47 Works

Rethinking megafauna

Marcos Moleón, José Sánchez-Zapata, José Donázar, Eloy Revilla, Berta Martín-López, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Wayne Getz, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Larry Crowder, Mauro Galetti, Manuela González-Suárez, Fengzhi He, Pedro Jordano, Rebecca Lewison, Robin Naidoo, Norman Owen-Smith, Nuria Selva, Jens-Christian Svenning, José Tella, Christiane Zarfl, Sonja Jähnig, Matt Hayward, Søren Faurby, Nuria García … & Klement Tochner
Concern for megafauna is increasing among scientists and non-scientists. Many studies have emphasized that megafauna play prominent ecological roles and provide important ecosystem services to humanity. But, what precisely are “megafauna”? Here we critically assess the concept of megafauna and propose a goal-oriented framework for megafaunal research. First, we review definitions of megafauna and analyze associated terminology in the scientific literature. Second, we conduct a survey among ecologists and paleontologists to assess the species traits...

Data from: Genome-wide association analysis of type 2 diabetes in the EPIC-InterAct study

Lina Cai, Eleanor Wheeler, Nicola D. Kerrison, Jian'an Luan, Panos Deloukas, Paul W. Franks, Pilar Amiano, Eva Ardanaz, Catalina Bonet, Guy Fagherazzi, Leif C. Groop, Rudolf Kaaks, José María Huerta, Giovanna Masala, Peter M. Nilsson, Kim Overvad, Valeria Pala, Salvatore Panico, Miguel Rodriguez-Barranco, Olov Rolandsson, Carlotta Sacerdote, Matthias B. Schulze, Annemieke M.W. Spijkeman, Anne Tjonneland, Rosario Tumino … & Nicholas J. Wareham
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global public health challenge. Whilst the advent of genome-wide association studies has identified >400 genetic variants associated with T2D, our understanding of its biological mechanisms and translational insights is still limited. The EPIC-InterAct project, centred in 8 countries in the European Prospective Investigations into Cancer and Nutrition study, is one of the largest prospective studies of T2D. Established as a nested case-cohort study to investigate the interplay between genetic...

Detecting shrub encroachment in semi-natural grasslands using UAS LiDAR

Bjarke Madsen, Urs Treier & Signe Normand
Shrub encroachment in semi-natural grasslands threatens local biodiversity unless management is applied to reduce shrub density. Dense vegetation of Cytisus scoparius homogenizes the landscape negatively affecting local plant diversity. Detecting structural change (e.g., biomass) is essential for assessing negative impacts of encroachment. Hence, exploring new monitoring tools to achieve this task is important for effectively capturing change and evaluating management activities. This study combines traditional field-based measurements with novel Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) observations...

Genetic diversity and connectivity of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) found in the Brazil and Chile–Peru wintering grounds and the South Georgia (Islas Georgias del Sur) feeding ground

Emma L Carroll, Paulo Ott, Louise McMillan, Bárbara Galletti Vernazzani, Petra Neveceralova, Els Vermeulen, Oscar Gaggiotti, Artur Andriolo, C. Scott Baker, Connor Bamford, Peter Best, Elsa Cabrera, Susannah Calderan, Andrea Chirife, Rachel M. Fewster, Paulo A. C. Flores, Timothy Frasier, Thales R. O. Freitas, Karina Groch, Pavel Hulva, Amy Kennedy, Russell Leaper, Mathew S. Leslie, Michael Moore, Larissa Oliviera … & Jennifer A Jackson
As species recover from exploitation, continued assessments of connectivity and population structure are warranted to provide information for conservation and management. This is particularly true in species with high dispersal capacity, such as migratory whales, where patterns of connectivity could change rapidly. Here we build on a previous long-term, large-scale collaboration on southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) to combine new (nnew) and published (npub) mitochondrial (mtDNA) and microsatellite genetic data from all major wintering grounds...

Intraspecific variation of Phragmites australis: Clinal adaption of functional traits and phenotypic plasticity vary with latitude of origin

Linjing Ren, Xiao Guo, Shuna Liu, Ting Yu, Weihua Guo, Renqing Wang, Siyuan Ye, Carla Lambertini, Hans Brix & Franziska Eller
1. Widespread plant species generally have high intraspecific variation in functional traits, which is reflected in their great variety of phenotypes. This variety can result from both genetic differences due to local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. With high intraspecific variation and nearly global distribution, the common reed Phragmites australis is a suitable model species for studying the underlying mechanisms of intraspecific trait variation. 2. In this study, 71 genotypes of P. australis from seven phylogeographic...

Data from: Cold-acclimation increases depolarization resistance and tolerance in muscle fibers from a chill-susceptible insect, Locusta migratoria

Jeppe Bayley, Jesper Sørensen, Martin Moos, Vladimír Koštál & Johannes Overgaard
Cold exposure depolarizes cells in insects due to a reduced electrogenic ion transport and a gradual increase in extracellular [K+]. Cold-induced depolarization is linked to cold injury in chill-susceptible insects, and the locust, Locusta migratoria, has shown improved cold tolerance following cold-acclimation through depolarization resistance. Here we investigate how cold-acclimation influences depolarization resistance and how this resistance relates to improved cold tolerance. To address this question, we investigated if cold-acclimation affects the electrogenic transport capacity...

Data from: Nest attentiveness drives nest predation in arctic sandpipers

Nicolas Meyer, Loïc Bollache, François-Xavier Dechaume-Moncharmont, Jerôme Moreau, Eve Afonso, Anders Angerbjörn, Joël Bety, Dorothee Ehrich, Vladimir Gilg, Marie-Andrée Giroux, Jannik Hansen, Richard Lanctot, Johannes Lang, Nicolas Lecomte, Laura McKinnon, Jeroen Reneerkens, Sarah Saalfeld, Brigitte Sabard, Niels Schmidt, Benoît Sittler, Paul Smith, Aleksandr Sokolov, Vasiliy Sokolov, Natalya Sokolova, Rob Van Bemmelen … & Olivier Gilg
Most birds incubate their eggs to allow embryo development. This behaviour limits the ability of adults to perform other activities. Hence, incubating adults trade-off incubation and nest protection with foraging to meet their own needs. Parents can either cooperate to sustain this trade-off or incubate alone. The main cause of reproductive failure at this reproductive stage is predation and adults reduce this risk by keeping the nest location secret. Arctic sandpipers are interesting biological models...

Data from: Neural dysfunction correlates with heat coma and CTmax in Drosophila but does not set the boundaries for heat stress survival

Lisa B. Jørgensen, R. Meldrum Robertson & Johannes Overgaard
When heated, insects lose coordinated movement followed by the onset of heat coma (critical thermal maximum, CTmax). These traits are popular measures to quantify interspecific and intraspecific differences in insect heat tolerance, and CTmax correlates well with current species distributions of insects, including Drosophila. Here, we examined the function of the central nervous system (CNS) in five species of Drosophila with different heat tolerances, while they were exposed to either constant high temperature or a...

Data set showing the number of tail scars of North American and Eurasian beavers

Martin Mayer
Intraspecific competition plays an important role for territory acquisition and occupancy, in turn affecting individual fitness. Thus, understanding the drivers of intraspecific aggression can increase our understanding of population dynamics. Here, we investigated intraspecific aggression in Eurasian (Castor fiber) and North American (C. canadensis) beavers that are both monogamous, territorial mammals. Combined, we examined tail scars from >1000 beavers (>2000 capture events) as part of two long-term studies in Norway and the USA. We investigated...

Data from : Historical legacies and ecological determinants of grass naturalizations worldwide

Anne-Christine Monnet, Maria S. Vorontsova, Rafaël H. A. Govaerts, Jens-Christian Svenning & Brody Sandel
The global distribution of exotic species is the result of abiotic, biotic and dispersal filtering processes that shape the movement and success of species outside their native range. In this study we aim to understand how these filtering processes drive the fluxes of grass species among regions, the factors that influence which species establish outside of their native range, and where they do so. We used national and subnational checklists of native and introduced grass...

The fate of Meconopsis species in the Tibeto-Himalayan region under future climate change

Wen-Ting Wang, Wen-Yong Guo, Scott Jarvie & Jens-Christian Svenning
High-mountain areas such as the Tibeto-Himalayan region (THR) host cold-adapted biota expected to be sensitive to anthropogenic climate change. Meconopsis is a representative endangered genus confined to alpine meadow or subnival habitats in the THR. To obtain occurrence data for Meconopsis species found in the THR and adjacent regions, we used records from the Chinese Virtual Herbarium (CVH: http://www.cvh.org.cn/), the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF: http://www.gbif.org/), and the published literature (He et al., 2019). We...

Data from: Vessel noise levels drive behavioural responses of humpback whales with implications for whale-watching

Kate Sprogis
Disturbance from whale-watching can cause significant behavioural changes with fitness consequences for targeted whale populations. However, the sensory stimuli triggering these responses are unknown, preventing effective mitigation. Here, we test the hypothesis that vessel noise level is a driver of disturbance, using humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) as a model species. We conducted controlled exposure experiments (n= 42) on resting mother-calf pairs on a resting ground off Australia, by simulating whale-watch scenarios with a research vessel...

Data from: Vessel noise levels drive behavioural responses of humpback whales with implications for whale-watching

Kate Sprogis
Disturbance from whale-watching can cause significant behavioural changes with fitness consequences for targeted whale populations. However, the sensory stimuli triggering these responses are unknown, preventing effective mitigation. Here, we test the hypothesis that vessel noise level is a driver of disturbance, using humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) as a model species. We conducted controlled exposure experiments (n= 42) on resting mother-calf pairs on a resting ground off Australia, by simulating whale-watch scenarios with a research vessel...

Data from: Arthropods as vertebrate predators: a review of global patterns

Jose Valdez
Aim: Arthropods as vertebrate predators is generally overlooked in ecology due to the cryptic nature of these events, the relatively small size of arthropods, and the difficulty in finding published data. This study represents the largest global assessment of arthropods preying on vertebrates to provide a conceptual framework, identify global patterns, and provide a searchable database. Location: Global. Time period: Present. Major taxa studied: Arthropods and vertebrates. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted. Results:...

Genotypes of Swan Geese Anser cygnoides using 17 nuclear microsatellite loci at 14 locations.

Qin Zhu, Iderbat Damaba, Qingshan Zhao, Kunpeng Yi, Nyambayar Batbayar, Tseveenmyadag Natsagdorj, Davaasuren Batmunkh, Xin Wang, Sonia Rozenfeld, Sachiko Moriguchi, Aibin Zhan, Lei Cao & Anthony David Fox
Dispersal affects the spatial distribution and population structure of species.Dispersal is often male-biased in mammals while female-biased in birds, with the notable exception of the Anatidae. In this study, we tested genetic evidence for sex-biased dispersal (SBD) in the Swan Goose Anser cygnoides, an Asian endemic and IUCN vulnerable species, which has been increasingly restricted to breeding on Mongolian steppe wetlands. We analyzed the genotypes of 278 Swan Geese samples from 14 locations at 14...

Genome-scale target capture of mitochondrial and nuclear environmental DNA from water samples

Mads Reinholdt Jensen & Philip Francis Thomsen
Environmental DNA (eDNA) provides a promising supplement to traditional sampling methods for population genetic inferences, but current studies have almost entirely focused on short mitochondrial markers. Here, we develop one mitochondrial and one nuclear set of target capture probes for the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) and test them on seawater samples collected in Qatar to investigate the potential of target capture for eDNA-based population studies. The mitochondrial target capture successfully retrieved ~235x (90x-352x per base...

Criteria for defining interictal epileptiform discharges in EEG: a clinical validation study

Mustafa Aykut Kural, Lene Duez, Vibeke Sejer Hansen, Pål Gunnar Larsson, Stefan Rampp, Reinhard Schulz, Hatice Tankisi, Richard Wennberg, Bo Bibby, Michael Scherg & Sandor Beniczky
Objective: To define and validate criteria for accurate identification of EEG interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) using: (a) the six sensor space criteria proposed by the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology (IFCN), and, (b) a novel source space method. Criteria yielding high specificity are needed because EEG “over-reading” is a common cause of epilepsy misdiagnosis. Methods: Seven raters reviewed EEG segments containing sharp waveforms from 100 patients with and without epilepsy. Clinical diagnosis gold standard was...

Dark diversity reveals importance of biotic resources and competition for plant diversity across habitats

Camilla Fløjgaard, José Valdez, Lars Dalby, Jesper Erenskjold Moeslund, Kevin Clausen, Rasmus Ejrnæs, Meelis Partel & Ane Kirstine Brunbjerg
Species richness is the most commonly used metric to quantify biodiversity. However, examining dark diversity, the group of missing species which can potentially inhabit a site, can provide a more thorough understanding of the processes influencing observed biodiversity and help evaluate the restoration potential of local habitats. So far, dark diversity has mainly been studied for specific habitats or largescale landscapes while less attention has been given to variation across broad environmental gradients or as...

Fear the reaper: ungulate carcasses may generate an ephemeral landscape of fear for rodents

Shane Frank, Rakel Blaalid, Martin Mayer, Andreas Zedrosser & Sam Steyaert
Animal carcasses provide an ephemeral pulse of nutrients for scavengers that utilize them. Carcass sites can increase species interactions and/or ephemeral, localized landscapes of fear for prey within the vicinity. Few studies have applied the landscape of fear to carcasses. Here we use a mass die-off of reindeer caused by lightning in Norway to test whether rodents avoided larger scavengers (e.g. corvids and fox). We used the presence and abundance of faeces as a proxy...

Data from: Reintroducing extirpated herbivores could partially reverse the late Quaternary decline of large and grazing species

Simon D. Schowanek, Matt Davis, Erick J. Lundgren, Owen Middleton, John Rowan, Rasmus Ø. Pedersen, Daniel Ramp, Christopher J. Sandom & Jens-Christian Svenning
Aim: Reinstating large, native herbivores is an essential component of ecological restoration efforts, as these taxa can be important drivers of ecological processes. However, many herbivore species have gone globally or regionally extinct during the last 50,000 years, leaving simplified herbivore assemblages and trophically downgraded ecosystems. Here, we discuss to what extent trophic rewilding can undo these changes by reinstating native herbivores. Location: Global Time Period: We report functional trait changes from the Late Pleistocene...

Efficacy of high-intensity aerobic exercise on brain MRI measures in multiple sclerosis

Martin Langeskov-Christensen, Lars Grøndahl Hvid, Simon Fristed Eskildsen, Mikkel Karl Emil Nygaard, Steffen Ringgaard, Henrik Boye Jensen, Helle Hvilsted Nielsen, Thor Petersen, Egon Stenager & Ulrik Dalgas
Objective: To determine whether 24 weeks of high-intensity progressive aerobic exercise (PAE) affects brain MRI measures in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled, phase 2 trial (with a crossover follow-up) including an exercise group (supervised PAE followed by self-guided physical activity) and a waitlist group (habitual lifestyle followed by supervised PAE). Mildly to severely impaired MS patients aged 18-65 years were randomized (1:1). The primary outcome was percentage brain volume...

Data from: Temporal scale-dependence of plant-pollinator networks

Benjamin Schwarz, Diego Vázquez, Paul CaraDonna, Tiffany Knight, Gita Benadi, Carsten Dormann, Benoit Gauzens, Elena Motivans, Julian Resasco, Nico Blüthgen, Laura Burkle, Qiang Fang, Christopher Kaiser-Bunbury, Ruben Alarcón, Justin Bain, Natacha Chacoff, Shuang-Quan Huang, Gretchen LeBuhn, Molly MacLeod, Theodora Petanidou, Claus Rasmussen, Michael Simanonok, Amibeth Thompson, Daniel Cariveau, Michael Roswell … & Jochen Fründ
The study of mutualistic interaction networks has led to valuable insights into ecological and evolutionary processes. However, our understanding of network structure may depend upon the temporal scale at which we sample and analyze network data. To date, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the temporal scale-dependence of network structure across a wide range of temporal scales and geographic locations. If network structure is temporally scale-dependent, networks constructed over different temporal scales may provide very...

Data for: Environmental conditions alter behavioural organization and rhythmicity of a large Arctic ruminant across the annual cycle

Floris Van Beest, Laissa Beumer, Marianna Chimienti, Jean-Pierre Desforges, Nicholas Huffeldt, Stine Pedersen & Niels Schmidt
The existence and persistence of rhythmicity in animal activity during phases of environmental change is of interest in ecology and chronobiology. A wide diversity of biological rhythms in response to exogenous conditions and internal stimuli have been uncovered, especially for polar vertebrates. However, empirical data supporting circadian organization of large ruminating herbivores remains inconclusive. Using year-round tracking data of the largest Arctic ruminant, the muskox (Ovibos moschatus), we modelled rhythmicity as a function of behaviour...

The long-range echo scene of the sperm whale biosonar

Pernille Tonnesen
Sperm whales use their gigantic nose to produce the most powerful sounds in the animal kingdom, presumably to echolocate deep-sea prey at long ranges and possibly to debilitate prey. To test these hypotheses, we deployed sound recording tags (DTAG-4) on the tip of the nose of three sperm whales. One of these recordings yielded over 6000 echo streams from organisms detected up to 144 m ahead of the whale, supporting a long-range prey detection function...

Scale-dependent drivers of the phylogenetic structure and similarity of tree communities in northwestern Amazonia

Sebastián González-Caro, Joost Duivenvoorden, Henrik Balslev, Jaime Cavelier, Carlos Grández, Manuel Macia, Hugo Romero-Saltos, Mauricio Sanchez, Renato Valencia & Alvaro Duque
1. The extent to which historical dispersal, environmental features and geographic barriers shape the phylogenetic structure and turnover of tree communities in northwestern Amazonia at multiple spatial scales remains poorly understood. 2. We used 85 floristically standardized 0.1-ha plots (DBH ³ 2.5 cm) distributed in three subregions of northwestern (NW) Amazonia across three main habitat types (floodplain, swamp, terra firme forests), to hypothesize that: i) historical dispersal overcome geographical barriers, which meant low local phylogenetic...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    47

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    47

Affiliations

  • Aarhus University
    47
  • Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador
    3
  • University of Gothenburg
    2
  • Institut d'Investigació Biomédica de Bellvitge
    1
  • Northwestern University
    1
  • Instituto de Salud Pública de Navarra
    1
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
    1
  • Azienda Ospedaliera Citta' Della Salute E Della Scienza Di Torino
    1
  • Universitätsklinikum Erlangen
    1
  • Victoria University of Wellington
    1