 50 km

Data from: Polyandrous females found fitter populations

Daniel J. Power & Luke Holman
Multiple mating by females (polyandry) requires an evolutionary explanation, because it carries fitness costs in many species. When mated females disperse alone to a new habitat, their offspring may have no option but to mate with their siblings and incur inbreeding depression. However, some of the offspring of polyandrous females may only be half siblings, reducing inbreeding depression when isolated groups of siblings only have each other as mates. We investigated this putative benefit of...

Data from: Characterization of the placoderm (Gnathostomata) assemblage from the tetrapod-bearing locality of Strud (Belgium, Upper Famennian)

Sébastien Olive, Gaël Clément, Edward B. Daeschler & Vincent Dupret
The placoderm fauna of the late Famennian tetrapod-bearing locality of Strud, Belgium, is studied on the basis of historical and newly collected material. It includes the previously described antiarch Grossilepis rikiki, the groenlandaspidid Turrisaspis strudensis sp. nov. and the actinolepidoideid Phyllolepis undulata. P. undulata is thoroughly described and joins the list of the valid Phyllolepis species confidently diagnosed. A morphometrical analysis performed on the centronuchal and anterior ventrolateral plates of the Phyllolepis material demonstrates that...

Data from: Modern pollen from small hollows reflects Athrotaxis cupressoides density across a wildfire gradient in subalpine forests of the Central Plateau, Tasmania, Australia

Philip E. Higuera, Jesse L. Morris, Simon Haberle & Cathy Whitlock
Pollen assemblages from 50 small hollows were used to resolve fire-caused vegetation patterns in a ~2-km2 subalpine landscape on the Central Plateau of Tasmania, Australia. Sites were characterized by varying abundance of the dominant tree species, Athrotaxis cupressoides, reflecting mortality from a wildfire that occurred 53 years prior to sampling. Sites were classified a priori based on fire-related Athrotaxis mortality as burned (100% standing dead), unburned (<5% standing dead), and mixed (intermediate proportions). Non-parametric analysis...

Data from: Generalist predator's niche shifts reveal ecosystem changes in an experimentally fragmented landscape

Julian Resasco, Kika T. Tuff, Saul A. Cunningham, Brett A. Melbourne, Andrew L. Hicks, Seth D. Newsome & Kendi F. Davies
Habitat fragmentation can alter the trophic structure of communities and environmental conditions, thus driving changes in biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Quantifying niches of generalist predators can reveal how fragmentation alters ecosystems. In a habitat fragmentation experiment, we used stable isotopes of a generalist predator skink to test predictions from spatial theory on trophic structure and to quantify abiotic changes associated with fragmentation among continuous forest, fragments, and matrix habitats. We predicted that in fragments and...

Data from: Predation can select for later and more synchronous arrival times in migrating species

Anna M. F. Harts, Nadiah P. Kristensen & Hanna Kokko
For migratory species, the timing of arrival at breeding grounds is an important determinant of fitness. Too early arrival at the breeding ground is associated with various costs, and we focus on one understudied cost: that migrants can experience a higher risk of predation if arriving earlier than the bulk of the breeding population. We show, using both a semi-analytic and simulation model, that predation can select for later arrival. This is because of safety...

Data from: The evolution of queen pheromones in the ant genus Lasius

Luke Holman, Robert Lanfear & Patrizia D'Ettorre
Queen pheromones are among the most important chemical messages regulating insect societies yet they remain largely undiscovered, hindering research into interesting proximate and ultimate questions. Identifying queen pheromones in multiple species would give new insight into the selective pressures and evolutionary constraints acting on these ubiquitous signals. Here, we present experimental and phylogenetic evidence that 3-methylalkanes, hydrocarbons present on the queen’s cuticle, are a queen pheromone throughout the ant genus Lasius. Phylogenetic analyses of the...

Data from: “Direct PCR” optimization yields a rapid, cost-effective, non-destructive, and efficient method for obtaining DNA barcodes without DNA extraction

Wing Hing Wong, Ywee Chieh Tay, Jayanthi Puniamoorthy, Michael Balke, Peter S. Cranston & Rudolf Meier
Macroinvertebrates that are collected in large numbers pose major problems in basic and applied biodiversity research: identification to species via morphology is often difficult, slow, and/or expensive. DNA barcodes are an attractive alternative or complementary source of information. Unfortunately obtaining DNA barcodes from specimens requires many steps and thus time and money. Here, we promote a short-cut to DNA barcoding; i.e., a non-destructive PCR method that skips DNA extraction (“direct PCR”) and that can be...

Data from: Transgenerational effects of maternal sexual interactions in seed beetles

Susanne R.K. Zajitschek, Damian K. Dowling, Megan L. Head, Eduardo Rodriguez-Exposito & Francisco Garcia-Gonzalez
Mating bears large costs to females, especially in species with high levels of sexual conflict over mating rates. Given the direct costs to females associated with multiple mating, which include reductions in lifespan and lifetime reproductive success, past research focused on identifying potential indirect benefits (through increases in offspring fitness) that females may accrue. Far less attention has been given to understanding how costs of sexual interactions to females may span across generations. Hence, little...

Data from: Mate choice and the operational sex ratio: an experimental test with robotic crabs

Catherine L. Hayes, Sophie Callander, Isobel Booksmythe, Michael D. Jennions & Patricia R. Y. Backwell
The operational sex ratio (OSR) (sexually active males: receptive females) predicts the intensity of competition for mates. It is less clear, however, under what circumstances the OSR predicts the strength of sexual selection – that is, the extent to which variation in mating success is attributable to traits that increase the bearer's attractiveness and/or fighting ability. To establish causality experiments are required that manipulate OSR. Furthermore, if it is possible to control for any OSR-dependent...

Data from: Lifespan and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction

Emeline Mourocq, Pierre Bize, Sandra Bouwhuis, Russell Bradley, Anne Charmantier, Carlos De La Cruz, Szymon Marian Obniak, Richard H. M. Espie, Márton Herenyi, Hermann Hötker, Oliver Kruger, John Marzluff, Anders P. Møller, Shinichi Nakagawa, Richard A. Phillips, Andrew N. Radford, Alexandre Roulin, János Török, Juliana Valencia, Martijn Van De Pol, Ian G. Warkentin, Isabel S. Winney, Andrew G. Wood, Michael Griesser & Szymon M. Drobniak
Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life-history as well as social and...

Data from: Blood transcriptomes and de novo identification of candidate loci for mating success in lekking great snipe (Gallinago media)

Jacob Höglund, Biao Wang, Stein Are Saether, Mozes Pil Kyu Blom, Peder Fiske, Peter Halvarsson, Gavin J. Horsburgh, Terry Burke, John Atle Kålås & Robert Ekblom
We assembled the great snipe blood transcriptome using data from fourteen lekking males, in order to de novo identify candidate genes related to sexual selection, and determined the expression profiles in relation to mating success. The three most highly transcribed genes were encoding different haemoglobin subunits. All tended to be overexpressed in males with high mating success. We also called Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) from the transcriptome data and found considerable genetic variation for many...

Data from: Parental effects alter the adaptive value of an adult behavioural trait

Rebecca M. Kilner, Giuseppe Boncoraglio, Jono M. Henshaw, Benjamin J. M. Jarrett, Ornela De Gasperin, Hanna Kokko, Benjamin JM Jarrett, Alfredo Attisano & Jonathan M Henshaw
The parents' phenotype, or the environment they create for their young, can have long-lasting effects on their offspring, with profound evolutionary consequences. Yet virtually no work has considered how such parental effects might change the adaptive value of behavioural traits expressed by offspring upon reaching adulthood. To address this problem, we combined experiments on burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides) with theoretical modelling, and focussed on one adult behavioural trait in particular: the supply of parental care....

Data from: Fine-scale refuges can buffer demographic and genetic processes against short-term climatic variation and disturbance: a 22 year case study of an arboreal marsupial

Sam C. Banks, Thibault Lorin, Robyn E. Shaw, Lachlan McBurney, David Blair, Michaela D. J. Blyton, Annabel L. Smith, Jennifer C. Pierson, David B. Lindenmayer & Michaela D.J. Blyton
Ecological disturbance and climate are key drivers of temporal dynamics in the demography and genetic diversity of natural populations. Microscale refuges are known to buffer species’ persistence against environmental change, but the effects of such refuges on demographic and genetic patterns in response to short-term environmental variation are poorly understood. We quantified demographic and genetic responses of mountain brushtail possums (Trichosurus cunninghami) to rainfall variability (1992–2013) and to a major wildfire. We hypothesized that there...

Data from: The effect of sex-biased dispersal on opposite-sexed spatial genetic structure and inbreeding risk

Michaela D. J. Blyton, Sam C. Banks & Rod Peakall
Natal sex-biased dispersal has long been thought to reduce the risk of inbreeding by spatially separating opposite-sexed kin. Yet, comprehensive and quantitative evaluations of this hypothesis are lacking. In this study, we quantified the effectiveness of sex-biased dispersal as an inbreeding avoidance strategy by combining spatially explicit simulations and empirical data. We quantified the extent of kin clustering by measuring the degree of spatial autocorrelation among opposite-sexed individuals (FM structure). This allowed us to systematically...

Data from: Measuring CO2 and HCO3- permeabilities of isolated chloroplasts using a MIMS-18O approach

Dimitri Tolleter, Vincent Chochois, Richard Poiré, G. Dean Price & Murray R. Badger
To support photosynthetic CO2 fixation by Rubisco, the chloroplast must be fed with inorganic carbon in the form of CO2 or bicarbonate. However, the mechanisms allowing the rapid passage of this gas and this charged molecule through the bounding membranes of the chloroplast envelope are not yet completely elucidated. We describe here a method allowing us to measure the permeability of these two molecules through the chloroplast envelope using a membrane inlet mass spectrometer and...

Data from: The importance of scattered trees for biodiversity conservation: a global meta-analysis

Jayme A. Prevedello, Mauricio Almeida-Gomes & David B. Lindenmayer
1. Scattered trees are thought to be keystone structures for biodiversity in landscapes worldwide. However, such trees have been largely neglected by researchers and their importance for biodiversity remains unclear. 2. We completed a global meta-analysis to quantify relationships between scattered trees and the species richness, abundance and composition of vertebrates, arthropods and plants. First, we tested whether areas near scattered trees support higher levels of species richness and abundance than nearby open areas. Second,...

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  • Australian National University
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  • Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
  • Australian National University (ANU, Australia)
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  • James Cook University
  • University of Exeter
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of Edinburgh