46 Works

Peatland vegetation: field and laboratory measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes and spectral reflectance

K.J. Lees, J.M. Clark, T. Quaife, R.R.E. Artz, M. Khomik & J. Ritson
This dataset includes laboratory and field measurements of carbon fluxes and spectral reflectance for peatland vegetation including Sphagnum species. It also includes satellite data relating to the development and use of a Temperature and Greenness (TG) model, and an annual Temperature, Greenness and Wetness (TGWa) model. The laboratory data includes Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and respiration data from samples of Sphagnum capillifolium and Sphagnum papillosum which were collected from the Forsinard Flows RSPB reserve (Northern...

Relating wing morphology and immune function to patterns of partial and differential bat migration using stable isotopes

Elizabeth J Rogers, Liam McGuire, Fred J Longstaffe, Jeff Clerc, Emma Kunkel & Erin Fraser
Migration is energetically expensive and is predicted to drive similar morphological adaptations and physiological trade-offs in migratory bats and birds. Previous studies suggest that fixed traits like wing morphology vary among species and individuals according to selective pressures on flight, while immune defenses can vary flexibly within individuals as energy is variably reallocated throughout the year. We assessed intraspecific variation in wing morphology and immune function in silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans), a species that follows...

Habitat area and environmental filters determine avian richness along an elevation gradient in mountain peatlands

Rebecca Rooney, Jordan Reynolds & Heidi Swanson
Globally, relationships between avian richness and elevation in mountain ecosystems typically reflect one of four well-documented patterns, but the mechanisms responsible for these patterns are poorly understood. We investigated which pattern best described bird species richness in peatlands of the Upper Bow Basin of the Canadian Rocky Mountains (1300 to 2000 m a.s.l.) and used a model competition framework to investigate possible mechanisms. Avian richness displayed a plateauing (cubic) relationship in response to increasing elevation...

Efficient learning of quantum noise

Robin Harper, Steven Flammia & Joel Wallman
Noise is the central obstacle to building large-scale quantum computers. Quantum systems with sufficiently uncorrelated and weak noise could be used to solve computational problems that are intractable with current digital computers. There has been substantial progress towards engineering such systems. However, continued progress depends on the ability to characterize quantum noise reliably and efficiently with high precision. Here we introduce a protocol that comprehensively and efficiently characterizes the error rates of quantum noise and...

Data from: Mean and variance of phylogenetic trees

Daniel G. Brown & Megan Owen
We describe the use of the Fréchet mean and variance in the Billera-Holmes-Vogtmann (BHV) treespace to summarize and explore the diversity of a set of phylogenetic trees. We show that the Fréchet mean is comparable to other summary methods, and, despite its stickiness property, is more likely to be binary than the majority-rules consensus tree. We show that the Fréchet variance is faster and more precise than commonly used variance measures. The Fréchet mean and...

Data from: Multi-scale heterogeneity in vegetation and soil carbon in exurban residential land of southeastern Michigan, USA

William S. Currie, Sarah Kiger, Joan I. Nassauer, Meghan Hutchins, Lauren L. Marshall, Daniel G. Brown, Rick L. Riolo, Derek T. Robinson & Stephanie K. Hart
Exurban residential land (one housing unit per 0.2–16.2 ha) is growing in importance as a human-dominated land use. Carbon storage in the soils and vegetation of exurban land is poorly known, as are the effects on C storage of choices made by developers and residents. We studied C storage in exurban yards in southeastern Michigan, USA, across a range of parcel sizes and different types of neighborhoods. We divided each residential parcel into ecological zones...

Data from: Quantifying ecological and social drivers of ecological surprise

Karen Filbee-Dexter, Celia C. Symons, Kristal Jones, Heather Haig, Jeremy Pittman, Steven M. Alexander, Matthew J. Burke & Heather A. Haig
1. A key challenge facing ecologists and ecosystem managers is understanding what drives unexpected shifts in ecosystems and limits the effectiveness of human interventions during these events. Research that integrates and analyzes data from natural and social systems can provide important insight for unraveling the complexity of these dynamics, and is a critical step towards development of evidence-based, whole systems management approaches. 2. To examine our ability to influence ecosystems that are behaving in unexpected...

Data from: Genus-wide microsatellite primers for the goldenrods (Solidago; Asteraceae)

James B. Beck, John C. Semple, Justin M. Brull, Stacey L. Lance, Mai M. Phillips, Sara B. Hoot & Gretchen A. Meyer
Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for studies of polyploid evolution, ecological genetics, conservation genetics, and species delimitation in the genus Solidago. Methods and Results: Illumina sequencing of a shotgun library from S. gigantea identified ca. 1900 putative single-copy loci. Fourteen loci were subsequently shown to be amplifiable, single-copy, and variable in a broad range of Solidago species. Conclusions: The utility of these markers both across the genus and in herbarium specimens of...

Data from: Continental divide: predicting climate-mediated fragmentation and biodiversity loss in the boreal forest

Dennis L. Murray, Michael J.L. Peers, Yasmine N. Majchrzak, Morgan Wehtje, Catarina Ferreira, Rob S.A. Pickles, Jeffrey R. Row, Daniel H. Thornton, Michael J. L. Peers & Rob S. A. Pickles
Climate change threatens natural landscapes through shifting distribution and abundance of species and attendant change in the structure and function of ecosystems. However, it remains unclear how climate-mediated variation in species' environmental niche space may lead to large-scale fragmentation of species distributions, altered meta-population dynamics and gene flow, and disrupted ecosystem integrity. Such change may be especially relevant when species distributions are restricted either spatially or to a narrow environmental niche, or when environments are...

Data from: A controlled quasi-experimental study of an educational intervention to reduce the unnecessary use of antimicrobials for asymptomatic bacteriuria

Neal Irfan, Annie Brooks, Siraj Mithoowani, Steve J. Celetti, Cheryl Main & Dominik Mertz
Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) should only be treated in cases of pregnancy or in-patients undergoing urologic procedures; however, unnecessary treatment of ABU is common in clinical practice. Objective: To identify risk factors for unnecessary treatment and to assess the impact of an educational intervention focused on these risk factors on treatment of ABU. Design: Quasi-experimental study with a control group. Setting: Two tertiary teaching adult care hospitals. Participants: Consecutive patients with positive urine cultures between...

Data from: Differential influences of local subpopulations on regional diversity and differentiation for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)

Jeffrey R. Row, Sara J. Oyler-McCance & Bradley C. Fedy
The distribution of spatial genetic variation across a region can shape evolutionary dynamics and impact population persistence. Local population dynamics and among-population dispersal rates are strong drivers of this spatial genetic variation, yet for many species we lack a clear understanding of how these population processes interact in space to shape within-species genetic variation. Here, we used extensive genetic and demographic data from 10 subpopulations of greater sage-grouse to parameterize a simulated approximate Bayesian computation...

Supporting data to: Evolution of realized Eltonian niches across Rajidae species

Oliver Shipley, Joseph Kelly, Joseph Bizzarro, Jill Olin, Robert Cerrato, Michael Power & Michael Frisk
The notion that closely related species resemble each other in ecological niche space (i.e., phylogenetic dependence) has been a longstanding, contentious paradigm in evolutionary biology, the incidence of which is important for predicting the ecosystem-level effects of species loss. Despite being examined across a multitude of terrestrial taxa, many aspects of niche conservatism have yet to be explored in marine species, especially for characteristics related to resource use and trophic behavior (Eltonian niche characteristics, ENCs)....

Data from: Riverine transport and nutrient inputs affect phytoplankton communities in a coastal embayment

Josef D. Ackerman, Christopher R. Farrow, Ralph E. H. Smith & Dave Snider
1. Rivers often transport phytoplankton to coastal embayments and introduce nutrients that can enrich coastal plankton communities. We investigated the effects of the Nottawasaga River on the nearshore (i.e., within 500 m of shore) phytoplankton composition along a 10 km transect of Nottawasaga Bay, Lake Huron in 2015 and 2016. Imaging flow cytometry was used to identify and enumerate algal taxa, which were resolved at sizes larger than small nanoplankton (i.e., > 5 mm). Multivariate...

Analytic dataset informing prediction of subterranean cave and mine ambient temperatures

Meredith McClure, Daniel Crowley, Catherine Haase, Liam McGuire, Nathan Fuller, David Hayman, Cori Lausen, Raina Plowright, Brett Dickson & Sarah Olson
Caves and other subterranean features provide unique environments for many species. The importance of cave microclimate is particularly relevant at temperate latitudes where bats make seasonal use of caves for hibernation. White-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease that has devastated populations of hibernating bats across eastern and central North America, has brought renewed interest in bat hibernation and hibernaculum conditions. A recent review synthesized current understanding of cave climatology, exploring the qualitative relationship between cave...

Island biogeography theory and the urban landscape: stopover site selection by the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans)

Liam McGuire & Hannah Adams
Many migratory bats require forested sites for roosting and foraging along their migration path, but increased urbanization and intensive agricultural practices may reduce the availability of stopover sites. Urban forests may provide important stopover habitat, maintaining landscape connectivity in regions where the majority of natural habitat has been cleared for development. Island biogeography theory can be applied to urbanized temperate forest biomes where small urban forests represent islands separated from the larger “mainland” forest. We...

Dataset: Inverse responses of species richness and niche specialization to human development

Martin Jeanmougin, Cari D. Ficken, Jan J.H. Ciborowski & Rebecca C. Rooney
Humans impact biodiversity by altering land use and introducing nonnative species. Yet the extent to which coexistence processes, such as competition and niche shifts, mediate these relationships is not clear. This dataset was used in a study that aims to compare how human development influences wetland plant diversity by examining patterns of species richness, niche specialization, and nonnative species occurrences along a human development gradient. This dataset can be used to analyzed species richness and...

Data from: Questioning assumptions of trophic behavior in a broadly ranging marine predator guild

Oliver N. Shipley, Jill A. Olin, Mike Power, Robert M. Cerrato, Michael G. Frisk, Robert. M. Cerrato & Michael Power
We evaluated whether existing assumptions regarding the trophic ecology of a poorly-studied predator guild, northwest (NW) Atlantic skates (family: Rajidae), were supported across broad geographic scales. Four hypotheses were tested using carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope values as metrics of foraging behavior: 1) species exhibit ontogenetic shifts in habitat and thus display a shift in 13C with differential use of the continental shelf; 2) species exhibit ontogenetic prey shifts (i.e., from smaller to...

Data from: Reproduction as a bottleneck to treeline advance across the circumarctic forest tundra ecotone

Carissa D. Brown, Geneviève Dufour-Tremblay, Ryan G. Jameson, Steven D. Mamet, Andrew J. Trant, Xanthe J. Walker, Stéphane Boudraeu, Karen A. Harper, Greg H.R. Henry, Luise Hermanutz, Annika Hofgaard, Ludmila Isaeva, G. Peter Kershaw, Jill F. Johnstone & Gregory H. R. Henry
The fundamental niche of many species is shifting with climate change, especially in sub-arctic ecosystems with pronounced recent warming. Ongoing warming in sub-arctic regions should lessen environmental constraints on tree growth and reproduction, leading to increased success of trees colonising tundra. Nevertheless, variable responses of treeline ecotones have been documented in association with warming temperatures. One explanation for time lags between increasingly favourable environmental conditions and treeline ecotone movement is reproductive limitations caused by low...

Data from: Combinations of reproductive, individual, and weather effects best explain torpor patterns among female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus)

Nicole K. Besler & Hugh G. Broders
Heterothermic mammals can use torpor, a state of metabolic suppression, to conserve energy during times of limited food and poor environmental conditions. Females may use torpor throughout gestation and lactation; however, there are associated physiological and ecological costs with potential fitness consequences. Previous studies have controlled for, but not quantified the impact of interindividual variation on torpor patterns and understanding this may provide insight on why certain thermoregulatory responses are employed. The objective of this...

Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America

Duncan N. L. Menge, Ryan A. Chisholm, Stuart J. Davies, Kamariah Abu Salim, David Allen, Mauricio Alvarez, Norm Bourg, Warren Y. Brockelman, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Nathalie Butt, Min Cao, Wirong Chanthorn, Wei-Chun Chao, Keith Clay, Richard Condit, Susan Cordell, João Batista Da Silva, H. S. Dattaraja, Ana Cristina Segalin De Andrade, Alexandre A. Oliveira, Jan Den Ouden, Michael Drescher, Christine Fletcher, Christian P. Giardina, C. V. Savitri Gunatilleke … & Tak Fung
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America...

Data from: Host association influences variation at salivary protein genes in the bat ectoparasite Cimex adjunctus

Benoit Talbot, Maarten J. Vonhof, Hugh G. Broders, Brock Fenton & Nusha Keyghobadi
Parasite-host relationships create strong selection pressures that can lead to adaptation and increasing specialization of parasites to their hosts. Even in relatively loose host-parasite relationships, such as between generalist ectoparasites and their hosts, we may observe some degree of specialization of parasite populations to one of the multiple potential hosts. Salivary proteins are used by blood-feeding ectoparasites to prevent hemostasis in the host and maximize energy intake. We investigated the influence of association with specific...

Data from: Next-generation sampling: pairing genomics with herbarium specimens provides species-level signal in Solidago (Asteraceae)

James B. Beck & John C. Semple
Premise of the study: The ability to conduct species delimitation and phylogeny reconstruction with genomic data sets obtained exclusively from herbarium specimens would rapidly enhance our knowledge of large, taxonomically contentious plant genera. In this study, the utility of genotyping by sequencing is assessed in the notoriously difficult genus Solidago (Asteraceae) by attempting to obtain an informative single-nucleotide polymorphism data set from a set of specimens collected between 1970 and 2010. Methods: Reduced representation libraries...

Data from: Hydropower impacts on reservoir fish populations are modified by environmental variation

Antti P. Eloranta, Anders G. Finstad, Ingeborg P. Helland, Ola Ugedal & Michael Power
Global transition towards renewable energy production has increased the demand for new and more flexible hydropower operations. Before management and stakeholders can make informed choices on potential mitigations, it is essential to understand how the hydropower reservoir ecosystems respond to water level regulation (WLR) impacts that are likely modified by the reservoirs' abiotic and biotic characteristics. Yet, most reservoir studies have been case-specific, which hampers large-scale planning, evaluation and mitigation actions across various reservoir ecosystems....

Data from: Do picture-based charts overestimate visual acuity? Comparison of Kay Pictures, Lea Symbols, HOTV and Keeler logMAR charts with Sloan Letters in adults and children

Nicola S. Anstice, Robert J. Jacobs, Samantha K. Simkin, Melissa Thomson, Benjamin Thompson & Andrew V. Collins
Purpose: Children may be tested with a variety of visual acuity (VA) charts during their ophthalmic care and differences between charts can complicate the interpretation of VA measurements. This study compared VA measurements across four pediatric charts with Sloan letters and identified chart design features that contributed to inter-chart differences in VA. Methods: VA was determined for right eyes of 25 adults and 17 children (4-9 years of age) using Crowded Kay Pictures, Crowded linear...

Data from: Variation in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) transcription among and within eight population crosses from British Columbia, Canada

Shelby D. Toews, Kyle W. Wellband, Brian Dixon & Daniel D. Heath
Phenotypic differences among populations within a species have been reported for a variety of traits, ranging from life history to physiology to gene transcription. Population-level phenotypic variation has been attributed to genetic differences resulting from genetic drift and/or local adaptation as well as environmental differences resulting from plasticity. We studied population- and family-level variation in gene transcription for 22 fitness-related genes, comprising immune, growth, metabolic, and stress processes in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We created...

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Affiliations

  • University of Waterloo
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  • Memorial University of Newfoundland
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