337 Works

Data from: Hay provision affects 24-h performance of normal and abnormal oral behaviors in dairy calves

Cassandra Blaine Tucker, Margit Bak Jensen & Blair Caitlin Downey
Dairy calves often perform abnormal repetitive behaviors (ARBs) including tongue rolling and non-nutritive oral manipulation (NNOM) when opportunities to perform feeding behaviors are restricted. Many US dairy farms limit access to milk, a well-studied risk factor for ARBs. However, farms also commonly do not feed forage to young calves, and the motor patterns of oral ARBs resemble those necessary for acquiring and chewing solid feed. Our objective was to assess how access to hay from...

Estimating the abundance of the critically endangered Baltic Proper harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) population using passive acoustic monitoring

Mats Amundin, Julia Carlström, Len Thomas, Ida Carlén, Jens Koblitz, Jonas Teilmann, Jakob Tougaard, Nick Tregenza, Daniel Wennerberg, Olli Loisa, Katharina Brundiers, Monika Kosecka, Line A. Kyhn, Cinthia Tiberi Ljungqvist, Signe Sveegaard, Louise Burt, Iwona Pawliczka, Ivar Jüssi, Radomil Koza, Bartłomiej Arciszewski, Anders Galatius, Martin Jabbusch, Jussi Laaksonlaita, Sami Lyytinen, Jussi Niemi … & Harald Benke
Knowing the abundance of a population is a crucial component to assess its conservation status and develop effective conservation plans. For most cetaceans, abundance estimation is difficult given their cryptic and mobile nature, especially when the population is small and has a transnational distribution. In the Baltic Sea, the number of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) has collapsed since the mid-20th century and the Baltic Proper harbour porpoise is listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN...

Macronutrient niches and field limitation in a woodland assemblage of harvestmen

Søren Nielsen, Trine Bilde & Søren Toft
1. Description of animals’ trophic niches help us understand interactions between species in biological communities that are not easily observed. Analyses of macronutrient niches, i.e. the range of macronutrient (protein:lipid:carbohydrate) ratios selected by generalist feeders, may be a useful alternative approach to inter-species comparisons of diets, especially within taxonomic assemblages of predators where species with similar nutritional requirements are likely to accept similar types of prey. 2. Here we analysed the macronutritional niches of a...

Data from: Applying a biocomplexity approach to modelling farmer decision-making and land-use impacts on wildlife

Anna Malawska & Christopher John Topping
1. The biocomplexity approach refers to a fully integrated social-ecological systems (SES) simulation that represents bidirectional feedbacks between social and ecological components. This method is essential to accurately assess impacts of economy and policy on SES such as agroecosystems, where feedbacks between the drivers and impacts of cropping changes need to be simulated. Here we exemplify the biocomplexity approach using energy maize, which is becoming an important source of bioenergy in Europe, and thus, might...

Data from: Few genetic and environmental correlations between life history and stress resistance traits affect adaptation to fluctuating thermal regimes

Tommaso Manenti, Jesper G. Sørensen, Neda N. Moghadam & Volker Loeschcke
Laboratory selection in thermal regimes that differed in the amplitude and the predictability of daily fluctuations had a marked effect on stress resistance and life history traits in Drosophila simulans. The observed evolutionary changes are expected to be the result of both direct and correlated responses to selection. Thus, a given trait might not evolve independently from other traits because of genetic correlations among these traits. Moreover, different test environments can induce novel genetic correlations...

Data from: Downscaling pollen-transport networks to the level of individuals

Cristina Tur, Anna Traveset, Kristian Trøjelsgaard & Jens M. Olesen
1. Most plant-pollinator network studies are conducted at species level whereas little is known about network patterns at the individual level. In fact, nodes in traditional species-based interaction networks are aggregates of individuals establishing the actual links observed in nature. Thus, emergent properties of interaction networks might be the result of mechanisms acting at the individual level. 2. Pollen loads carried by insect flower-visitors from two mountain communities were studied to construct pollen-transport networks. For...

Data from: A 2.6‐g sound and movement tag for studying the acoustic scene and kinematics of echolocating bats

Laura Stidsholt, Mark Johnson, Kristian Beedholm, Lasse Jakobsen, Kathrin Kugler, Signe Brinkløv, Angeles Salles, Cynthia F. Moss & Peter Teglberg Madsen
1. To study sensorimotor behaviour in wild animals, it is necessary to synchronously record the sensory inputs available to the animal, and its movements. To do this, we have developed a biologging device that can record the primary sensory information and the associated movements during foraging and navigating in echolocating bats. 2. This 2.6 -gram tag records the sonar calls and echoes from an ultrasonic microphone, while simultaneously sampling fine-scale movement in three dimensions from...

Data from: Human paths have positive impacts on plant richness and diversity: a meta-analysis

Meredith Root-Bernstein & Jens-Christian Svenning
We assess the impacts of human paths, trails and roads on plant species richness and Shannon diversity. Most reviews of this topic have not considered community-level measures, and have focused on excessive tourism impacts. We found significant positive effects of paths on plant richness and diversity. The effect size for richness was highest when studies included roads (paved) or trails (unpaved). The effect size found for diversity was highest when studies were in grasslands. We...

Data from: Establishing a community-wide DNA barcode library as a new tool for arctic research

H. Wirta, G. Várkonyi, C. Rasmussen, R. Kaartinen, N. M. Schmidt, P. D. N. Hebert, M. Barták, G. Blagoev, H. Disney, S. Ertl, P. Gjelstrup, D. J. Gwiazdowicz, L. Huldén, J. Ilmonen, J. Jakovlev, M. Jaschhof, J. Kahanpää, T. Kankaanpää, P. H. Krogh, R. Labbee, C. Lettner, V. Michelsen, S. A. Nielsen, T. R. Nielsen, L. Paasivirta … & T. Roslin
DNA sequences offer powerful tools for describing the members and interactions of natural communities. In this study, we establish the to-date most comprehensive library of DNA barcodes for a terrestrial site, including all known macroscopic animals and vascular plants of an intensively studied area of the High Arctic, the Zackenberg Valley in Northeast Greenland. To demonstrate its utility, we apply the library to identify nearly 20 000 arthropod individuals from two Malaise traps, each operated...

Data from: Thermal fluctuations affect the transcriptome through mechanisms independent of average temperature

Jesper Givskov Sørensen, Mads Fristrup Schou, Torsten Nygaard Kristensen & Volker Loeschcke
Terrestrial ectotherms are challenged by variation in both mean and variance of temperature. Phenotypic plasticity (thermal acclimation) might mitigate adverse effects, however, we lack a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms of thermal acclimation and how they are affected by fluctuating temperature. Here we investigated the effect of thermal acclimation in Drosophila melanogaster on critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and associated global gene expression profiles as induced by two constant and two ecologically relevant (non-stressful) diurnally...

Data from: The dominant detritus-feeding invertebrate in arctic peat soils derives its essential amino acids from gut symbionts

Thomas Larsen, Marc Ventura, Kristine Maraldo, Xavier Triadó-Margarit, Emilio O. Casamayor, Yiming V. Wang, Nils Andersen & Diane M. O'Brien
Supplementation of nutrients by symbionts enables consumers to thrive on resources that might otherwise be insufficient to meet nutritional demands. Such nutritional subsidies by intracellular symbionts has been well studied; however, supplementation of de novo synthesized nutrients to hosts by extracellular gut symbionts is poorly documented, especially for generalists with relatively undifferentiated intestinal tracts. Although gut symbionts facilitate degradation of resources that would otherwise remain inaccessible to the host, such digestive actions alone cannot make...

Data from: Nested species interactions promote feasibility over stability during the assembly of a pollinator community

Serguei Saavedra, Rudolf P. Rohr, Jens M. Olesen & Jordi Bascompte
The foundational concepts behind the persistence of ecological communities have been based on two ecological properties: dynamical stability and feasibility. The former is typically regarded as the capacity of a community to return to an original equilibrium state after a perturbation in species abundances and is usually linked to the strength of interspecific interactions. The latter is the capacity to sustain positive abundances on all its constituent species and is linked to both interspecific interactions...

Data from: Population structure, genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium in perennial ryegrass populations divergently selected for freezing tolerance

Mallikarjuna Rao Kovi, Siri Fjellheim, Simen R. Sandve, Arild Larsen, Heidi Rudi, Torben Asp, Matthew Peter Kent & Odd Arne Rognli
Low temperature is one of the abiotic stresses seriously affecting the growth of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. Understanding the genetic control of freezing tolerance would aid in the development of cultivars of perennial ryegrass with improved adaptation to frost. A total number of 80 individuals (24 of High frost [HF]; 29 of Low frost [LF] and 27 of Unselected [US]) from the second generation of the two divergently selected populations and an unselected control...

Data from: Fitness consequences of outcrossing in a social spider with an inbreeding mating system

Reut Berger-Tal, Cristina Tuni, Yael Lubin, Debroah Smith, Trine Bilde & Deborah Smith
Inbreeding mating systems are uncommon because of inbreeding depression. Mating among close relatives can evolve, however, when outcrossing is constrained. Social spiders show obligatory mating among siblings. In combination with a female-biased sex ratio, sib-mating results in small effective populations. In such a system high genetic homozygosity is expected, and drift may cause population divergence. We tested the effect of outcrossing in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola. Females were mated to sib-males, to a non-nestmate...

Data from: Molecular adaptation in flowering and symbiotic recognition pathways: insights from patterns of polymorphism in the legume Medicago truncatula

Stephane De Mita, Nathalie Chantret, Karine Loridon, Joelle Ronfort & Thomas Bataillon
BACKGROUND: Flowering date in annual plants, and perception of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing rhizobium in legumes, are strongly selected traits. We asked if natural selection can be detected at key genes of the flowering and rhizobia recognition pathways in the model legume Medicago truncatula. RESULTS: We examined nucleotide variation among 57 accessions from natural populations in 53 gene fragments: 11 genes involved in flowering, 5 genes involved in nitrogen-fixing bacteria recognition, and 37 genes used as control...

Data from: Historical DNA documents long distance natal homing in marine fish

Sara Bonanomi, Nina Overgaard Therkildsen, Anja Retzel, Rasmus Berg Hedeholm, Martin Wæver Wæver Pedersen, Dorte Meldrup, Christophe Pampoulie, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Peter Grønkjær & Einar Nielsen
The occurrence of natal homing in marine fish remains a fundamental question in fish ecology as its unequivocal demonstration requires tracking of individuals from fertilization to reproduction. Here, we provide evidence of long distance natal homing (> 1000 km) over more than sixty years in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), through genetic analysis of archived samples from marked and recaptured individuals. Using a high differentiation Single Nucleotide Polymorphism assay we demonstrate that the vast majority of...

Data from: All roads lead to home: panmixia of European eel in the Sargasso Sea

Thomas D Als, Michael M Hansen, Gregory E Maes, Martin Castonguay, Lasse Riemann, Kim Aarestrup, Peter Munk, Henrik Sparholt, Reinhold Hanel & Louis Bernatchez
European eels (Anguilla anguilla) spawn in the remote Sargasso Sea in partial sympatry with American eels (Anguilla rostrata), and juveniles are transported more than 5,000 kilometres back to the European and North African coasts. The two species have been regarded as classic textbook examples of panmixia, each comprising a single, randomly mating population. However, several recent studies based on continental samples have found subtle, but significant, genetic differentiation, interpreted as geographical or temporal heterogeneity between...

Data from: A widespread thermodynamic effect, but maintenance of biological rates through space across life’s major domains

Jesper G. Sørensen, Craig R. White, Grant A. Duffy & Steven L. Chown
For over a century, the hypothesis of temperature compensation, the maintenance of similar biological rates in species from different thermal environments, has remained controversial. An alternative idea, that fitness is greater at higher temperatures (the thermodynamic effect), has gained increasing traction. This alternative hypothesis is also being used to understand large-scale biodiversity responses to environmental change. Yet evidence in favour of each of these contrasting hypotheses continues to emerge. In consequence, the fundamental nature of...

Data from: Trait specific consequences of inbreeding on adaptive phenotypic plasticity

Mads F. Schou, Torsten N. Kristensen & Volker Loeschcke
Environmental changes may stress organisms and stimulate an adaptive phenotypic response. Effects of inbreeding often interact with the environment and can decrease fitness of inbred individuals exposed to stress more so than that of outbred individuals. Such an interaction may stem from a reduced ability of inbred individuals to respond plastically to environmental stress; however, this hypothesis has rarely been tested. In this study, we mimicked the genetic constitution of natural inbred populations by rearing...

Data from: Natural selection interacts with recombination to shape the evolution of hybrid genomes

Molly Schumer, Chenling Xu, Daniel L Powell, Arun Durvasula, Laurits Skov, Chris Holland, John C Blazier, Sriram Sankararaman, Peter Andolfatto, Gil G Rosenthal & Molly Przeworski
To investigate the consequences of hybridization between species, we studied three replicate hybrid populations that formed naturally between two swordtail fish species, estimating their fine-scale genetic map and inferring ancestry along the genomes of 690 individuals. In all three populations, ancestry from the “minor” parental species is more common in regions of high recombination and where there is linkage to fewer putative targets of selection. The same patterns are apparent in a reanalysis of human...

Data from: Limited dietary overlap amongst resident Arctic herbivores in winter - complementary insights from complementary methods

Niels M. Schmidt, Jesper B. Mosbacher, Eero J. Vesterinen, Tomas Roslin & Anders Michelsen
Snow may prevent Arctic herbivores from accessing their forage in winter, forcing them to aggregate in the few patches with limited snow. In High Arctic Greenland, Arctic hare and rock ptarmigan often forage in muskox feeding craters. We therefore hypothesized that due to limited availability of forage, the dietary niches of these resident herbivores overlap considerably, and that the overlap increases as winter progresses. To test this, we analyzed fecal samples collected in early and...

Rethinking megafauna

Marcos Moleón, José Sánchez-Zapata, José Donázar, Eloy Revilla, Berta Martín-López, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Wayne Getz, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Larry Crowder, Mauro Galetti, Manuela González-Suárez, Fengzhi He, Pedro Jordano, Rebecca Lewison, Robin Naidoo, Norman Owen-Smith, Nuria Selva, Jens-Christian Svenning, José Tella, Christiane Zarfl, Sonja Jähnig, Matt Hayward, Søren Faurby, Nuria García … & Klement Tochner
Concern for megafauna is increasing among scientists and non-scientists. Many studies have emphasized that megafauna play prominent ecological roles and provide important ecosystem services to humanity. But, what precisely are “megafauna”? Here we critically assess the concept of megafauna and propose a goal-oriented framework for megafaunal research. First, we review definitions of megafauna and analyze associated terminology in the scientific literature. Second, we conduct a survey among ecologists and paleontologists to assess the species traits...

Data set showing the number of tail scars of North American and Eurasian beavers

Martin Mayer
Intraspecific competition plays an important role for territory acquisition and occupancy, in turn affecting individual fitness. Thus, understanding the drivers of intraspecific aggression can increase our understanding of population dynamics. Here, we investigated intraspecific aggression in Eurasian (Castor fiber) and North American (C. canadensis) beavers that are both monogamous, territorial mammals. Combined, we examined tail scars from >1000 beavers (>2000 capture events) as part of two long-term studies in Norway and the USA. We investigated...

Data from: Nest attentiveness drives nest predation in arctic sandpipers

Nicolas Meyer, Loïc Bollache, François-Xavier Dechaume-Moncharmont, Jerôme Moreau, Eve Afonso, Anders Angerbjörn, Joël Bety, Dorothee Ehrich, Vladimir Gilg, Marie-Andrée Giroux, Jannik Hansen, Richard Lanctot, Johannes Lang, Nicolas Lecomte, Laura McKinnon, Jeroen Reneerkens, Sarah Saalfeld, Brigitte Sabard, Niels Schmidt, Benoît Sittler, Paul Smith, Aleksandr Sokolov, Vasiliy Sokolov, Natalya Sokolova, Rob Van Bemmelen … & Olivier Gilg
Most birds incubate their eggs to allow embryo development. This behaviour limits the ability of adults to perform other activities. Hence, incubating adults trade-off incubation and nest protection with foraging to meet their own needs. Parents can either cooperate to sustain this trade-off or incubate alone. The main cause of reproductive failure at this reproductive stage is predation and adults reduce this risk by keeping the nest location secret. Arctic sandpipers are interesting biological models...

Data from: Neural dysfunction correlates with heat coma and CTmax in Drosophila but does not set the boundaries for heat stress survival

Lisa B. Jørgensen, R. Meldrum Robertson & Johannes Overgaard
When heated, insects lose coordinated movement followed by the onset of heat coma (critical thermal maximum, CTmax). These traits are popular measures to quantify interspecific and intraspecific differences in insect heat tolerance, and CTmax correlates well with current species distributions of insects, including Drosophila. Here, we examined the function of the central nervous system (CNS) in five species of Drosophila with different heat tolerances, while they were exposed to either constant high temperature or a...

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