18 Works

eDNA in a bottleneck: obstacles to fish metabarcoding studies in megadiverse freshwater systems

Jake Jackman, Chiara Benvenuto, Ilaria Coscia, Cintia Carvalho, Jonathan Ready, Jean Boubli, William Magnusson, Allan McDevitt & Naiara Sales
The current capacity of environmental DNA (eDNA) to provide accurate insights into the biodiversity of megadiverse regions (e.g., the Neotropics) requires further evaluation to ensure its reliability for long-term monitoring. In this study, we first evaluated the taxonomic resolution capabilities of a short fragment from the 12S rRNA gene widely used in fish eDNA metabarcoding studies, and then compared eDNA metabarcoding data from water samples with traditional sampling using nets. For the taxonomic discriminatory power...

Seascape genetics of the Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) based on mitochondrial DNA

Karina Bohrer Do Amaral, Dalia C. Barragán-Barrera, Roosevelt A. Mesa-Gutiérrez, Nohelia Farias-Curtidor, Susana J. Caballero Gaitán, Paula Méndez-Fernandez, Marcos C. Oliveira Santos, Caroline Rinaldi, Renato Rinaldi, Salvatore Siciliano, Vidal Martín, Manuel Carillo, Ana Carolina O. De Meirelles, Valentina Franco-Trecu, Nelson J. R. Fagundes, Ignacio Benites Moreno, L. Lacey Knowles & Ana Rita Amaral
The Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) is endemic to tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Throughout its distribution, both geographic distance and environmental variation may contribute to population structure of the species. In this study we follow a seascape genetics approach to investigate population differentiation of Atlantic spotted dolphins based on a large worldwide dataset and the relationship with marine environmental variables. The results revealed that the Atlantic spotted dolphin exhibits...

Preserving wintering frugivorous birds in agro‐ecosystems under land use change: Lessons from intensive and super-intensive olive orchards

Rui Morgado, Rui Pedroso, Miguel Porto, José Herrera, Francisco Rego, Francisco Moreira & Pedro Beja
Fleshy-fruit production is becoming more intensive worldwide, but how this affects frugivorous birds is poorly known. In the Mediterranean region, intensive and super-intensive olive orchards are fast expanding, potentially affecting millions of wintering songbirds. Here we test the idea that intensification may benefit frugivorous birds, at least locally, due to increased fruit availability, while negatively affecting the wider wintering bird community due to intensive management, structural simplification and landscape homogenisation. We estimated olive abundance and...

Following Darwin’s footsteps: Evaluating the impact of an activity designed for elementary school students to link historically important evolution key concepts on their understanding of natural selection

Xana Sá-Pinto, Alexandre Pinto, Joana Ribeiro, Inês Sarmento, Patrícia Pessoa, Leonor L. Rodrigues, Lucía Vázquez-Ben, Evangelia Mavrikaki & Joaquim Bernardino Lopes
While several researchers have suggested that evolution should be explored from the initial years of schooling, little information is available on effective resources to enhance elementary school students’ level of understanding of evolution by natural selection (LUENS). For the present study, we designed, implemented and evaluated an educational activity planned for fourth graders to explore concepts and conceptual fields that were historically important for the discovery of natural selection. Observation field notes and students’ productions...

Primer biases in the molecular assessment of diet in multiple insectivorous mammals

Samuel Browett, Thomas Curran, Denise O'Meara, Andrew Harrington, Naiara Guimarães Sales, Rachael Antwis, David O'Neill & Allan McDevitt
Our understanding of trophic interactions of small insectivorous mammals has been drastically improved with the advent of DNA metabarcoding. The technique has continued to be optimised over the years, with primer choice repeatedly being a vital factor for dietary inferences. However, the majority of dietary studies examining the effect of primer choice often rely on in silico analyses or comparing between species that occupy an identical niche type. Here we apply DNA metabarcoding to empirically...

Mapping differences in mammalian distributions and diversity using environmental DNA from rivers

Allan McDevitt, Holly Broadhurst, Luke Gregory, Emma Bleakley, Joseph Perkins, Jenna Lavin, Polly Bolton, Samuel Browett, Claire Howe, Natalie Singleton, Darren Tansley & Naiara Sales
Finding more efficient ways to monitor, and estimate the diversity of, mammalian communities is a major step towards their management and conservation. Environmental DNA (eDNA) from river water has recently been shown to be a viable method for biomonitoring mammalian communities. Yet, most of the studies to date have focused on the potential for eDNA to detect individual species, with little focus on describing patterns of community diversity and structure. In this study, we focus...

Effects of large herbivores on fire regimes and wildfire mitigation

Julia Rouet-Leduc, Guy Pe'er, Francisco Moreira, Aletta Bonn, Wouter Helmer, S. Alain Aidan Shahsavan Zadeh, Alexander Zizka & Fons Van Der Plas
1. Abandonment of agricultural land is widespread in many parts of the world, leading to shrub and tree encroachment. The increase of flammable plant biomass, i.e. fuel load, increases the risk and intensity of wildfires. Fuel reduction by herbivores is a promising management strategy to avoid fuel build-up and mitigate wildfires. However, their effectiveness in mitigating wildfire damage may depend on a range of factors, including herbivore type, population density and feeding patterns. 2. Here...

Dataset for: No evidence for short-term evolutionary response to a warming environment in Drosophila

Pedro Simões, Marta A. Santos, Ana Carromeu-Santos, Ana S. Quina, Mauro Santos & Margarida Matos
Adaptive evolution is key in mediating responses to global warming and may sometimes be the only solution for species to survive. Such evolution will expectedly lead to changes in the populations’ thermal reaction norm and improve their ability to cope with stressful conditions. Conversely, evolutionary constraints might limit the adaptive response. Here, we test these expectations by performing a real-time evolution experiment in historically differentiated Drosophila subobscura populations. We address the phenotypic change after nine...

Opposing community assembly patterns for dominant and non-dominant plant species in herbaceous ecosystems globally

Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Elizabeth Borer, Eric Seabloom, Juan Alberti, Selene Baez, Jonathon Bakker, Elizabeth Boughton, Yvonne Buckley, Miguel Bugalho, Ian Donohue, John Dwyer, Jennifer Firn, Riley Gridzak, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Aveliina Helm, Anke Jentsch, , Kimberly Komatsu, Lauri Laanisto, Ramesh Laungani, Rebecca McCulley, Joslin Moore, John Morgan, Pablo Peri … & Marc Cadotte
Biotic and abiotic factors interact with dominant plants —the locally most frequent or with the largest coverage— and non-dominant plants differently, partially because dominant plants modify the environment where non-dominant plants grow. For instance, if dominant plants compete strongly, they will deplete most resources, forcing non-dominant plants into a narrower niche space. Conversely, if dominant plants are constrained by the environment, they might not exhaust available resources but instead may ameliorate environmental stressors that usually...

Data from: Genomic data and multi-species demographic modelling uncover past hybridization between currently allopatric freshwater species

Sofia L. Mendes, Miguel P. Machado, Maria M. Coelho & Vitor C. Sousa
Evidence for ancient interspecific gene flow through hybridization has been reported in many animal and plant taxa based on genetic markers. The study of genomic patterns of closely related species with allopatric distributions allows the assessment of the relative importance of vicariant isolating events and past gene flow. Here, we investigated the role of gene flow in the evolutionary history of four closely related freshwater fish species with currently allopatric distributions in western Iberian rivers...

Stable leaders pave the way for cooperation under time-dependent exploration rates

Flávio L. Pinheiro, Jorge M. Pacheco & Francisco C. Santos
The exploration of different behaviors is part of the adaptation repertoire of individuals to new environments. Here, we explore how the evolution of cooperative behavior is affected by the interplay between exploration dynamics and social learning, in particular when individuals engage on the Prisoner's Dilemma along the edges of a social network. We show that when the population undergoes a transition from strong to weak exploration rates a decline in the overall levels of cooperation...

Ant taxonomic and functional beta-diversity

Clara Frasconi Wendt, Ana Ceia-Hasse, Alice Nunes, Robin Verble, Giacomo Santini, Mário Boieiro & Cristina Branquinho
The decomposition of beta-diversity (β-diversity) into its replacement (βrepl) and richness (βrich) components in combination with a taxonomic and functional approach, may help to identify processes driving community composition along environmental gradients. We aimed to understand which abiotic and spatial variables influence ant β-diversity and identify which processes may drive ant β-diversity patterns in Mediterranean drylands by measuring the percentage of variation in ant taxonomic and functional β-diversity explained by local environmental, regional climatic and...

Data from: Community-level responses of African carnivores to prescribed burning

Laura Gigliotti, Goncalo Curveira-Santos, Rob Slotow, Craig Sholto-Douglas, Lourens Swanepoel & David Jachowski
Fires are common in many ecosystems worldwide, and are frequently used as a management tool. Although the responses of herbivores to fire have been well-studied, the responses of carnivores to fire remain unclear. In particular, post-fire habitat changes, and the associated changes in prey availability, might affect the coexistence or competition of carnivore species within the larger carnivore community, but few studies have focused on how fires influence multiple carnivore species simultaneously. Using South African...

Food talk: 40-Hz fin whale calls are associated with prey biomass

Miriam Romagosa, Sergi Pérez-Jorge, Irma Cascão, Helena Mouriño, Patrick Lehodey, Andreia Pereira, Tiago A. Marques, Luís Matias & Mónica A. Silva
Animals use varied acoustic signals that play critical roles in their lives. Understanding the function of these signals may inform about key life-history processes relevant for conservation. In the case of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus), that produce different call types associated with different behaviours, several hypotheses have emerged regarding call function, but the topic still remains in its infancy. Here, we investigate the potential function of two fin whale vocalizations, the song-forming 20-Hz call and...

Bat phylogenetic responses to regenerating Amazonian forests

Fábio Z. Farneda, Ricardo Rocha, Sabhrina Gita Aninta, Adrià López-Baucells, Erica M. Sampaio, Jorge M. Palmeirim, Paulo E. D. Bobrowiec, Cristian S. Dambros & Christoph F. J. Meyer
1. Throughout the tropics, regenerating secondary forests occupy vast areas previously cleared for agriculture and cattle ranching. However, despite the importance of regenerating forests in mitigating the pervasive negative consequences of forest loss and fragmentation on forest-associated biodiversity, longitudinal studies on species’ phylogenetic responses to matrix regeneration are rare. 2. We surveyed bats in continuous primary forest, primary forest fragments and in the regenerating secondary forest matrix of a whole-ecosystem Amazonian fragmentation experiment, ~15 and...

Mesocarnivore community structuring in the presence of Africa’s apex predator

Gonçalo Curveira-Santos, Chris Sutherland, Simone Tenan, Albert Fernández-Chacón, Gareth Mann, Ross Pitman & Lourens Swanepoel
Apex predator reintroductions have proliferated across southern Africa, yet their ecological effects and proposed umbrella benefits of associated management lack empirical evaluations. Despite a rich theory on top-down ecosystem regulation via mesopredator (<20kg) suppression, a knowledge gap exists relating to the influence of lions (Panthera leo) over Africa’s diverse mesocarnivore communities. We investigate how geographical variation in mesocarnivore community richness and occupancy across South African reserves is associated with the presence of lions. An interesting...

Plant-soil feedback and crop rotation

Akihiro Koyama, Pedro Antunes & Teresa Dias
Plant-soil feedback (PSF) can be a major driver of plant performance in communities, and this concept can be used in selecting crop rotation sequences to maximize agricultural yields. Potential benefits of using PSF in this context include nutrient use optimization, pathogen reduction and enhancement of mutualisms between crops and microbes. Yet, the contributions of these combined mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we investigated the relative contributions of these mechanisms using five major crops commonly cultivated...

Optimising bat bioacoustic surveys in human-modified neotropical landscapes

Adrià López-Baucells, Natalie Yoh, Ricardo Rocha, Paulo Bobrowiec, Jorge Palmeirim & Christoph Meyer
During the last decades, the use of bioacoustics as a non-invasive and cost-effective sampling method has greatly increased worldwide. For bats, acoustic surveys have long been known to complement traditional mist-netting, however, appropriate protocol guidelines are still lacking for tropical regions. Establishing the minimum sampling effort needed to detect ecological changes in bat assemblages (e.g., activity, composition and richness) is crucial in view of workload and project cost constraints, and because detecting such changes must...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    18

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    18

Affiliations

  • University of Lisbon
    18
  • University of Salford
    5
  • University of Porto
    3
  • Algoma University
    2
  • National Institute of Amazonian Research
    2
  • University of Venda
    2
  • University of the Azores
    2
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
    1
  • University of Washington
    1
  • University of Pretoria
    1