56 Works

Plant traits measured for Australian alpine plants

Meena Sivagowre Sritharan
Rapid evolution is likely to be an important mechanism allowing native species to adapt to changed environmental conditions. Many northern hemisphere species have undergone substantial recent changes in phenology and morphology. However, we have little information about how native species in the southern hemisphere are responding to climate change. We used herbarium specimens from 21 native alpine plant species in Kosciuszko National Park, Australia to make over 1500 measurements of plant size, leaf thickness, leaf...

Prioritising source populations for supplementing genetic diversity of reintroduced southern brown bandicoots Isoodon obesulus obesulus

Natasha M. Robinson & Sam C. Banks
Reintroduction programs can benefit from optimisation of source populations to maximise genetic diversity. Here, we report an approach to guide genetic supplementation of founder individuals to maximise genetic diversity in a reintroduction program for a nationally threatened Australian ground-dwelling marsupial, the southern brown bandicoot (eastern subspecies), Isoodon obesulus obesulus. Following local extinction ~ 100 years earlier, founding individuals were reintroduced to Booderee National Park in south-eastern Australia over three years from the nearest viable wild...

Rapid radiation and rampant reticulation: Phylogenomics of South American Liolaemus lizards

Damien Esquerre, Scott Keogh, Diego Demangel, Mariana Morando, Luciano Avila, Francisco Ferri-Yáñez & Adam Leaché
Understanding the factors that cause heterogeneity among gene trees can increase the accuracy of species trees. Discordant signals across the genome are commonly produced by incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and introgression, which in turn can result in reticulate evolution. Species tree inference using the multispecies coalescent is designed to deal with ILS and is robust to low levels of introgression, but extensive introgression violates the fundamental assumption that relationships are strictly bifurcating. In this study,...

Data from: Disturbance alters the forest soil microbiome

Elle Bowd
Billions of microorganisms perform critical below-ground functions in all terrestrial ecosystems. While largely invisible to the naked eye, they support all higher lifeforms, form symbiotic relationships with ~90% of terrestrial plant species, stabilize soils, and facilitate biogeochemical cycles. Global increases in the frequency of disturbances are driving major changes in the structure and function of forests. However, despite their functional significance, the disturbance responses of forest microbial communities are poorly understood. Here we explore the...

Data from: Model-based ordination for species with unequal niche widths

Bert Van Der Veen, Francis K.C. Hui, Knut A. Hovstad, Erik B. Solbu & Robert B. O'Hara
It is common practice for ecologists to examine species niches in the study of community composition. The response curve of a species in the fundamental niche is usually assumed to be quadratic. The center of a quadratic curve represents a species' optimal environmental conditions, and the width its ability to tolerate deviations from the optimum. Most multivariate methods assume species respond linearly to the environment of the niche, or with a quadratic curve that is...

Swift parrot data including the sex of offspring and their hatch order

Robert Heinsohn
Most species produce equal numbers of sons and daughters, and sex differences in survival after parental care do not usually affect this pattern. Temporary overproduction of the scarcer sex can be adaptive when generations overlap, the sexes differ in life history expectations, and parents can anticipate future mating opportunities. However an alternative strategy of maximising the competitiveness of the more abundant sex in these circumstances remains unexplored. We develop theory showing how mothers can maximise...

Disentangling the effects of male age and mating history: contrasting effects of mating history on pre-copulatory mating behaviour and paternity success

Upama Aich
Many studies ask whether older males are better at acquiring mates. Even so, how age affects reproductive success is still poorly understood because male age and mating history are confounded in most studies: older males usually have more mating experience. To what extent does mating history rather than age explain variation in male mating success? And how do mating history and male age determine paternity when there is also post-copulatory sexual selection? Here we experimentally...

Temperature predicts the rate of molecular evolution in Australian Eugongylinae skinks

Jeremias Ivan, Craig Moritz, Sally Potter, Jason Bragg, Rust Turakulov & Xia Hua
Temperature differences over time and space has been hypothesized to cause variation in the rate of molecular evolution of species, but empirical evidence is mixed. To further test this hypothesis, we utilized a large exon-capture sequence data of Australian Eugongylinae skinks, exemplifying a radiation of temperature-sensitive ectotherms spanning a large latitudinal gradient. The association between temperature (and other species traits) and long-term substitution rate was assessed based on 1268 sequenced exons of 44 species pairs...

Data from: Motherly love curbs harm: maternal effects modulate sexual conflict

Pau Carazo, Roberto García-Roa, Gonçalo Faria & Daniel Noble
Strong sexual selection frequently favours males that increase their reproductive success by harming females, with potentially negative consequences for population growth. Understanding what factors modulate conflict between the sexes is hence critical to understand both the evolution male and female phenotypes and the viability of populations in the wild. Studies addressing the evolution of sexual conflict have so far considered direct effects on male and female reproductive success along with indirect genetic benefits (e.g. good...

Poor quality monitoring data underestimate the impact of Australia’s megafires on a critically endangered songbird

Ross Crates, Laura Rayner, Dejan Stojanovic, Ben Scheele, Jason Mackenzie, Adam Ross & Robert Heinsohn
Aim: Catastrophic events such as south-eastern Australia’s 2019/20 megafires are predicted to increase in frequency and severity under climate change. Rapid, well-informed conservation prioritisation will become increasingly crucial for minimising biodiversity losses resulting from megafires. However, such assessments are susceptible to bias, because the quality of monitoring data underpinning knowledge of species’ distributions is highly variable and they fail to account for differences in life-history traits such as aggregative breeding. We aimed to assess how...

High-resolution scans of Bentheimer sandstone core for imbibition experiments

Ruotong Huang, Anna Herring & Adrian Sheppard
Scans of strongly-wet Bentheimer sandstone core acquired during primary imbibition experiments at voxel size equal to 0.001657314 mm=1.657314 micron. The dimension of all the data set is 1200 voxel*1200 voxel*5000 voxel, corresponding to a physical volume of 32.77 mm^3. A total of four sets of tomographic data are presented in this project, including a 'dry scan' acquired before the water-flooding experiment, and three sets of 'wet scan' acquired during the primary imbibition experiment, with the...

Table of C4 model equations used to explore the effect of irradiance, CO2 and temperature on C4 photosynthesis

Susanne Von Caemmerer
C4 plants play a key role in world agriculture. For example, C4 crops such as maize and sorghum are major contributors to both first and third world food production and the C4 grasses sugarcane, miscanthus and switchgrass are major plant sources of bioenergy. In the challenge to manipulate and enhance C4 photosynthesis, steady state models of leaf photosynthesis provide an important tool for gas exchange analysis and thought experiments that can explore photosynthetic pathway changes....

Landscape layer for resistance

Yusuke Fukuda & Sam Banks
This is raster file (base_cats_new3.asc) that was used to generate the environmental resistance surface with the ResistanceGA R package (Peterman, 2018) to evaluate models of environmental resistance to between-population movement of saltwater crocodiles Crocodylus porosus in the Northern Territory of Australia, represented by individual pairwise genetic distances among individuals. ResistanceGA models pairwise genetic distances in response to pairwise ‘ecological distances’ using linear mixed effects models with a maximum-likelihood population effects (MLPE) random effects structure (Clarke,...

Differential geographic patterns in song components of male Albert’s lyrebirds

Fiona Backhouse, Anastasia Dalziell, Robert Magrath, Aaron Rice, Taylor Crisologo & Justin Welbergen
Geographic variation in bird song has received much attention in evolutionary studies, yet few consider components within songs that may be subject to different constraints and follow different evolutionary trajectories. Here we quantify patterns of geographic variation in the socially-transmitted ‘whistle’ song of Albert’s lyrebirds (Menura alberti), an oscine passerine renowned for its remarkable vocal abilities. Albert’s lyrebirds are confined to narrow stretches of suitable habitat, allowing us to map likely paths of cultural transmission...

Competition and geography underlie speciation and morphological evolution in Indo-Australasian monitor lizards

Carlos J. Pavón-Vázquez, Ian G. Brennan, Alexander Skeels & J. Scott Keogh
How biotic and abiotic factors act together to shape biological diversity is a major question in evolutionary biology. The recent availability of large datasets and development of new methodological approaches provide new tools to evaluate the predicted effects of ecological interactions and geography on lineage diversification and phenotypic evolution. Here, we use a near complete phylogenomic-scale phylogeny and a comprehensive morphological dataset comprising more than a thousand specimens to assess the role of biotic and...

Sex-specific responses to intraspecific competition in the mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki

Megan Head, Samuel Brookes, Loeske Kruuk & Maider Iglesias-Carrasco
Intraspecific competition constitutes an important source of selection that can influence the development, expression and evolution of phenotypic traits. Although often neglected in studies of intraspecific competition, the sex of competitors can alter the nature and intensity of competition between individuals, and in turn can influence the development of resource-dependent traits. We examine here how the sex of focal and of competitor individuals interact to affect developmental responses to competition in the Eastern mosquitofish Gambusia...

Unburnt habitat patches are critical for survival and in situ population recovery in a small mammal after fire

Robyn E Shaw, Alex James, Katherine Tuft, Sarah Legge, Geoffrey J Cary, Rod Peakall & Sam C Banks
Fire drives animal population dynamics across many ecosystems. Yet, we still lack an understanding of how most species recover from fire and the effects of fire severity and patchiness on recovery processes. This information is crucial for fire-mediated biodiversity conservation, particularly as fire regimes change globally. We conducted an experiment to test whether post-fire recovery is driven by in situ survival or recolonisation, and to determine whether this varies with fires of increasing percentage area...

A likelihood-ratio test for lumpability of phylogenetic data: Is the Markovian property of an evolutionary process retained in recoded DNA?

Lars Jermiin, John Robinson & Victor Vera-Ruiz
In molecular phylogenetics, it is typically assumed that the evolutionary process for DNA can be approximated by independent and identically distributed Markovian processes at the variable sites and that these processes diverge over the edges of a rooted bifurcating tree. Sometimes the nucleotides are transformed from a 4-state alphabet to a 3- or 2-state alphabet by a procedure that is called recoding, lumping, or grouping of states. Here, we introduce a likelihood-ratio test for lumpability...

Evaluation of lethal control of introduced sugar gliders

Dejan Stojanovic, Giselle Owens & Robert Heinsohn
Lethal control of invasive mammalian predators can be controversial and is rarely a ‘silver bullet’ for conservation problems. Evaluating the efficacy of lethal control is important for demonstrating the benefits to threatened species are real and detecting unexpected perverse outcomes. We implemented a pilot study to evaluate if lethal control of introduced sugar gliders Petaurus breviceps can reduce the rate of nest predation on Tasmanian hollow nesting birds including swift parrots (Lathamus discolor). Using a...

Datasets associated with: Late Holocene spread of pastoralism coincides with endemic megafaunal extinction on Madagascar

Sean Hixon, Kristina Douglass, Brooke Crowley, Lucien Rakotozafy, Geoffrey Clark, Atholl Anderson, Simon Haberle, Jean Freddy Ranaivoarisoa, Mike Buckley, Salomon Fidiarisoa, Balzac Mbola & Douglas Kennett
Recently expanded estimates for when humans arrived on Madagascar (up to ~10,000 years ago) highlight questions about the causes of the island’s relatively late megafaunal extinctions (~2000-500 years ago). Introduced domesticated animals could have contributed to extinctions, but the arrival times and past diets of exotic animals are poorly known. To conduct the first explicit test of the potential for competition between introduced livestock and extinct endemic megafauna in southern and western Madagascar, we generated...

35,000-year record of pollen, charcoal and NPP from Bass Strait, southeast Australia

Matthew Adeleye, Simon Haberle, David McWethy, Simon Connor & Janelle Stevenson
We reconstruct the last glacial vegetation (pollen record), fire (charcoal record) and lake levels (NPP record) for Bass Strait. Results show the Bass Strait area was characterized by Eucalyptus woodland and shrubland vegetation, with high fire activity and lake levels from 35,000 to 29,000 years ago. Grassland expanded at the expense of woodland after this period, with a decline in fire activity and lake levels.

Population genetic assessment of newly discovered, extremely small populations of Xanthocyparis Vietnamensis from southwestern China

Yu-Liang Jiang, Tsam Ju, Linda Neaves, Jia-Liang Li, Wei-Ning Tan, Yu-Song Huang, Yan Liu & Kang-Shan Mao
Xanthocyparis vietnamensis is an endangered species that is currently restricted to karst montane areas in southwestern China and Vietnam. This rare conifer was first recorded in 2002 from northern Vietnam and then in 2013 from Guangxi, China, yet little is known about its genetic diversity and population structure. We developed expressed sequence tag microsatellite markers (EST-SSR) for X. vietnamensis. Illumina HiSeq data were used to reconstruct the transcriptome of this species by de novo assembly....

An experimental test of defenses in a recent host

Virginia Abernathy, Laura Johnson & Naomi Langmore
Theoretical studies predict that hosts of avian brood parasites should evolve defenses against parasitism in a matter of decades. However, opportunities to test these predictions are limited because brood parasites rarely switch to naïve hosts. Here, we capitalize on a recent host switch by the brood-parasitic Pacific Koel (Eudynamys orientalis) in eastern Australia, to investigate how quickly the Red Wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculate), a recent host that has been annexed by the koel within the last...

Data from: DNA barcoding identifies cryptic animal tool materials

Linda Neaves, Matthew Steele, Barbara Klump, James St Clair, Joana Fernandes, Vanessa Hequet, Phil Shaw, Christian Rutz & Peter Hollingsworth
Some animals fashion tools and other constructions out of plant materials to aid foraging, reproduction, self-maintenance, and protection. The choice of raw materials can affect the structure and mechanical properties of the resulting artefacts, with significant fitness consequences. Documenting animals’ material preferences is challenging, however, as manufacture behaviour is often difficult to observe directly, and materials may be processed so heavily that they lack identifying features. Here, we use DNA barcoding techniques to identify, from...

Data from: Genetic and ecogeographic controls on species cohesion in Australia’s most diverse lizard radiation

Ivan Prates, Sonal Singhal, M. Raquel Marchán-Rivadeneira, Maggie R. Grundler, Craig C. Moritz, Steve Donnellan & Daniel L. Rabosky
Species vary extensively in geographic range size and climatic niche breadth. If range limits are primarily determined by climatic factors, species with broad climatic tolerances and those that track geographically widespread climates should have large ranges. However, large ranges might increase the probability of population fragmentation and adaptive divergence, potentially decoupling climatic niche breadth and range size. Conversely, ecological generalism in widespread species might lead to higher gene flow across climatic transitions, increasing species’ cohesion...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    56

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    56

Affiliations

  • Australian National University
    55
  • Charles Darwin University
    4
  • University of Tasmania
    3
  • Macquarie University
    2
  • Royal Botanic Garden Sydney
    2
  • Western Sydney University
    2
  • Department of Planning and Environment
    1
  • University of Washington
    1
  • Guangxi Institute of Botany
    1
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    1