23 Works

Molecular mechanisms underlying plasticity in a thermally varying environment

Paul Vinu Salachan & Jesper Givskov Sørensen
Adaptation to environmental variability is a prerequisite for species’ persistence in their natural environments. With climate change predicted to increase the frequency and severity of temperature fluctuations, ectothermic organisms may increasingly depend on acclimation capacity to accommodate thermal variability. To elucidate the molecular basis of fluctuating temperature induced phenotypic plasticity, we investigated heat tolerance and the mechanisms induced by acclimation to thermal variability as compared to those seen at constant temperature. We ran genome-wide transcriptomic...

Combining population genomics with demographic analyses highlights habitat patchiness and larval dispersal as determinants of connectivity in coastal fish species

Halvor Knutsen, Diana Catarino, Lauren Rogers, Marte Sodeland, Morten Mattingsdal, Marlene Jahnke, Jeffrey Hutchings, Ida Mellerud, Sigurd Espeland, Kerstin Johanneson, Olivia Roth, Michael Hansen, Sissel Jentoft, Carl Andre & Per Erik Jorde
Gene flow shapes spatial genetic structure as well as the potential for local adaptation of populations. Among marine animals with non-migratory adults, the presence or absence of a pelagic larval stage is thought to be a key determinant in shaping gene flow and the genetic structure of populations. In addition, the spatial distribution of suitable habitats will influence the distribution of biological populations and their pattern of gene flow. We used whole genome sequencing to...

Scale-dependent species-area relationship: niche-based versus stochastic processes in a typical subtropical forest

Haibao Ren, Jens-Christian Svenning, Xiangcheng Mi, James A. Lutz, Jinxing Zhou & Keping Ma
Determining the patterns and drivers of the small-scale species-area relationship (SAR) is crucial for improving our understanding of community assembly and biodiversity patterns. Niche-based and stochastic processes are two principal categories of mechanisms potentially driving SARs. However, their relative importance has rarely been quantified rigorously owing to scale-dependence and the simplified niche volumes often used. In a fully mapped, 24-ha plot of a typical subtropical forest, we built the SARs and well-defined niche-hyper-volumes of a...

Data from: Hay provision affects 24-h performance of normal and abnormal oral behaviors in dairy calves

Blair Caitlin Downey, Margit Bak Jensen & Cassandra Blaine Tucker
Dairy calves often perform abnormal repetitive behaviors (ARBs) including tongue rolling and non-nutritive oral manipulation (NNOM) when opportunities to perform feeding behaviors are restricted. Many US dairy farms limit access to milk, a well-studied risk factor for ARBs. However, farms also commonly do not feed forage to young calves, and the motor patterns of oral ARBs resemble those necessary for acquiring and chewing solid feed. Our objective was to assess how access to hay from...

A novel trophic cascade between cougars and feral donkeys shapes desert wetlands

Erick Lundgren
Introduced large herbivores have partly filled ecological gaps formed in the late Pleistocene, when many of the Earth’s megafauna were driven extinct. However, extant predators are generally considered incapable of exerting top-down influences on introduced megafauna, leading to unusually strong disturbance and herbivory relative to native herbivores. We report on the first documented predation of juvenile feral donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) by cougars (Puma concolor) in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts of North America. We...

Estimating the abundance of the critically endangered Baltic Proper harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) population using passive acoustic monitoring

Mats Amundin, Julia Carlström, Len Thomas, Ida Carlén, Jens Koblitz, Jonas Teilmann, Jakob Tougaard, Nick Tregenza, Daniel Wennerberg, Olli Loisa, Katharina Brundiers, Monika Kosecka, Line A. Kyhn, Cinthia Tiberi Ljungqvist, Signe Sveegaard, Louise Burt, Iwona Pawliczka, Ivar Jüssi, Radomil Koza, Bartłomiej Arciszewski, Anders Galatius, Martin Jabbusch, Jussi Laaksonlaita, Sami Lyytinen, Jussi Niemi … & Harald Benke
Knowing the abundance of a population is a crucial component to assess its conservation status and develop effective conservation plans. For most cetaceans, abundance estimation is difficult given their cryptic and mobile nature, especially when the population is small and has a transnational distribution. In the Baltic Sea, the number of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) has collapsed since the mid-20th century and the Baltic Proper harbour porpoise is listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN...

Elevational shifts in foliar-soil δ15N in the Hengduan Mountains and different potential mechanisms

Qiong Chen, Ji Chen, Mathias Neumann Andersen & Xiaoli Cheng
The natural abundance of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) provides insights into the N dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems, the determination of which is considered an effective approach for gaining a better understanding ecosystem N cycling. However, there is currently little information available regarding the patterns and mechanisms underlying the variation in foliar-soil δ15N among mountain ecosystems. In this study, we examined the determinants of foliar-soil δ15N in association with N transportation rates along an elevational gradient...

Water availability rather than temperature control soil fauna community structure and prey-predator interactions

Adriane Aupic-Samain, Virginie Baldy, Ninon Delcourt, Paul Henning Krogh, Thierry Gauquelin, Catherine Fernandez & Mathieu Santonja
The ongoing climate change may strongly impact soil biodiversity with cascading effects on the processes they drive. Thus, it is of prime interest to improve our knowledge about responses by soil organisms such as collembolans to expected shifts in environmental conditions by considering communities comprising both detritivores and predators. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how simulated climate change and predation under laboratory conditions alter a collembolan community. To infer the impact...

Flying insect biomass is negatively associated with urban cover in surrounding landscapes

Cecilie Svenningsen, Diana Bowler, Susanne Hecker, Jesper Bladt, Volker Grescho, Nicole Van Dam, Jens Dauber, David Eichenberg, Rasmus Ejrnæs, Camilla Fløjgaard, Mark Frenzel, Tobias Frøslev, Anders Hansen, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, Yuanyuan Huang, Jonas Larsen, Juliana Menger, Nur Liyana Nayan, Lene Pedersen, Anett Richter, Robert Dunn, Anders Tøttrup & Aletta Bonn
Aim In this study, we assessed the importance of local to landscape-scale effects of land cover and land use on flying insect biomass. Our main prediction was that insect biomass would be lower within more intensely used land, especially in urban areas and farmland. Location Denmark and parts of Germany. Methods We used rooftop-mounted car nets in a citizen science project (‘InsectMobile’) to allow for large-scale geographic sampling of flying insects. Citizen scientists sampled insects...

Clearance rates of Mytilus edulis exposed to parasites and microplastic

Kim Mouritsen, Nina P. Dalsgaard, Sarah B. Flensburg, Josefine C. Madsen & Christian Selbach
Fear is an integral part of predator-prey interactions with cascading effects on the structure and function of ecosystems. Fear of parasitism holds a similar ecological potential but our understanding of the underlying mechanisms in host-parasite interactions is limited by lack of empirical examples. Here, we experimentally test if blue mussels Mytilus edulis respond behaviourally to the mere presence of infective transmission stages of the trematode Himasthla elongata by ceasing filtration activity, thereby avoiding infection. Our...

Data from: Contrasting climate sensitivity of Pinus cembra tree-ring traits in the Carpathians

Angela Luisa Prendin
High elevation ecosystems are one of the most sensitive to climate change. The analysis of growth and xylem structure of trees from marginal populations, especially the ones growing at the treeline, could provide early-warning signs to better understand species-specific responses to future climate conditions. In this study, we combined classical dendrochronology with wood density and anatomical measurements to investigate the climate sensitivity of Pinus cembra L., a typical European high-elevation tree species distributed in isolated...

Echolocation call parameters of Daubenton's bats during exposure to masking noise

Ilias Foskolos, Michael Bjerre Pedersen, Signe Brinkløv, Kristian Beedholm, Astrid Særmark Uebel, Jamie Macaulay, Laura Stidsholt & Peter Teglberg Madsen
Echolocating bats hunt prey on the wing under conditions of poor lighting by emission of loud calls and subsequent auditory processing of weak returning echoes. To do so, they need adequate echo-to-noise ratios (ENRs) to detect and distinguish target echoes from masking noise. Early obstacle avoidance experiments report high resilience to masking in free-flying bats, but whether this is due to spectral or spatiotemporal release from masking, advanced auditory signal detection or an increase in...

Future seasonal changes in habitat for Arctic whales during predicted ocean warming

Philippine Chambault, Kit M Kovacs, Christian Lydersen, Olga Shpak, Jonas Teilmann, Christoffer M. Albertsen & Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
Ocean warming is causing shifts in the distributions of marine species, but the location of suitable habitats in the future is unknown, especially in remote regions such as the Arctic. Using satellite tracking data from a 28-year long period, covering all three endemic Arctic cetaceans (227 individuals) in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic, together with climate models under two emission scenarios, species distributions were projected to assess responses of these whales to climate change...

Data from: Influences of summer warming and nutrient availability on Salix glauca L. growth in Greenland along an ice to sea gradient

Angela Luisa Prendin, Signe Normand, Marco Carrer, Nanna Bjerregaard Pedersen, Henning Matthiesen, Andreas Westergaard-Nielsen, Bo Elbering, Urs Albert Treier & Jørgen Hollesen
The combined effects of climate change and nutrient availability on Arctic vegetation growth are poorly understood. Archaeological sites in the Arctic could represent unique nutrient hotspots for studying the long-term effect of nutrient enrichment. In this study, we analysed a time-series of ring widths of Salix glauca L. collected at nine archaeological sites and in their natural surroundings along a climate gradient in the Nuuk fjord region, Southwest Greenland, stretching from the edge of the...

The implications of incongruence between gene tree and species tree topologies for divergence time estimation

Tom Carruthers, Miao Sun, William Baker, Stephen Smith, Jurriaan De Vos & Wolf Eiserhardt
Phylogenetic analyses are increasingly being performed with datasets that incorporate hundreds of loci. Due to incomplete lineage sorting, hybridization, and horizontal gene transfer, the gene trees for these loci may often have topologies that differ from each other and from the species tree. The effect of these topological incongruences on divergence time estimation has not been fully investigated. Using a series of simulation experiments and empirical analyses, we demonstrate that when topological incongruence between gene...

Simple attributes predict the value of plants as hosts to fungal and arthropod communities

Hans Henrik Bruun, Ane Kirstine Brunbjerg, Camilla Fløjgaard, Lars Dalby, Tobias Guldberg Frøslev, Simon Haarder, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, Toke Hoye, Thomas Læssøe & Rasmus Ejrnæs
Fungal and arthropod consumers constitute the vast majority of global terrestrial biodiversity. Yet, the link from richness and composition of producer (plant) communities to the richness of consumer communities is poorly understood. Fungal and arthropod species richness could be a simple function of producer species richness at a site. Alternatively, it could be a complex function of chemical and structural properties of the producer species making up communities. We used databases on plant-fungus and plant-arthropod...

A national scale BioBlitz using citizen science and eDNA metabarcoding for monitoring coastal marine fish

Sune Agersnap, Eva Egelyng Sigsgaard, Mads Reinholdt Jensen, Marcelo De Paula Avila, Henrik Carl, Peter Rask Møller, Simon Leed Krøs, Steen Wilhelm Knudsen, Mary Wisz & Philip Francis Thomsen
Marine biodiversity is threatened by human activities. To understand the changes happening in aquatic ecosystems and to inform management, detailed, synoptic monitoring of biodiversity across large spatial extents is needed. Such monitoring is challenging due to the time, cost, and specialized skills that this typically requires. In an unprecedented study, we here combined citizen science with eDNA metabarcoding to map coastal fish biodiversity at a national scale. We engaged 360 citizen scientists to collect filtered...

Supporting code, tables and data for: Megafrugivores as fading shadows of the past: Extant frugivores and the abiotic environment as the most important determinants of the distribution of palms in Madagascar

Laura Méndez, Duarte S. Viana, Adriana Alzate, Wolf L. Eiserhardt, Roberto Rozzi, W. Daniel Kissling, Mijoro Rakotoarinivo & Renske E. Onstein
The extinction of all Madagascar’s megafrugivores ca. 1000 years ago, may have left its signature on the current distribution of vertebrate-dispersed plants across the island, due to the loss of effective seed dispersal. In this study, we dissect the roles of extinct and extant frugivore distributions, abiotic variables, human impact and spatial predictors on the compositional turnover, or beta-diversity, of palm (Arecaceae) species and their fruit sizes across 40 assemblages on Madagascar. Variation partitioning showed...

Antibacterial and anatomical defences in an oil contaminated, vulnerable seaduck

Karsten Laursen, Anders Pape Møller, Jorge Izaguirre & Alfonso Marzal
Oil-spills have killed thousands of birds during the last 100 years, but non-lethal effects of oil-spills on birds remain poorly studied. We measured phenotype characters in 279 eiders Somateria mollissima of which 13.6% were oiled. We tested the hypotheses that (1) the morphology of eiders does not change due to oil contamination; (2) the anatomy of organs reflects the physiological reaction to contamination e.g. increase in metabolic demand, increase in food intake and counteracting toxic...

Metabolite profiling of the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola along a climate gradient

Tobias Sandfeld
Animals experience climatic variation in their natural habitats, which may lead to variation in phenotypic responses among populations through local adaptation or phenotypic plasticity. In ectotherm arthropods, the expression of thermoprotective metabolites such as free amino acids, sugars, and polyols, in response to temperature stress, may facilitate temperature tolerance by regulating cellular homeostasis. If populations experience differences in temperatures, individuals may exhibit population-specific metabolite profiles through differential accumulation of metabolites that facilitate thermal tolerance. Such...

Data from: Sustained positive consequences of genetic rescue of fitness and behavioural traits in inbred populations of Drosophila melanogaster

Daniel Bang Jørgensen, Michael Ørsted & Torsten Nygaard Kristensen
One solution to alleviate the detrimental genetic effects associated with reductions in population size and fragmentation is to introduce immigrants from other populations. While the effects of this genetic rescue on fitness traits are fairly well known, it is less clear to what extent inbreeding depression and subsequent genetic rescue affects behavioural traits. In this study, replicated crosses between inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster were performed in order to investigate the effects of inbreeding and...

Short-term temporal variation of coastal marine eDNA

Mads Reinholdt Jensen, Eva Egelyng Sigsgaard, Marcelo De Paula Ávila, Sune Agersnap, William Brenner-Larsen, Mita Eva Sengupta, Yingchun Xing, Marcus Anders Krag, Steen Wilhelm Knudsen, Henrik Carl, Peter Rask Møller & Philip Francis Thomsen
Temporal variation in eDNA signals is increasingly explored for understanding community ecology in aquatic habitats. Seasonal changes have been addressed using eDNA sampling, but very little is known regarding short-term temporal variation that spans hours to days. To address this, we filtered marine water samples from a single coastal site in Denmark every hour for 32 h. We used metabarcoding to target both fish and broader eukaryote diversity and evaluated temporal changes in this marine...

Teaching, sharing experience and innovation

Ottilie Tilston, Adrian Bangerter & Kristian Tylén
Teaching is widely understood to have an important role in cultural transmission. But cultural transmission experiments typically do not document or analyse what happens during teaching. Here, we examine the content of teaching during skill transmission under two conditions: in the presence of the artefact (no-displacement condition) and in the absence of the artefact (displacement condition). Participants built baskets from various materials to carry as much rice as possible before teaching the next participant in...

Registration Year

  • 2022
    23

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    23

Affiliations

  • Aarhus University
    23
  • University of Copenhagen
    5
  • German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research
    2
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
    1
  • University of Padua
    1
  • Yunnan University
    1
  • Utah State University
    1
  • University of Michigan–Ann Arbor
    1
  • Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut
    1
  • World Maritime University
    1