26 Works

Neural activity during a simple reaching task in macaques is counter to gating and rebound in basal ganglia-thalamic communication

Bettina Schwab, Daisuke Kase, Andrew Zimnik, Robert Rosenbaum, Marcello Codianni, Jonathan Rubin & Robert Turner
Task-related activity in the ventral thalamus, a major target of basal ganglia output, is often assumed to be permitted or triggered by changes in basal ganglia activity through gating- or rebound-like mechanisms. To test those hypotheses, we sampled single-unit activity from connected basal ganglia output and thalamic nuclei (globus pallidus-internus, GPi, and ventrolateral-anterior nucleus, VLa) in monkeys performing a reaching task. Rate increases were the most common peri-movement change in both nuclei. Moreover, peri-movement changes...

Mouse substantia nigra responses to optogenetic stimulation of projections from striatum and globus pallidus

Ryan Phillips, Ian Rosner, Aryn Gittis & Jonathan Rubin
As a rodent basal ganglia (BG) output nucleus, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is well positioned to impact behavior. SNr neurons receive GABAergic inputs from the striatum (direct pathway) and globus pallidus (GPe, indirect pathway). Dominant theories of action selection rely on these pathways' inhibitory actions. Yet, experimental results on SNr responses to these inputs are limited and include excitatory effects. Our study combines experimental and computational work to characterize, explain, and make predictions...

Data from: Novel sources of (co)variation in nestling begging behavior and hunger at different biological levels of analysis

Daniel Wetzel, Ariane Mutzel, Jonathan Wright & Niels Dingemanse
Biological hypotheses predicting patterns of offspring begging typically concern the covariance with hunger and/or development at specific hierarchical levels. For example, hunger drives within-individual patterns of begging, but begging also drives food intake among individuals within broods, and begging and food intake can covary positively or negatively among genotypes or broods. Testing biological phenomena that occur at multiple levels therefore requires the partitioning of covariance between traits of interest to ensure that each level-specific relationship...

Orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, neurology outcomes, and death in older adults, supplement methods & tables, STROND checklist

Stephen Juraschek, , Oscar L. Lopez, John S Gottdiener, Lewis A Lipsitz, Lewis H. Kuller & Kenneth J Mukamal
Objective To test the hypothesis that orthostatic hypotension (OH) might cause cerebral hypoperfusion and injury, we examined the longitudinal relationship between orthostatic hypotension (OH) or orthostatic symptoms and incident neurologic outcomes in a community population of older adults. Methods Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) participants (≥65yrs) without dementia or stroke had blood pressure (BP) measured after lying 20-minutes and after standing 3-minutes. Participants reported dizziness immediately upon standing and any dizziness in the past 2wks. OH...

Data from: Nonnative old-field species inhabit early-season phenological niches and exhibit unique sensitivity to climate

Rachel Reeb, Isabel Acevedo, Mason Heberling & Sara Kuebbing
Native and nonnative plant species can exhibit differences in the timing of their reproductive phenology as well as their phenological sensitivity to climate. These contrasts may influence species’ interactions and the invasion potential of nonnative species; however, a limited number of phenology studies expressly consider phenological mismatches among native and nonnative species over broad spatial or temporal scales. To fill this knowledge gap, we used two complementary approaches: first, we quantified the flowering phenology of...

Data associated with \"Floral pigmentation has responded rapidly to global change in ozone and temperature\"

Matthew Koski, Drew MacQueen & Tia-Lynn Ashman
Across kingdoms, organisms ameliorate UV stress by increasing UV-absorbing pigmentation. Rapid ozone degradation during the 20th century resulted in elevated UV incidence, yet pigmentation responses to this aspect of global change have yet to be demonstrated. In flowering plants, UV exposure favors larger areas of UV-absorbing pigmentation on petals, which protects pollen from UV-damage. Pigmentation also affects floral thermoregulation, suggesting climate warming may additionally impact pigmentation. We used 1238 herbarium specimens collected from 1941 to...

CBA Survey Final Dataset 2019

Josephine Olson & Haimanti Banerjee

Right ventricular contractility and load in HIV associated pulmonary hypertension

Arun Rajaratnam, Marc Simon, Alison Morris, Sofiya Rehman, Prerna Sharma, Melissa Saul, Rebecca Vanderpool, Mark Gladwin & Vikas Singh
Background: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) are at risk of developing pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, but understanding of the relationship of RV function to afterload (RV-PA coupling) is limited. We evaluated the clinical and hemodynamic characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated PH. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of HIV undergoing right heart catheterization (RHC) from 2000-2016 in a tertiary care center. Inclusion criteria...

Supporting Data: Effect of various pore fluids on the strength of granite

guanyi lu, Wu Zhao, Jiangnan Zhang & Andrew Bunger

Predicting resistance to amyloid-beta deposition and cognitive resilience in the oldest-old

Beth Snitz
Objective: To explore long-term predictors of avoiding amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition and maintaining unimpaired cognition as outcomes in the oldest old. Methods: In a longitudinal observational cohort study, N=100 former participants of the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study (GEMS; 2000-2008) completed biannual Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET imaging and annual clinical-cognitive evaluations beginning in 2010. Most recent Aβ status and cognitive status were selected for each participant. Longitudinal outcomes included change in serial Aβ and cognitive tests....

Do dense layers of invasive plants elevate the foraging intensity of small mammals in temperate deciduous forests? A case study from Pennsylvania, USA

Ryan M. Utz, Alysha Slater, Hannah R. Rosche & Walter P. Carson
Monospecific stands of invasive plants can dramatically restructure habitat for fauna, thereby elevating population densities or promoting foraging of consumer species who benefit in the altered habitat. For example, dense stands of invasive plants may protect small mammals from predators, which in turn could increase foraging pressure on seeds that small mammals feed upon. We used a before-after, control-impact experimental design to test whether small mammal capture rates were higher and giving-up densities (GUDs) lower...

Supporting Data: Numerical Simulation of Sleeve Fracturing for In-Situ Stress Measurement using Cohesive Elements

Yao Huang, John Ohanian & Andrew Bunger

Data from: Polyploid plants obtain greater fitness benefits from a nutrient acquisition mutualism

Nicole Forrester
Polyploidy is a key driver of ecological and evolutionary processes in plants, yet little is known about its effects on biotic interactions. This gap in knowledge is especially profound for nutrient acquisition mutualisms, despite the fact that they regulate global nutrient cycles and structure ecosystems. Generalism in mutualistic interactions depends on the range of potential partners (niche breadth), the benefits obtained, and ability to maintain benefits across a variety of partners (fitness plasticity). Here, we...

Data and code for: Male-male contest limits the expression of assortative mate preferences in a polymorphic poison frog

Yusan Yang & Corinne Richards-Zawacki
Co-divergence of sexual traits and mate preferences can lead to assortative mating and subsequently reproductive isolation. However, mate choice rarely operates without intrasexual competition, and the effects of the latter on speciation are often overlooked. Maintaining trait polymorphisms despite gene flow and limiting assortative female preferences for less-competitive male phenotypes are two important roles that male-male competition may play in the speciation process. Both roles rely on the assumption that male-male competition limits the expression...

Thalamic encoding of lexical status is lateralized during reading aloud

Dengyu Wang, Witold J. Lipski, Alan Bush, Anna Chrabaszcz, Christina Dastolfo-Hromack, Michael W. Dickey, Julie A. Fiez & R. Mark Richardson
To explore whether the thalamus participates in lexical status encoding, local field potentials were recorded in patients undergoing deep brain stimulation lead implantation while they read aloud single-syllable words and nonwords. Bilateral decreases in thalamic beta (12-30Hz) activity were preferentially locked to stimulus presentation, and these decreases were greater when nonwords were read. Increased broadband gamma (70-150Hz) activity also was locked preferentially to speech onset bilaterally, but greater nonword-related increases in this activity were observed...

Ligand-dependent effects of methionine-8 oxidation in parathyroid hormone peptide analogs

Thomas Gardella, Vsevolod Katritch, Saheem Zaidi, Eileen Daley, Ashok Khatri & Jean-Pierre Vilardaga
LA-PTH is a long-acting parathyroid hormone (PTH) peptide analog in pre-clinical development for hypoparathyroidism (HP). Like native PTH, LA-PTH contains a methionine at position 8 that is predicted to be critical for function. We assessed the impact of methionine oxidation on the functional properties of LA-PTH and control PTH ligands. Oxidation of PTH(1-34) resulted in marked (~20-fold) reductions in binding affinity on the PTH receptor-1 (PTHR1) in cell membranes, similarly diminished potency for cAMP signaling...

Pasture trees contribute to structural heterogeneity and plant distributions in post-agricultural forests decades after canopy closure

Marion Holmes
Questions: Open-grown shade trees retained in pastures are legacies of agricultural history that influence recolonization dynamics and create structural heterogeneity in post-agricultural forests. This work addresses the long-term influence of pasture trees on forest structure and composition. I ask: Do signs of successional nucleation in microhabitat, structure and composition near pasture trees persist decades after canopy closure? If so, does variation primarily reflect seed deposition or environmental facilitation? Location: Southeastern Ohio, USA Methods: Thirteen open-grown...

Frequent burning causes large losses of carbon from deep soil layers in a temperate savanna

Adam Francis Pellegrini, Kendra K. McLauchlan, Sarah E. Hobbie, Michelle C. Mack, Abbey L. Marcotte, David M. Nelson, Steven Perakis, Peter B. Reich & Kyle Whittinghill
1. Fire activity is changing dramatically across the globe, with uncertain effects on ecosystem processes, especially belowground. Fire‐driven losses of soil carbon (C) are often assumed to occur primarily in the upper soil layers because the repeated combustion of aboveground biomass limits organic matter inputs into surface soil. However, C losses from deeper soil may occur if frequent burning reduces root biomass inputs of C into deep soil layers or stimulates losses of C via...

Data from: Area 2 of primary somatosensory cortex encodes kinematics of the whole arm

Raeed Chowdhury, Joshua Glaser & Lee Miller
Proprioception, the sense of body position, movement, and associated forces, remains poorly understood, despite its critical role in movement. Most studies of area 2, a proprioceptive area of somatosensory cortex, have simply compared neurons' activities to the movement of the hand through space. By using motion tracking, we sought to elaborate this relationship by characterizing how area 2 activity relates to whole arm movements. We found that a whole-arm model, unlike classic models, successfully predicted...

Supporting Data: Laboratory Experiments Contrasting Growth of Uniformly and Nonuniformly-Spaced Hydraulic Fractures

Delal Gunaydin, Anthony Peirce & Andrew Bunger

Competition for pollination and isolation from mates differentially impact four stages of pollination in a model grassland perennial

Lea K. Richardson, M. Kate Gallagher, Tracie E. Hayes, Amanda S. Gallinat, Gretel Kiefer, Kristen Manion, Miriam Jenkins, Greg Diersen & Stuart Wagenius
1. Species that persist in small populations isolated by habitat destruction may experience reproductive failure. Self-incompatible plants face dual threats of mate-limitation and competition with co-flowering plants for pollination services. Such competition may lower pollinator visitation, increase heterospecific pollen transfer, and reduce the likelihood that a visit results in successful pollination. 2. To understand how isolation from mates and competition with co-flowering species contribute to reproductive failure in fragmented habitat, we conducted an observational study...

Ambiguity in medical concept normalization: An analysis of types and coverage in electronic health record datasets

Denis Newman-Griffis, Guy Divita, Bart Desmet, Ayah Zirikly, Carolyn Rosé & Eric Fosler-Lussier
Objective: Normalizing mentions of medical concepts to standardized vocabularies is a fundamental component of clinical text analysis. Ambiguity—words or phrases that may refer to different concepts—has been extensively researched as part of information extraction from biomedical literature, but less is known about the types and frequency of ambiguity in clinical text. This study characterizes the distribution and distinct types of ambiguity exhibited by benchmark clinical concept normalization datasets, in order to identify directions for advancing...

Data from: The size, symmetry, and color saturation of a male guppy’s ornaments forecast his resistance to parasites

Jessica Stephenson, Martin Stevens, Jolyon Troscianko & Jukka Jokela
Sexually selected ornaments range from highly dynamic traits to those that are fixed during development and relatively static throughout sexual maturity. Ornaments along this continuum differ in the information they provide about the qualities of potential mates, such as their parasite resistance. Dynamic ornaments enable real-time assessment of the bearer’s condition: they can reflect an individual’s current infection status, or resistance to recent infections. Static ornaments, however, are not affected by recent infection but may...

Data from: Experimental demonstration of the importance of keystone communities for maintaining metacommunity biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

Xian Yang, Jiaqi Tan, Kevin Harry Sun & Lin Jiang
As local communities within a metacommunity may differ considerably in their contributions to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, it has been suggested that conservation priority should be given to disproportionately important local communities (i.e., keystone communities). However, we know little about what characterizes a keystone community. Using laboratory protist microcosms as the model system, we examined how the environmental uniqueness and location of a local community affect its contributions to the metacommunities. We found that the...

Data from: Spatially-explicit depiction of a floral epiphytic bacterial community reveals role for environmental filtering within petals

Maria Rebolleda-Gomez, Rebecca Hayes, Kristen Butela, Leah F. Cabo, Nevin Cullen, Nancy Kaufmann, Steffani A. O'Neil & Tia-Lynn Ashman
The microbiome of flowers (anthosphere) is an understudied compartment of the plant microbiome. Within the flower, petals represent a heterogeneous environment for microbes in terms of resources and environmental stress. Yet little is known of drivers of structure and function of the epiphytic microbial community at the within-petal scale. We characterized the petal microbiome in two co-flowering plants that differ in pattern of ultraviolet (UV) absorption along their petals. Bacterial communities were similar between plant...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    26

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    26

Affiliations

  • University of Pittsburgh
    26
  • Northwestern University
    2
  • Massachusetts General Hospital
    2
  • Carnegie Mellon University
    2
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    1
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
    1
  • University of Washington
    1
  • Stanford University
    1
  • Utah State University
    1
  • Columbia University
    1