375 Works

Elevational shifts in foliar-soil δ15N in the Hengduan Mountains and different potential mechanisms

Qiong Chen, Ji Chen, Mathias Neumann Andersen & Xiaoli Cheng
The natural abundance of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) provides insights into the N dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems, the determination of which is considered an effective approach for gaining a better understanding ecosystem N cycling. However, there is currently little information available regarding the patterns and mechanisms underlying the variation in foliar-soil δ15N among mountain ecosystems. In this study, we examined the determinants of foliar-soil δ15N in association with N transportation rates along an elevational gradient...

Rethinking megafauna

Marcos Moleón, José Sánchez-Zapata, José Donázar, Eloy Revilla, Berta Martín-López, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Wayne Getz, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Larry Crowder, Mauro Galetti, Manuela González-Suárez, Fengzhi He, Pedro Jordano, Rebecca Lewison, Robin Naidoo, Norman Owen-Smith, Nuria Selva, Jens-Christian Svenning, José Tella, Christiane Zarfl, Sonja Jähnig, Matt Hayward, Søren Faurby, Nuria García … & Klement Tochner
Concern for megafauna is increasing among scientists and non-scientists. Many studies have emphasized that megafauna play prominent ecological roles and provide important ecosystem services to humanity. But, what precisely are “megafauna”? Here we critically assess the concept of megafauna and propose a goal-oriented framework for megafaunal research. First, we review definitions of megafauna and analyze associated terminology in the scientific literature. Second, we conduct a survey among ecologists and paleontologists to assess the species traits...

Data from: Genome-wide association analysis of type 2 diabetes in the EPIC-InterAct study

Lina Cai, Eleanor Wheeler, Nicola D. Kerrison, Jian'an Luan, Panos Deloukas, Paul W. Franks, Pilar Amiano, Eva Ardanaz, Catalina Bonet, Guy Fagherazzi, Leif C. Groop, Rudolf Kaaks, José María Huerta, Giovanna Masala, Peter M. Nilsson, Kim Overvad, Valeria Pala, Salvatore Panico, Miguel Rodriguez-Barranco, Olov Rolandsson, Carlotta Sacerdote, Matthias B. Schulze, Annemieke M.W. Spijkeman, Anne Tjonneland, Rosario Tumino … & Nicholas J. Wareham
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global public health challenge. Whilst the advent of genome-wide association studies has identified >400 genetic variants associated with T2D, our understanding of its biological mechanisms and translational insights is still limited. The EPIC-InterAct project, centred in 8 countries in the European Prospective Investigations into Cancer and Nutrition study, is one of the largest prospective studies of T2D. Established as a nested case-cohort study to investigate the interplay between genetic...

Detecting shrub encroachment in semi-natural grasslands using UAS LiDAR

Bjarke Madsen, Urs Treier & Signe Normand
Shrub encroachment in semi-natural grasslands threatens local biodiversity unless management is applied to reduce shrub density. Dense vegetation of Cytisus scoparius homogenizes the landscape negatively affecting local plant diversity. Detecting structural change (e.g., biomass) is essential for assessing negative impacts of encroachment. Hence, exploring new monitoring tools to achieve this task is important for effectively capturing change and evaluating management activities. This study combines traditional field-based measurements with novel Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) observations...

Data from: Cold-acclimation increases depolarization resistance and tolerance in muscle fibers from a chill-susceptible insect, Locusta migratoria

Jeppe Bayley, Jesper Sørensen, Martin Moos, Vladimír Koštál & Johannes Overgaard
Cold exposure depolarizes cells in insects due to a reduced electrogenic ion transport and a gradual increase in extracellular [K+]. Cold-induced depolarization is linked to cold injury in chill-susceptible insects, and the locust, Locusta migratoria, has shown improved cold tolerance following cold-acclimation through depolarization resistance. Here we investigate how cold-acclimation influences depolarization resistance and how this resistance relates to improved cold tolerance. To address this question, we investigated if cold-acclimation affects the electrogenic transport capacity...

Genetic diversity and connectivity of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) found in the Brazil and Chile–Peru wintering grounds and the South Georgia (Islas Georgias del Sur) feeding ground

Emma L Carroll, Paulo Ott, Louise McMillan, Bárbara Galletti Vernazzani, Petra Neveceralova, Els Vermeulen, Oscar Gaggiotti, Artur Andriolo, C. Scott Baker, Connor Bamford, Peter Best, Elsa Cabrera, Susannah Calderan, Andrea Chirife, Rachel M. Fewster, Paulo A. C. Flores, Timothy Frasier, Thales R. O. Freitas, Karina Groch, Pavel Hulva, Amy Kennedy, Russell Leaper, Mathew S. Leslie, Michael Moore, Larissa Oliviera … & Jennifer A Jackson
As species recover from exploitation, continued assessments of connectivity and population structure are warranted to provide information for conservation and management. This is particularly true in species with high dispersal capacity, such as migratory whales, where patterns of connectivity could change rapidly. Here we build on a previous long-term, large-scale collaboration on southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) to combine new (nnew) and published (npub) mitochondrial (mtDNA) and microsatellite genetic data from all major wintering grounds...

Intraspecific variation of Phragmites australis: Clinal adaption of functional traits and phenotypic plasticity vary with latitude of origin

Linjing Ren, Xiao Guo, Shuna Liu, Ting Yu, Weihua Guo, Renqing Wang, Siyuan Ye, Carla Lambertini, Hans Brix & Franziska Eller
1. Widespread plant species generally have high intraspecific variation in functional traits, which is reflected in their great variety of phenotypes. This variety can result from both genetic differences due to local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. With high intraspecific variation and nearly global distribution, the common reed Phragmites australis is a suitable model species for studying the underlying mechanisms of intraspecific trait variation. 2. In this study, 71 genotypes of P. australis from seven phylogeographic...

Molecular mechanisms underlying plasticity in a thermally varying environment

Paul Vinu Salachan & Jesper Givskov Sørensen
Adaptation to environmental variability is a prerequisite for species’ persistence in their natural environments. With climate change predicted to increase the frequency and severity of temperature fluctuations, ectothermic organisms may increasingly depend on acclimation capacity to accommodate thermal variability. To elucidate the molecular basis of fluctuating temperature induced phenotypic plasticity, we investigated heat tolerance and the mechanisms induced by acclimation to thermal variability as compared to those seen at constant temperature. We ran genome-wide transcriptomic...

Combining population genomics with demographic analyses highlights habitat patchiness and larval dispersal as determinants of connectivity in coastal fish species

Halvor Knutsen, Diana Catarino, Lauren Rogers, Marte Sodeland, Morten Mattingsdal, Marlene Jahnke, Jeffrey Hutchings, Ida Mellerud, Sigurd Espeland, Kerstin Johanneson, Olivia Roth, Michael Hansen, Sissel Jentoft, Carl Andre & Per Erik Jorde
Gene flow shapes spatial genetic structure as well as the potential for local adaptation of populations. Among marine animals with non-migratory adults, the presence or absence of a pelagic larval stage is thought to be a key determinant in shaping gene flow and the genetic structure of populations. In addition, the spatial distribution of suitable habitats will influence the distribution of biological populations and their pattern of gene flow. We used whole genome sequencing to...

Data from: Hay provision affects 24-h performance of normal and abnormal oral behaviors in dairy calves

Blair Caitlin Downey, Margit Bak Jensen & Cassandra Blaine Tucker
Dairy calves often perform abnormal repetitive behaviors (ARBs) including tongue rolling and non-nutritive oral manipulation (NNOM) when opportunities to perform feeding behaviors are restricted. Many US dairy farms limit access to milk, a well-studied risk factor for ARBs. However, farms also commonly do not feed forage to young calves, and the motor patterns of oral ARBs resemble those necessary for acquiring and chewing solid feed. Our objective was to assess how access to hay from...

Data from: Reconstructing paternal genotypes to infer patterns of sperm storage and sexual selection in the hawksbill turtle

Karl P. Phillips, Tove H. Jorgensen, Kevin G. Jolliffe, San-Marie Joliffe, Jock Henwood & David S. Richardson
Postcopulatory sperm storage can serve a range of functions, including ensuring fertility, allowing delayed fertilization and facilitating sexual selection. Sperm storage is likely to be particularly important in wide-ranging animals with low population densities, but its prevalence and importance in such taxa, and its role in promoting sexual selection, are poorly known. Here, we use a powerful microsatellite array and paternal genotype reconstruction to assess the prevalence of sperm storage and test sexual selection hypotheses...

Data from: Contrasting the roles of section length and instream habitat enhancement for river restoration success: a field study on 20 European restoration projects

Daniel Hering, Jukka Aroviita, Annette Baattrup-Pedersen, Karel Brabec, Tom Buijse, Frauke Ecke, Nikolai Friberg, Marek Gielczewski, Kathrin Januschke, Jan Köhler, Benjamin Kupilas, Armin W. Lorenz, Susanne Muhar, Amael Paillex, Michaela Poppe, Torsten Schmidt, Stefan Schmutz, Jan Vermaat, Piet F. M. Verdonschot, Ralf C. M. Verdonschot, Jochem Kail & Christian Wolter
1. Restoration of river hydromorphology often has limited detected effects on river biota. One frequently discussed reason is that the restored river length is insufficient to allow populations to develop and give the room for geomorphologic processes to occur. 2. We investigated ten pairs of restored river sections of which one was a large project involving a long, intensively restored river section and one represented a smaller restoration effort. The restoration effect was quantified by...

Data from: Data for evaluation of fast kurtosis imaging, b-value optimization and exploration of diffusion MRI contrast

Brian Hansen & Sune Nørhøj Jespersen
Here we describe and provide diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data that was acquired in neural tissue and a physical phantom. Data acquired in biological tissue includes: fixed rat brain (acquired at 9.4T) and spinal cord (acquired at 16.4T) and in normal human brain (acquired at 3T). This data was recently used for evaluation of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) contrasts and for comparison to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameter contrast. The data has also been...

Data from: Algorithm for post-clustering curation of DNA amplicon data yields reliable biodiversity estimates

Tobias Guldberg Frøslev, Rasmus Kjøller, Hans Henrik Bruun, Rasmus Ejrnæs, Ane Kirstine Brunbjerg, Carlotta Pietroni & Anders Johannes Hansen
DNA metabarcoding is promising for cost-effective biodiversity monitoring, but reliable diversity estimates are difficult to achieve and validate. Here we present and validate a method, called LULU, for removing erroneous molecular operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from community data derived by high-throughput sequencing of amplified marker genes. LULU identifies errors by combining sequence similarity and co-occurrence patterns. To validate the LULU method, we use a unique data set of high quality survey data of vascular plants...

Data from: Genomic parallelism and lack thereof in contrasting systems of three‐spined sticklebacks

Shenglin Liu, Anne-Laure Ferchaud, Peter Grønkjær, Rasmus Nygaard & Michael M. Hansen
Parallel evolution and the extent to which it involves gene reuse has attracted much interest. Whereas it has theoretically been predicted under which circumstances gene reuse is expected, empirical studies that directly compare systems showing high and low parallelism are rare. Three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), where freshwater populations have been independently founded by ancestral marine populations, represent prime examples of phenotypic and genomic parallelism, but cases exist where parallelism is low. Based on RAD (Restriction...

Data from: A widespread thermodynamic effect, but maintenance of biological rates through space across life’s major domains

Jesper G. Sørensen, Craig R. White, Grant A. Duffy & Steven L. Chown
For over a century, the hypothesis of temperature compensation, the maintenance of similar biological rates in species from different thermal environments, has remained controversial. An alternative idea, that fitness is greater at higher temperatures (the thermodynamic effect), has gained increasing traction. This alternative hypothesis is also being used to understand large-scale biodiversity responses to environmental change. Yet evidence in favour of each of these contrasting hypotheses continues to emerge. In consequence, the fundamental nature of...

Data from: Population structure, genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium in perennial ryegrass populations divergently selected for freezing tolerance

Mallikarjuna Rao Kovi, Siri Fjellheim, Simen R. Sandve, Arild Larsen, Heidi Rudi, Torben Asp, Matthew Peter Kent & Odd Arne Rognli
Low temperature is one of the abiotic stresses seriously affecting the growth of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. Understanding the genetic control of freezing tolerance would aid in the development of cultivars of perennial ryegrass with improved adaptation to frost. A total number of 80 individuals (24 of High frost [HF]; 29 of Low frost [LF] and 27 of Unselected [US]) from the second generation of the two divergently selected populations and an unselected control...

Data from: Nested species interactions promote feasibility over stability during the assembly of a pollinator community

Serguei Saavedra, Rudolf P. Rohr, Jens M. Olesen & Jordi Bascompte
The foundational concepts behind the persistence of ecological communities have been based on two ecological properties: dynamical stability and feasibility. The former is typically regarded as the capacity of a community to return to an original equilibrium state after a perturbation in species abundances and is usually linked to the strength of interspecific interactions. The latter is the capacity to sustain positive abundances on all its constituent species and is linked to both interspecific interactions...

Data from: All roads lead to home: panmixia of European eel in the Sargasso Sea

Thomas D Als, Michael M Hansen, Gregory E Maes, Martin Castonguay, Lasse Riemann, Kim Aarestrup, Peter Munk, Henrik Sparholt, Reinhold Hanel & Louis Bernatchez
European eels (Anguilla anguilla) spawn in the remote Sargasso Sea in partial sympatry with American eels (Anguilla rostrata), and juveniles are transported more than 5,000 kilometres back to the European and North African coasts. The two species have been regarded as classic textbook examples of panmixia, each comprising a single, randomly mating population. However, several recent studies based on continental samples have found subtle, but significant, genetic differentiation, interpreted as geographical or temporal heterogeneity between...

Data from: Few genetic and environmental correlations between life history and stress resistance traits affect adaptation to fluctuating thermal regimes

Tommaso Manenti, Jesper G. Sørensen, Neda N. Moghadam & Volker Loeschcke
Laboratory selection in thermal regimes that differed in the amplitude and the predictability of daily fluctuations had a marked effect on stress resistance and life history traits in Drosophila simulans. The observed evolutionary changes are expected to be the result of both direct and correlated responses to selection. Thus, a given trait might not evolve independently from other traits because of genetic correlations among these traits. Moreover, different test environments can induce novel genetic correlations...

Data from: Fitness consequences of outcrossing in a social spider with an inbreeding mating system

Reut Berger-Tal, Cristina Tuni, Yael Lubin, Debroah Smith, Trine Bilde & Deborah Smith
Inbreeding mating systems are uncommon because of inbreeding depression. Mating among close relatives can evolve, however, when outcrossing is constrained. Social spiders show obligatory mating among siblings. In combination with a female-biased sex ratio, sib-mating results in small effective populations. In such a system high genetic homozygosity is expected, and drift may cause population divergence. We tested the effect of outcrossing in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola. Females were mated to sib-males, to a non-nestmate...

Data from: Laboratory maintenance does not alter ecological and physiological patterns among species: a Drosophila case study

Heidi J. MacLean, Torsten Nygaard Kristensen, Jesper G. Sorensen & Johannes Overgaard
Large comparative studies in animal ecology, physiology, and evolution often use animals reared in the laboratory for many generations; however, the relevance of these studies hinges on the assumption that laboratory populations are still representative for their wild living conspecifics. In the present study, we investigate if laboratory-maintained and freshly-collected animal populations are fundamentally different and if data from laboratory-maintained animals are valid to use in large comparative investigations of ecological and physiological patterns. Here,...

Data from: Molecular adaptation in flowering and symbiotic recognition pathways: insights from patterns of polymorphism in the legume Medicago truncatula

Stephane De Mita, Nathalie Chantret, Karine Loridon, Joelle Ronfort & Thomas Bataillon
BACKGROUND: Flowering date in annual plants, and perception of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing rhizobium in legumes, are strongly selected traits. We asked if natural selection can be detected at key genes of the flowering and rhizobia recognition pathways in the model legume Medicago truncatula. RESULTS: We examined nucleotide variation among 57 accessions from natural populations in 53 gene fragments: 11 genes involved in flowering, 5 genes involved in nitrogen-fixing bacteria recognition, and 37 genes used as control...

Data from: Trait specific consequences of inbreeding on adaptive phenotypic plasticity

Mads F. Schou, Torsten N. Kristensen & Volker Loeschcke
Environmental changes may stress organisms and stimulate an adaptive phenotypic response. Effects of inbreeding often interact with the environment and can decrease fitness of inbred individuals exposed to stress more so than that of outbred individuals. Such an interaction may stem from a reduced ability of inbred individuals to respond plastically to environmental stress; however, this hypothesis has rarely been tested. In this study, we mimicked the genetic constitution of natural inbred populations by rearing...

Data from: Historical DNA documents long distance natal homing in marine fish

Sara Bonanomi, Nina Overgaard Therkildsen, Anja Retzel, Rasmus Berg Hedeholm, Martin Wæver Wæver Pedersen, Dorte Meldrup, Christophe Pampoulie, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Peter Grønkjær & Einar Nielsen
The occurrence of natal homing in marine fish remains a fundamental question in fish ecology as its unequivocal demonstration requires tracking of individuals from fertilization to reproduction. Here, we provide evidence of long distance natal homing (> 1000 km) over more than sixty years in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), through genetic analysis of archived samples from marked and recaptured individuals. Using a high differentiation Single Nucleotide Polymorphism assay we demonstrate that the vast majority of...

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