44 Works

Data from: Genome analyses of the sunflower pathogen Plasmopara halstedii provide insights into effector evolution in downy mildews and Phytophthora

Rahul Sharma & Marco Thines
Background: Downy mildews are the most speciose group of oomycetes and affect crops of great economic importance. So far, there is only a single deeply-sequenced downy mildew genome available, from Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Further genomic resources for downy mildews are required to study their evolution, including pathogenicity effector proteins, such as RxLR effectors. Plasmopara halstedii is a devastating pathogen of sunflower and a potential pathosystem model to study downy mildews, as several Avr-genes and R-genes have...

Data from: Environmental context determines the limiting demographic processes for plant recruitment across a species’ elevational range

Dominik Merges, Jörg Albrecht, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Matthias Schleuning & Eike Lena Neuschulz
Plant recruitment is a multi-stage process determining population dynamics and species distributions. Still, we have limited understanding of how the successive demographic processes depend on the environmental context across species’ distributional ranges. We conducted a large-scale transplant experiment to study recruitment of Pinus cembra over six years. We quantified the effects of environmental conditions on four demographic processes and identified the most limiting across and beyond the pines’ elevational range over several years. Realized transition...

Global impacts of climate change on avian functional diversity

Peter Stewart, Alke Voskamp, Luca Santini, Matthias Biber, Adam Devenish, Christian Hof, Stephen Willis & Joseph Tobias
Climate change is predicted to drive geographical range shifts, leading to fluctuations in species richness worldwide. However, the effect of these changes on functional diversity remains unclear, in part because comprehensive species-level trait data are generally lacking at global scales. Here we use morphometric and ecological traits for 8268 bird species to estimate the impact of climate change on avian functional diversity (FD). We show that future bird assemblages are likely to undergo substantial shifts...

ANDEAN frugivory: data on plant–bird interactions and functional traits of plant and bird species from montane forests along the Andes

D. Matthias Dehling, Irene M. A. Bender, Pedro G. Blendinger, Marcia C. Muñoz, Marta Quitián, Francisco Saavedra, Vinicio Santillán, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Eike-Lena Neuschulz & Matthias Schleuning
Species differ in their resource use and their interactions with other species and, consequently, they fulfil different functional roles in ecological processes. Species with specialized functional roles (specialists) are considered important for communities because they often interact with species with which few other species interact, thereby contributing complementary functional roles to ecological processes. However, the contribution of specialists could be low if they only interact with a small range of interaction partners. In contrast, species...

Pacific Introduced Flora (PacIFLora)

Michael Wohlwend, Dylan Craven, Patrick Weigelt, Hanno Seebens, Marten Winter, Holger Kreft, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Mark Van Kleunen, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, James Space, Philip Thomas & Tiffany Knight
The Pacific region has the highest density of naturalized plant species worldwide, which makes it an important area for research on the ecology, evolution and biogeography of biological invasions. While different data sources on naturalized plant species exist for the Pacific, there is no taxonomically and spatially harmonized database available for different subsets of species and islands. A comprehensive, accessible database containing the distribution of naturalized vascular plant species in the Pacific will enable new...

Data from: Brown and polar bear Y chromosomes reveal extensive male-biased gene flow within brother lineages

Tobias Bidon, Axel Janke, Steven R. Fain, Hans Geir Eiken, Snorre B. Hagen, Urmas Saarma, Björn M. Hallström, Nicolas Lecomte & Frank Hailer
Brown and polar bears have become prominent examples in phylogeography, but previous phylogeographic studies relied largely on maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or were geographically restricted. The male-specific Y chromosome, a natural counterpart to mtDNA, has remained under-explored. Although this paternally inherited chromosome is indispensable for comprehensive analyses of phylogeographic patterns, technical difficulties and low variability have hampered its application in most mammals. We developed 13 novel Y-chromosomal sequence and microsatellite markers from the polar...

Data from: Chironomus riparius (Diptera) genome sequencing reveals the impact of minisatellite transposable elements on population divergence

Ann-Marie Oppold, Hanno Schmidt, Marcel Rose, Sören Lukas Hellman, Florian Dolze, Fabian Ripp, Bettina Weich, Urs Schmidt-Ott, Erwin Schmidt, Robert Kofler, Thomas Hankeln & Markus Pfenninger
Active transposable elements (TEs) may result in divergent genomic insertion and abundance patterns among conspecific populations. Upon secondary contact, such divergent genetic backgrounds can theoretically give rise to classical Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities (DMI), thus contributing to the evolution of endogenous genetic barriers and eventually cause population divergence. We investigated differential TE abundance among conspecific populations of the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius and evaluated their potential role in causing endogenous genetic incompatibilities between these populations. We focussed...

Data from: Biotic interactions and seed deposition rather than abiotic factors determine recruitment at elevational range limits of an alpine tree

Eike Lena Neuschulz, Dominik Merges, Kurt Bollmann, Felix Gugerli & Katrin Böhning-Gaese
1. Abiotic factors, biotic interactions and dispersal ability determine the spatial distribution of species. Theory predicts that abiotic constraints set range limits under harsh climatic conditions and biotic interactions set range limits under benign climatic conditions, whereas dispersal ability should limit both ends of the distribution. However, empirical studies exploring how these three components jointly affect species across environmental gradients are scarce. 2. Here we present a study that jointly examines these factors to investigate...

Data from: Seed-dispersal networks respond differently to resource effects in open and forest habitats

Maximilian G. R. Vollstaedt, Stefan W. Ferger, Andreas Hemp, Kim M. Howell, Katrin Böhning-Gaese & Matthias Schleuning
While patterns in species diversity have been well studied across large-scale environmental gradients, little is known about how species' interaction networks change in response to abiotic and biotic factors across such gradients. Here we studied seed-dispersal networks on 50 study plots distributed over ten different habitat types on the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, to disentangle the effects of climate, habitat structure, fruit diversity and fruit availability on different measures of interaction diversity. We...

Data from: Facial width predicts male fitness and rank but not survival in Second World War Finnish soldiers

John Loehr & Robert B. O'Hara
We investigated fitness, military rank and survival of facial phenotypes in large scale warfare using 795 Finnish soldiers who fought in the Winter War (1939-40). We measured bizygomatic facial width vs. height - a trait known to predict aggressive behaviour in males - and assessed whether facial morphology could predict survival, lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and social status. We found no difference in survival along the phenotypic gradient, however, wider-faced individuals had greater LRS, but...

Data from: Large birds travel farther in homogeneous environments

Marlee A. Tucker, Olga Alexandrou, , Keith L. Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Chloe Bracis, John N. Brzorad, Evan R. Buechley, David Cabot, Justin M. Calabrese, Carlos Carrapato, André Chiaradia, Lisa C. Davenport, Sarah C. Davidson, Mark Desholm, Christopher R. DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Peter Enggist, William F. Fagan, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Christen H. Fleming, Alastair Franke, John M. Fryxell, Clara García-Ripollés … & João Paulo Silva
Aim: Animal movement is an important determinant of individual survival, population dynamics, and ecosystem structure and function. Yet it is still unclear how local movements are related to resource availability and the spatial arrangement of resources. Using resident bird species and migratory bird species outside of the migratory period, we examined how the distribution of resources affect the movement patterns of both large terrestrial birds (e.g., raptors, bustards, hornbills) and waterbirds (e.g., cranes, storks, ducks,...

Data from: Rapid adaptation to high temperatures in Chironomus riparius

Quentin Foucault, Andreas Wieser, Ann-Marie Waldvogel, Barbara Feldmeyer & Markus Pfenninger
Effects of seasonal or daily temperature variation on fitness and physiology of ectothermic organisms and their ways to cope with such variations have been widely studied. However, the way multivoltines organisms cope with temperature variations from a generation to another is still not well understood and complex to identify. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the multivoltine midge Chironomus riparius Meigen (1803) responds mainly via acclimation as predicted by current theories, or...

Data from: Barrier Behavior Analysis (BaBA) reveals extensive effects of fencing on wide-ranging ungulates

Wenjing Xu, Nandintsetseg Dejid, Valentine Herrmann, Hall Sawyer & Arthur Middleton
1. As human activities expand globally, there is a growing need to identify and mitigate barriers to animal movements. Fencing is a pervasive human modification of the landscape that can impede the movements of wide-ranging animals. Previous research has largely focused on whether fences block movements altogether, but a more nuanced understanding of animals’ behavioral responses to fences may be critical for examining the ecological consequences and prioritizing conservation interventions. 2. We developed a spatial-...

Projected climatic changes lead to biome changes in areas of previously constant biome

Brian Huntley, Judy Allen, Matthew Forrest, Thomas Hickler, Ralf Ohlemüller, Joy Singarayer & Paul Valdes
Aim: Recent studies in southern Africa identified past biome stability as an important predictor of biodiversity. We aimed to assess the extent to which past biome stability predicts present global biodiversity patterns, and the extent to which projected climatic changes may lead to eventual biome changes in areas with constant past biome. Location: Global. Taxon: Spermatophyta; terrestrial vertebrates. Methods: Biome constancy was assessed and mapped using results from 89 dynamic global vegetation model simulations, driven...

Data from: Social learning of migratory performance

Thomas Mueller, Robert B. O’Hara, Sarah J. Converse, Richard P. Urbanek & William F. Fagan
Successful bird migration can depend on individual learning, social learning, and innate navigation programs. Using 8 years of data on migrating whooping cranes, we were able to partition genetic and socially learned aspects of migration. Specifically, we analyzed data from a reintroduced population wherein all birds were captive bred and artificially trained by ultralight aircraft on their first lifetime migration. For subsequent migrations, in which birds fly individually or in groups but without ultralight escort,...

Data from: A tale of two seasons: the link between seasonal migration and climatic niches in passerine birds.

Alison Eyres
The question of whether migratory birds track a specific climatic niche by seasonal movements has important implications for understanding the evolution of migration, the factors affecting species’ distributions and the responses of migrants to climate change. Despite much research, previous studies of bird migration have produced mixed results. However, whether migrants track climate is only one half of the question, the other being why residents remain in the same geographic range year-round. We provide a...

Gross primary production responses to warming, elevated CO2 , and irrigation: quantifying the drivers of ecosystem physiology in a semiarid grassland

Elise Pendall, Edmund M. Ryan, Kiona Ogle, Drew Peltier, David G. Williams, Anthony P. Walker, Martin G. De Kauwe, Belinda E. Medlyn, William Parton, Shinichi Asao, Bertrand Guenet, Anna B. Harper, Xingjie Lu, Kristina A. Luus, Sönke Zaehle, Shijie Shu, Christian Werner & Jianyang Xia
Determining whether the terrestrial biosphere will be a source or sink of carbon (C) under a future climate of elevated CO2 (eCO2) and warming requires accurate quantification of gross primary production (GPP), the largest flux of C in the global C cycle. We evaluated 6 years (2007–2012) of flux‐derived GPP data from the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment, situated in a grassland in Wyoming, USA. The GPP data were used to calibrate a...

Source matrices used to obtain the trophic and spatial seed dispersal networks

Beatriz Rumeu, Isabel Donoso, Javier Rodríguez-Pérez & Daniel García
1. Trophic relationships have inherent spatial dimensions associated with the sites where species interactions, or their delayed effects, occur. Trophic networks among interacting species may thus be coupled with spatial networks linking species and habitats whereby animals connect patches across the landscape thanks to their high mobility. This trophic and spatial duality is especially inherent in processes like seed dispersal by animals, where frugivores consume fruit species and deposit seeds across habitats. 2. We analysed...

Data from: Coalescent-based species delimitation approach uncovers high cryptic diversity in the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal genus Protoparmelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota)

Garima Singh, Francesco Dal Grande, Pradeep K. Divakar, Jürgen Otte, Steven D. Leavitt, Katarzyna Szczepanska, Ana Crespo, Víctor J. Rico, André Aptroot, Marcela Eugenia Da Silva Cáceres, H. Thorsten Lumbsch & Imke Schmitt
Species recognition in lichen-forming fungi has been a challenge because of unsettled species concepts, few taxonomically relevant traits, and limitations of traditionally used morphological and chemical characters for identifying closely related species. Here we analyze species diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Protoparmelia s.l. The ~25 described species in this group occur across diverse habitats from the boreal -arctic/alpine to the tropics, but their relationship to each other remains unexplored. In this study, we inferred the...

Data from: Adaptive differentiation coincides with local bioclimatic conditions along an elevational cline in populations of a lichen-forming fungus

Francesco Dal Grande, Rahul Sharma, Anjuli Meiser, Gregor Rolshausen, Burkhard Buedel, Bagdevi Mishra, Marco Thines, Juergen Otte, Markus Pfenninger & Imke Schmitt
Background: Many fungal species occur across a variety of habitats. Particularly lichens, fungi forming symbioses with photosynthetic partners, have evolved remarkable tolerances for environmental extremes. Despite their ecological importance and ubiquity, little is known about the genetic basis of adaption in lichen populations. Here we studied patterns of genome-wide differentiation in the lichen-forming fungus Lasallia pustulata along an altitudinal gradient in the Mediterranean region. We resequenced six populations as pools and identified highly differentiated genomic...

Data from: Community functional trait composition at the continental scale: the effects of non-ecological processes

A. Michelle Lawing, Jussi T. Eronen, Jessica L. Blois, Catherine H. Graham & P. David Polly
Ecological communities and their response to environmental gradients are increasingly being described by measures of trait composition at the community level – the trait-based approach. Whether ecological or non-ecological processes influence trait composition between communities has been debated. Understanding the processes that influence trait composition is important for reconstructing paleoenvironmental conditions from fossil deposits and for understanding changes in community functionality through time. Here, we assess the influence of ecological and non-ecological processes on the...

Stakeholder priorities determine the impact of an alien tree invasion on ecosystem multifunctionality

Theo Linders, Urs Schaffner, Tena Alamirew, Eric Allan, Simon Choge, René Eschen, Hailu Shiferaw & Peter Manning
1. While the ecological impact of environmental change drivers, such as alien plant invasions, is relatively well-described, quantitative social-ecological studies detailing how these changes impact multiple ecosystem services, and subsequently stakeholders, are lacking. 2. We used a social-ecological approach to assess how Prosopis juliflora (Prosopis henceforth)¸ an invasive tree, affects the provision of multiple ecosystem services to different stakeholder groups in a degraded East African dryland. We combined plot-based ecological data on the impacts of...

Data from: Y chromosome haplotype distribution of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Northern Europe provides insight into population history and recovery (Ursus arctos)

Julia Schregel, Hans Geir Eiken, Finn Audun Grøndahl, Frank Hailer, Jouni Aspi, Ilpo Kojola, Konstantin Tirronen, Pjotr Danilov, Alexander Rykov, Eugene Poroshin, Axel Janke, Jon E. Swenson, Snorre B. Hagen & Piotr Danilov
High-resolution, male-inherited Y-chromosomal markers are a useful tool for population genetic analyses of wildlife species, but to date have only been applied in this context to relatively few species besides humans. Using nine Y-chromosomal STR and three Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers (Y-SNPs), we studied whether male gene flow was important for the recent recovery of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in Northern Europe, where the species declined dramatically in numbers and geographic distribution during...

Data from: Spatial patterns of pathogenic and mutualistic fungi across the elevational range of a host plant

Dominik Merges, Miklós Bálint, Imke Schmitt, Katrin Böhning-Gaese & Eike Lena Neuschulz
1. Fungi are both agents of disease and mutualistic partners of plants. Previous studies have tested the effects of abiotic or biotic factors on plant-associated fungal communities in isolation. However, to better understand patterns of plant-fungal associations, the combined effects of abiotic and biotic drivers across environmental gradients may be important. 2. We investigated the effects of temperature, pH, soil moisture, vegetation cover and distance to host plant on the occurrence and abundance of fungi...

Data from: The future distribution of the savannah biome: model-based and biogeographic contingency

Glenn R. Moncrieff, Simon Scheiter, Liam Langan, Steven I. Higgins & Antonio Trabucco
The extent of the savanna biome is expected to be profoundly altered by climatic change and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Contrasting projections are given when using different modelling approaches to estimate future distributions. Furthermore, biogeographic variation within savannas in plant function and structure is expected to lead to divergent responses to global change. Hence the use of a single model with a single savanna tree type will likely lead to biased projections. Here we compare...

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