Polished UNCD surface topography measured using TEM, AFM, and Stylus Profilometry
These are surface profiles of quarry 2 rough flooring. The quarry 1 (0T01881P, Daltile, Dallas, TX, USA) and quarry 2 (01 010 SM 1, Summitville, OH, USA) were commercial tiles, where the full composition was a trade secret, but they were known to include 15-25 wt% quartz, and quarry 2 also included abrasive grits on the surface, presumably to improve slip resistance. There are 30 profiles generated from image analysis and measured by SEM. 10...
Data from: A generalist nematode destabilizes plant competition: no evidence for direct effects, but strong evidence for indirect effects on rhizobia abundanceSamantha Catella, Castilleja Olmsted, Shaniya Markalanda, Connor McFadden, Corlett Wood & Sara Kuebbing
1. Difficulties quantifying pathogen load and mutualist abundance limit our ability to connect disease dynamics to host community ecology. For example, specific predictions about how differential pathogen load is hypothesized to drive host competitive outcomes are rarely tested. Additionally, although infection is known to affect mutualists, we rarely measure the magnitude of pathogen effects on mutualist abundance across host competitive contexts. We tested for both mechanisms in a plant-rhizobia-nematode system. 2. We paired the legume...
Supplementary information for: A continuous-score occupancy modeling framework for incorporating uncertain machine learning output in autonomous biodiversity surveysTessa Rhinehart, Daniel Turek & Justin Kitzes
Ecologists often study biodiversity by evaluating species occupancy and the relationship between occupancy and other covariates. Occupancy models are now widely used to account for false absences in field surveys and to reduce bias in estimates of covariate relationships. Existing occupancy models take as inputs binary detection/non-detection observations of species at each visit to each site. However, autonomous sensing devices and machine learning models are increasingly used to survey biodiversity, generating a new type of...
We collected data on coinfection rates, infection prevalence, and infection intensity for Gyrodactylus spp. on wild Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We also collected data on the shoaling preference of wild-caught guppy hosts. Further, we collected data on transmission rates, infection intensity, and infected host mortality rates of lines of these parasites on guppies in the laboratory. We fouind that wild guppy populations with stronger shoaling preferences had higher infection prevalence and coinfection rates. Further, we...
Infectious disease systems frequently exhibit strong seasonal patterns, yet the mechanisms that underpin intra-annual cycles are unclear, particularly in tropical regions. We hypothesized that host immune function fluctuates seasonally, contributing to oscillations in infection patterns in a tropical disease system. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a key host defense of amphibians against a lethal fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). We integrated two field experiments in which we perturbed amphibian skin secretions, a critical host...
Substrate material – Unpolished Ultrananocrystalline Diamond. Substrate Manufacturer – Advanced Diamond Technologies Inc.
This surface contains a self-affine topography that has been scanned with a spherical virtual probe of radius 40 nm. The probe was lowered normal to the surface on each point of the reference topography (that is also included here) and the center of the probe was taken as the "measured" value of the topography. The reference topography has a Hurst exponent of 0.8 and was generated with a Fourier-filtering algorithm. This surface was used to...
unpolished UNCD film on silicon wafer Substrate Manufacturer : Advanced Diamond Technologies, Inc.
unpolished UNCD film on silicon wafer Substrate Manufacturer : Advanced Diamond Technologies, Inc.
MCD surface topography measured using TEM, AFM, and Stylus Profilometry
These are surface profiles of ceramic flooring. The ceramic tile (ADJF250803, ASTM) was a reference tile that was used in the reference standard ASTM F2508-12a. There are 30 profiles generated from image analysis and measured by SEM. 10 profiles are from 250X magnification, 10 profiles are from 5000X magnification, and 10 profiles are from 100kX magnification. There are also 6 profiles measured by stylus profilometry.
These are surface profiles of quarry 1 smooth flooring. The quarry 1 (0T01881P, Daltile, Dallas, TX, USA) and quarry 2 (01 010 SM 1, Summitville, OH, USA) were commercial tiles, where the full composition was a trade secret, but they were known to include 15-25 wt% quartz, and quarry 2 also included abrasive grits on the surface, presumably to improve slip resistance. There are 30 profiles generated from image analysis and measured by SEM. 10...
Body hair is a defining mammalian characteristic, but several mammals, such as whales, naked mole-rats, and humans, have notably less hair than others. To find the genetic basis of reduced hair quantity, we used our evolutionary-rates-based method, RERconverge, to identify coding and noncoding sequences that evolve at significantly different rates in so-called hairless mammals compared to hairy mammals. Using RERconverge, we performed an unbiased, genome-wide scan over 62 mammal species using 19,149 genes and 343,598...
Cross-section UNCD surfaces for TEM from publication: S. R. Khanal, A. Gujrati, S. B. Vishnubhotla, P. Nowakowski, C. S. Bonifacio, L. Pastewka, T. D. B. Jacobs, "Characterization of small-scale surface topography using transmission electron microscopy", Surf. Topogr.: Metrol. Prop. 6 045004 (2018) See publication for details.
UNCD surface from A. Gujrati, S.R. Khanal, L. Pastewka, T.D.B. Jacobs, "Combining TEM, AFM, and profilometry for quantitative topography characterization across all scales", ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(34), 29169-29178 (2018)
This surface contains virtual measurements taken out of a large self-affine synthetic surface with Hurst exponent 0.8. The original surface had 50,000 x 50,000 data points and was created using a Fourier filtering algorithm. The surface was "measured" in block containing 500 x 500 data points with a variety of scan sizes ranging from almost the full surface with 100 μm width to 10 μm to 1 μm, with pixel sizes scaling accordingly. This surface...
Data from: Parasite-driven cascades or hydra effects: susceptibility and foraging depression shape parasite-host-resource interactionsJason Walsman, Alexander Strauss & Spencer Hall
This contains data for the manuscript listed in the title.We measured the foraging rates of individual zooplankton hosts, Daphnia dentifera, on phytoplankton resources, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, in the presence of fungal parasites of zooplankton, Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Some of these data are previously published (Genotypes12_foraging.csv by Strauss, Alexander T., et al. "Genotypic variation in parasite avoidance behaviour and other mechanistic, nonlinear components of transmission." Proceedings of the Royal Society B 286.1915 (2019): 20192164.) and some are published...
NCD surface topography measured using TEM, AFM, and Stylus Profilometry
Microcrystalline diamond film deposited on silicon wafer Substrate Manufacturer : Advanced Diamond Technologies, Inc.
Nanocrystalline diamond film deposited on silicon wafer Substrate Manufacturer : Advanced Diamond Technologies, Inc.
polished ruby tips used in adhesion testing material: Ruby manufacturer: Swissjewel
Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Interhemispheric antiphasing of neotropical precipitation during the past millennium’ (PNAS, Steinman et al. 2022)B.A. Steinman, N. Stansall, M.E. Mann, C.A. Cooke, M.B. Abbott, M. Vuille, B.W. Bird, M.S. Lachniet & A. Fernandez
Uncertainty about the influence of anthropogenic radiative forcing on the position and strength of convective rainfall in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) inhibits our ability to project future tropical hydroclimate change in a warmer world. Paleoclimatic and modeling data inform on the timescales and mechanisms of ITCZ variability; yet a comprehensive, long-term perspective remains elusive. Here, we quantify the evolution of neotropical hydroclimate over the pre-industrial past millennium (850 to 1850 CE) using a synthesis...
Population-level variation in parasite resistance due to differences in immune initiation and rate of responseAmanda Hund, Lauren Fuess, Mariah Kenney, Meghan Maciejewski, Joseph Marini, Kum Chuan Shim & Dan Bolnick
Closely related populations often differ in resistance to a given parasite, as measured by infection success or failure. Yet, the immunological mechanisms of these evolved differences are rarely specified. Does resistance evolve via changes to the host’s ability to recognize that an infection exists, actuate an effective immune response, or attenuate that response? We tested whether each of these phases of the host response contributed to threespine sticklebacks’ recently evolved resistance to their tapeworm Schistocephalus...
polished UNCD on silicon wafer Substrate Manufacturer : Advanced Diamond Technologies, Inc.
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA18
Cluster of Excellence livMatS, Freiburg Center for Interactive Materials and Bioinspired Technologies, University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 105, 79110 Freiburg, Germany15
Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg, Germany15
University of Pittsburgh10
Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland2
University of Pennsylvania1
The University of Texas at Austin1
Dryad Digital Repository1