167 Works

Negative frequency-dependent selection maintains coexisting genotypes during fluctuating selection

Vaughn Cooper, Caroline Turner, Sean Buskirk & Katrina Harris
Natural environments are rarely static; rather selection can fluctuate on time scales ranging from hours to centuries. However, it is unclear how adaptation to fluctuating environments differs from adaptation to constant environments at the genetic level. For bacteria, one key axis of environmental variation is selection for planktonic or biofilm modes of growth. We conducted an evolution experiment with Burkholderia cenocepacia, comparing the evolutionary dynamics of populations evolving under constant selection for either biofilm formation...

Data from: Shoaling guppies evade predation but have deadlier parasites

Jason Walsman, Mary Janecka, David Clark, Rachael Kramp, Faith Rovenolt, Regina Patrick, Ryan Mohammed, Mateusz Konczal, Clayton Cressler & Jessica Stephenson
We collected data on coinfection rates, infection prevalence, and infection intensity for Gyrodactylus spp. on wild Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We also collected data on the shoaling preference of wild-caught guppy hosts. Further, we collected data on transmission rates, infection intensity, and infected host mortality rates of lines of these parasites on guppies in the laboratory. We fouind that wild guppy populations with stronger shoaling preferences had higher infection prevalence and coinfection rates. Further, we...

Right ventricular contractility and load in HIV associated pulmonary hypertension

Arun Rajaratnam, Marc Simon, Alison Morris, Sofiya Rehman, Prerna Sharma, Melissa Saul, Rebecca Vanderpool, Mark Gladwin & Vikas Singh
Background: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) are at risk of developing pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, but understanding of the relationship of RV function to afterload (RV-PA coupling) is limited. We evaluated the clinical and hemodynamic characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated PH. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of HIV undergoing right heart catheterization (RHC) from 2000-2016 in a tertiary care center. Inclusion criteria...

Data from: A generalist nematode destabilizes plant competition: no evidence for direct effects, but strong evidence for indirect effects on rhizobia abundance

Samantha Catella, Castilleja Olmsted, Shaniya Markalanda, Connor McFadden, Corlett Wood & Sara Kuebbing
1. Difficulties quantifying pathogen load and mutualist abundance limit our ability to connect disease dynamics to host community ecology. For example, specific predictions about how differential pathogen load is hypothesized to drive host competitive outcomes are rarely tested. Additionally, although infection is known to affect mutualists, we rarely measure the magnitude of pathogen effects on mutualist abundance across host competitive contexts. We tested for both mechanisms in a plant-rhizobia-nematode system. 2. We paired the legume...

Supplementary information for: A continuous-score occupancy modeling framework for incorporating uncertain machine learning output in autonomous biodiversity surveys

Tessa Rhinehart, Daniel Turek & Justin Kitzes
Ecologists often study biodiversity by evaluating species occupancy and the relationship between occupancy and other covariates. Occupancy models are now widely used to account for false absences in field surveys and to reduce bias in estimates of covariate relationships. Existing occupancy models take as inputs binary detection/non-detection observations of species at each visit to each site. However, autonomous sensing devices and machine learning models are increasingly used to survey biodiversity, generating a new type of...

Complementary evolution of coding and noncoding sequence underlies mammalian hairlessness

Nathan Clark, Amanda Kowalczyk & Maria Chikina
Body hair is a defining mammalian characteristic, but several mammals, such as whales, naked mole-rats, and humans, have notably less hair than others. To find the genetic basis of reduced hair quantity, we used our evolutionary-rates-based method, RERconverge, to identify coding and noncoding sequences that evolve at significantly different rates in so-called hairless mammals compared to hairy mammals. Using RERconverge, we performed an unbiased, genome-wide scan over 62 mammal species using 19,149 genes and 343,598...

Traction performance across the life of slip-resistant footwear

Kurt Beschorner, Sarah L. Hemler, Joel M. Haight, Mark S. Redfern, Jessica R. Sider & Erika M. Pliner
Slips, trips, and falls are a major cause of injury in the workplace. Footwear is an important factor in preventing slips. Furthermore, traction performance (friction and under-shoe fluid drainage) are believed to change throughout the life of footwear. However, a paucity of data is available for how traction performance changes for naturally worn, slip-resistant footwear. Participants wore slip-resistant footwear while their distance walked was monitored. Friction and under-shoe fluid pressures were measured using a robotic...

Changes in under-shoe traction and fluid drainage for progressively worn shoe tread

Kurt E. Beschorner, Sarah L. Hemler, Danielle N. Charbonneau, Arian Iraqi, Mark S. Redfern, Joel M. Haight & Brian E. Moyer
Slip and fall accidents are a common cause of injuries in the workplace. Slip-resistant footwear offers the potential to reduce the risk of these accidents. However, the efficacy of these shoes is reduced as shoes become worn. This data set provides the key independent and dependent variables from a study to evaluate the changes in traction performance of slip-resistant shoes as they become worn. The traction performance of five shoes were tracked as these shoes...

Seasonality of host immunity in a tropical disease system

Jamie Voyles, Goncalo Rosa, Rachel Perez, Lora Richards, Corinne Richards-Zawacki, Angela Smilanich, Laura K. Reinert, Louise A. Rollins-Smith, Daniel Wetzel & Jamie Voyles
Infectious disease systems frequently exhibit strong seasonal patterns, yet the mechanisms that underpin intra-annual cycles are unclear, particularly in tropical regions. We hypothesized that host immune function fluctuates seasonally, contributing to oscillations in infection patterns in a tropical disease system. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a key host defense of amphibians against a lethal fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We integrated two field experiments in which we perturbed amphibian skin secretions, a critical host...

Supporting Data: Effect of various pore fluids on the strength of granite

guanyi lu, Wu Zhao, Jiangnan Zhang & Andrew Bunger

Self-affine synthetic surface

Tevis D. B. Jacobs, Till Junge & Lars Pastewka
This surface contains virtual measurements taken out of a large self-affine synthetic surface with Hurst exponent 0.8. The original surface had 50,000 x 50,000 data points and was created using a Fourier filtering algorithm. The surface was "measured" in block containing 500 x 500 data points with a variety of scan sizes ranging from almost the full surface with 100 μm width to 10 μm to 1 μm, with pixel sizes scaling accordingly. This surface...

Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD)

Abhijeet Gujrati, Subarna R. Khanal, Lars Pastewka & Tevis D. B. Jacobs
UNCD surface from A. Gujrati, S.R. Khanal, L. Pastewka, T.D.B. Jacobs, "Combining TEM, AFM, and profilometry for quantitative topography characterization across all scales", ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(34), 29169-29178 (2018)

Ultrananocrystalline Diamond TEM cross-section

Subarna R. Khanal, Abhijeet Gujrati, Sai Bharadwaj Vishnubhotla, Pawel Nowakowski, Cecile S. Bonifacio, Lars Pastewka & Tevis D. B. Jacobs
Cross-section UNCD surfaces for TEM from publication: S. R. Khanal, A. Gujrati, S. B. Vishnubhotla, P. Nowakowski, C. S. Bonifacio, L. Pastewka, T. D. B. Jacobs, "Characterization of small-scale surface topography using transmission electron microscopy", Surf. Topogr.: Metrol. Prop. 6 045004 (2018) See publication for details.

Effects of latitudinal, seasonal, and daily temperature variations on chytrid fungal infections in a North American frog

Corinne Richards-Zawacki, Julia Sonn & Ryan Utz
As human activities alter environmental conditions, the emergence and spread of disease represents an increasing threat to wildlife. Studies that examine how host–pathogen relationships play out across seasons and latitudes can serve as proxies for understanding how natural and anthropogenic changes in climate may influence infection and disease dynamics. Amphibians are ideal host organisms for studying the impacts of climate on disease because they are ectothermic and threatened by chytridiomycosis, a recently emerged and globally...

Predicting resistance to amyloid-beta deposition and cognitive resilience in the oldest-old

Beth Snitz
Objective: To explore long-term predictors of avoiding amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition and maintaining unimpaired cognition as outcomes in the oldest old. Methods: In a longitudinal observational cohort study, N=100 former participants of the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study (GEMS; 2000-2008) completed biannual Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET imaging and annual clinical-cognitive evaluations beginning in 2010. Most recent Aβ status and cognitive status were selected for each participant. Longitudinal outcomes included change in serial Aβ and cognitive tests....

Hepatic estrogen sulfotransferase distantly sensitizes mice to hemorrhagic shock-induced acute lung injury

Yang Xie, Anne Barbosa, Meishu Xu, Patrick Oberly, Songrong Ren, Robbert Gibbs, Samuel Poloyac, Wenchao Song, Jie Fan & Wen Xie
Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is a potential life-threatening condition that may lead to injury to multiple organs, including the lung. The estrogen sulfotransferase (EST, or SULT1E1) is a conjugating enzyme that sulfonates and deactivates estrogens. In this report, we showed that the expression of Est was markedly induced in the liver, but not in the lung of female mice subject to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HS/R). Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of Est effectively protected female...

Do dense layers of invasive plants elevate the foraging intensity of small mammals in temperate deciduous forests? A case study from Pennsylvania, USA

Ryan M. Utz, Alysha Slater, Hannah R. Rosche & Walter P. Carson
Monospecific stands of invasive plants can dramatically restructure habitat for fauna, thereby elevating population densities or promoting foraging of consumer species who benefit in the altered habitat. For example, dense stands of invasive plants may protect small mammals from predators, which in turn could increase foraging pressure on seeds that small mammals feed upon. We used a before-after, control-impact experimental design to test whether small mammal capture rates were higher and giving-up densities (GUDs) lower...

An annotated set of audio recordings of Eastern North American birds containing frequency, time, and species information

Lauren M. Chronister, Tessa A. Rhinehart, Aidan Place & Justin Kitzes
Acoustic recordings of soundscapes are an important category of audio data which can be useful for answering a variety of questions, and an entire discipline within ecology, dubbed “soundscape ecology,” has risen to study them. Bird sound is often the focus of studies of soundscapes due to the ubiquitousness of birds in most terrestrial environments and their high vocal activity. Autonomous acoustic recorders have increased the quantity and availability of recordings of natural soundscapes while...

The soil microbiome increases plant survival and modifies interactions with root endosymbionts in the field

Corlett Wood, Shaniya Markalanda, Connor McFadden & Steven Cassidy
Evidence is accumulating that the soil microbiome—the community of microorganisms living in soils—has a major effect on plant traits and fitness. However, most work to date has taken place under controlled laboratory conditions and has not experimentally disentangled the effect of the soil microbiome on plant performance from the effects of key endosymbiotic constituents. As a result, it is difficult to extrapolate from existing data to understand the role of the soil microbiome in natural...

Data from: Parasite-driven cascades or hydra effects: susceptibility and foraging depression shape parasite-host-resource interactions

Jason Walsman, Alexander Strauss & Spencer Hall
This contains data for the manuscript listed in the title.We measured the foraging rates of individual zooplankton hosts, Daphnia dentifera, on phytoplankton resources, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, in the presence of fungal parasites of zooplankton, Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Some of these data are previously published (Genotypes12_foraging.csv by Strauss, Alexander T., et al. "Genotypic variation in parasite avoidance behaviour and other mechanistic, nonlinear components of transmission." Proceedings of the Royal Society B 286.1915 (2019): 20192164.) and some are published...

Data from: Colour use by tiny predators: jumping spiders exhibit colour biases during foraging

Lisa Taylor, Emily Maier, Kevin Byrne, Zareen Amin & Nathan Morehouse
The evolution of many animal colours is thought to be driven by selection from visually guided predators. Yet research has largely focused on large vertebrate predators such as birds while ignoring smaller, terrestrial invertebrate predators. This is despite clear evidence that small invertebrate predators are important regulators of prey densities in a variety of ecosystems. Jumping spiders are small voracious predators that feed on a wide variety of prey in the field. They are capable...

Data from: Rapid divergence of wing volatile profiles between subspecies of the butterfly Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)

Eden W. McQueen & Nathan I. Morehouse
Complex signaling traits such as pheromone profiles can play an important role in the early stages of reproductive isolation between populations. These signals can diverge along multiple trait axes, and signal receivers are often sensitive to subtle differences in signal properties. In the Lepidoptera, prior research has highlighted that natural selection can drive rapid chemical signal divergence, for instance via mate recognition to maintain species boundaries. Much less is known about the occurrence of such...

Data from: Sex-determining chromosomes and sexual dimorphism: insights from genetic mapping of sex expression in a natural hybrid Fragaria × ananassa subsp. cuneifolia

Rajanikanth Govindarajulu, Aaron Liston & Tia-Lynn Ashman
We studied the natural hybrid (Fragaria × ananassa subsp. cuneifolia) between two sexually dimorphic octoploid strawberry species (Fragaria virginiana and Fragaria chiloensis) to gain insight into the dynamics of sex chromosomes and the genesis of sexual dimorphism. Male sterility is dominant in both the parental species and thus will be inherited maternally, but the chromosome that houses the sex-determining region differs. Thus, we asked whether (1) the cytotypic composition of hybrid populations represents one or...

Data from: Persistent social interactions beget more pronounced personalities in a desert-dwelling social spider

Andreas P. Modlmeier, Kate L. Laskowski, Alex E. DeMarco, Anna Coleman, Katherine Zhao, Hayley A. Brittingham, Donna R. McDermott & Jonathan N. Pruitt
The social niche specialization hypothesis predicts that repeated social interactions will generate social niches within groups, thereby promoting consistent individual differences in behaviour. Current support for this hypothesis is mixed, probably because the importance of social niches is dependent upon the ecology of the species. We test whether repeated interactions among group mates generate consistent individual differences in boldness in the social spider, Stegodyphus dumicola. In support of the social niche specialization hypothesis, we found...

Data from: Temperature dependent effects of cutaneous bacteria on a frog's tolerance of fungal infection

Matthew J. Robak & Corinne L. Richards-Zawacki
Defense against pathogens is one of many benefits that bacteria provide to animal hosts. A clearer understanding of how changes in the environment affect the interactions between animals and their microbial benefactors is needed in order to predict the impact and dynamics of emerging animal diseases. Due to its dramatic effects on the physiology of animals and their pathogens, temperature may be a key variable modulating the level of protection that beneficial bacteria provide to...

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  • University of Pittsburgh
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
  • Cluster of Excellence livMatS, Freiburg Center for Interactive Materials and Bioinspired Technologies, University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 105, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
  • Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
  • Oregon State University
  • University of Minnesota
  • Massachusetts General Hospital
  • University of California, Davis
  • University of Washington
  • University of Arizona