44 Works

Data from: More for less: sampling strategies of plant functional traits across local environmental gradients

Carlos P. Carmona, Cristina Rota, Francisco M. Azcárate & Begoña Peco
Ecologists use approaches based on plant functional traits to tackle several fundamental and applied questions. Although a perfect characterization of functional trait structure requires the measurement of all the individuals in communities, this is prohibitively resource-consuming. Consequently, the general practice is to average the trait values of a reduced number of individuals per species. However, there are different alternatives regarding the number, identity and spatial location of the individuals chosen to calculate species-averaged trait values....

Agricultural intensification reduces plant taxonomic and functional diversity across European arable systems.

Carlos P Carmona, Irene Guerrero, Begoña Peco, Manuel B. Morales, Juan J Onate, Tomas Pärt, Teja Tscharntke, Jaan Liira, Tsipe Aavik, Mark Emmerson, Frank Berendse, Piotr Ceryngier, Vincent Bretagnolle, Wolfgang Weisser & Jan Bengtsson
1. Agricultural intensification is one of the main drivers of species loss worldwide, but there is still a lack of information about its effect on functional diversity of arable weeds communities. 2. Using a large scale pan European study including 786 fields within 261 farms from eight countries, we analysed differences in the taxonomic and functional diversity of arable weeds assemblages across different levels of agricultural intensification in. We estimated weed species frequency in each...

The evolutionary history of sedges (Cyperaceae) in Madagascar

Isabel Larridon, Daniel Spalink, Pedro Jiménez-Mejías, José Ignacio Márquez-Corro, Santiago Martín-Bravo & Marcial Escudero
Aim: Madagascar is renowned for its unparalleled biodiversity and endemism. With many ecosystems under threat, research is urgently needed on its unique plant diversity. This applies both to Madagascar’s forests and treeless vegetation types. Sedges (Cyperaceae) are among the top ten species-richest angiosperm families in Madagascar (310 native species, 38% endemic), of which two thirds occur in open habitats. We aimed to infer the evolutionary history of sedges in Madagascar, by estimating the number, age...

Atlas of the vascular flora of the Iberian Peninsula biodiversity hotspot (AFLIBER)

Ignacio Ramos-Gutiérrez, Herlander Lima, Santiago Pajarón, Carlos Romero-Zarco, Llorenç Sáez, Rafael Molina-Venegas, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez & Juan Carlos Moreno-Saiz
Motivation: We accessed published and unpublished floristic sources to compile a comprehensive species list of the Iberian-Balearic terrestrial vascular flora and generate AFLIBER, an accurate floristic database of georeferenced plant occurrence records. Main type of variable contained: Species distribution data totaling 1,824,549 plant occurrence records corresponding to 6,456 species and subspecies. Spatial location and grain: The western Mediterranean, including inland territories of Spain, Portugal and Andorra and the adjacent archipelagos of Berlengas, Columbretes, and Balearic...

Data from: Systematics of the giant sedges of Carex sect. Rhynchocystis (Cyperaceae) in Macaronesia with description of two new species

Monica Miguez, Pedro Jimenez-Mejias, Carmen Benitez-Benitez, Hanno Schaefer & Santiago Martín-Bravo
Populations of Carex sect. Rhynchocystis (Cyperaceae) from the Macaronesian archipelagos (Azores and Madeira) have traditionally been treated either as a variety of the widely distributed Western Palearctic C. pendula, or directly synonymized under it. However, recent phylogenetic studies have shown that Azorean populations of C. pendula display a certain degree of differentiation from mainland plants, while the phylogenetic relationships of Madeiran populations remain unclear. Here we perform an integrated systematic study focused on the Macaronesian...

Treefrogs adjust their acoustic signals in response to harmonics structure of intruder calls

Lucas Forti & Diego Llusia
Spectral properties of animal acoustic signals may help individuals to assess the characteristics of rivals and to adjust their competitive strategies in territorial disputes. Thus, we hypothesize that the distribution of energy across frequency bands in anuran calls determine behavioral responses in male-male competition. Using playback experiments, we investigated the relevance of the harmonic calls in the acoustic communication of the treefrog Dendropsophus minutus. We exposed territorial males to three synthetic acoustic stimuli composed of...

Statistics and quantification dataset of Haspin and its related proteins analysis in mouse spermatocytes

Rocio Gomez
Chromosome segregation requires that centromeres properly attach to spindle microtubules. This essential step regulates the accuracy of cell division and therefore must be precisely regulated. One of the main centromeric regulatory signaling pathways is the Haspin-H3T3ph-chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) cascade, which is responsible for the recruitment of the CPC to the centromeres. In mitosis, Haspin kinase phosphorylates histone H3 at threonine 3 (H3T3ph), an essential epigenetic mark that recruits the CPC, whose catalytic component is...

Data from: A new titanosaurian braincase from the Cretaceous “Lo Hueco” locality in Spain sheds light on neuroanatomical evolution within Titanosauria

Fabien Knoll, Lawrence M. Witmer, Ryan C. Ridgely, Francisco Ortega & Jose Luis Sanz
Despite continuous improvements, our knowledge of the neurocranial anatomy of sauropod dinosaurs as a whole is still poor, which is especially true for titanosaurians even though their postcranial remains are common in many Upper Cretaceous sites worldwide. Here we describe a braincase from the uppermost Cretaceous locality of ‘‘Lo Hueco” in Spain that is one of the most complete titanosaurian braincases found so far in Europe. Although the titanosaurian Ampelosaurus sp. is known from the...

Data from: Assessing vulnerability of functional diversity to species loss: a case study in Mediterranean agricultural systems

Carlos P. Carmona, Irene Guerrero, Manuel B. Morales, Juan J. Oñate & Begoña Peco
Increasing land-use intensification is leading to biodiversity losses world-wide, which can reduce the functioning of ecosystems. However, it is increasingly clear that not all species are equally important for ecosystem processes: whereas the loss of a functionally unique species may reduce the capacity of the community to perform some functions, losing a functionally redundant species should have a much smaller impact. Assessing the vulnerability of functional diversity (FD) to species extinctions can help to predict...

Data from: Polyploidy and microsatellite variation in the relict tree Prunus lusitanica L.: how effective are refugia in preserving genotypic diversity of clonal taxa?

Carlos García-Verdugo, Juan Antonio Calleja, Pablo Vargas, Luis Silva, Orlanda Moreira & Fernando Pulido
Refugia are expected to preserve genetic variation of relict taxa, especially in polyploids, because high gene dosages could prevent genetic erosion in small isolated populations. However, other attributes linked to polyploidy, such as asexual reproduction, may strongly limit the levels of genetic variability in relict populations. Here, ploidy levels and patterns of genetic variation at nuclear microsatellite loci were analysed in Prunus lusitanica, a polyploid species with clonal reproduction that is considered a paradigmatic example...

Data from: Ecological connectivity shapes quasispecies structure of RNA viruses in an Antarctic lake

Alberto López-Bueno, Alberto Rastrojo, Ramon Peiró, Miguel Arenas & Antonio Alcamí
RNA viruses exist as complex mixtures of genotypes, known as quasispecies, where the evolution potential resides in the whole community of related genotypes. Quasispecies structure and dynamics have been studied in detail for virus infecting animals and plants but remain unexplored for those infecting micro-organisms in environmental samples. We report the first metagenomic study of RNA viruses in an Antarctic lake (Lake Limnopolar, Livingston Island). Similar to low-latitude aquatic environments, this lake harbours an RNA...

Data from: Infrastructure features outperform environmental variables explaining rabbit abundance around motorways

Aimara Planillo & Juan E. Malo
Human disturbance is widespread across landscapes in the form of roads that alter wildlife populations. Knowing which road features are responsible for the species response and their relevance in comparison with environmental variables will provide useful information for effective conservation measures. We sampled relative abundance of European rabbits, a very widespread species, in motorway verges at regional scale, in an area with large variability in environmental and infrastructure conditions. Environmental variables included vegetation structure, plant...

Data from: Physical and ecological isolation contribute to maintain genetic differentiation between fire salamander subspecies

Bernardo Antunes, Guillermo Velo-Antón, David Buckley, Ricardo J. Pereira & Iñigo Martínez-Solano
Landscape features shape patterns of gene flow among populations, ultimately determining where taxa lay along the continuum between panmixia to complete reproductive isolation. Gene flow can be restricted leading to population differentiation in two non-exclusive ways: “physical isolation”, in which geographic distance in combination with the landscape features restricts movement of individuals promoting genetic drift, and “ecological isolation”, in which adaptive mechanisms constrain gene flow between different environments via divergent natural selection. In central Iberia,...

Revisiting of Carex sect. Confertiflorae s.l. (Cyperaceae): new data from molecular and morphological evidence and first insights on Carex biogeography in East Asia.

Yi-Fei Lu, Xiao-Feng Jin, Hiroshi Ikeda, Okihito Yano, Carmen Benítez Benítez, Wei-Jie Chen, Yong-Di Liu, Pedro Jiménez-Mejías & Ming-Jian Yu
Carex sect. Confertiflorae s.l., contains ca. 40 species and diverse in E Asia. It has one of the most unstable delimitations in the literature, and the section was proposed to split into two sections up to five different ones. Recent phylogenetic reconstructions showed Confertiflorae s.l. not to be monophyletic. In this study we investigate the phylogenetic structure, morphological affinities, and biogeographic history of sect. Confertiflorae s.l. We performed a taxon-based approach to explore the morphological...

Flower strips and remnant semi-natural vegetation have different impacts on pollination and productivity of sunflower crops

Lucie Mota, Violeta Hevia, Carlos Rad, Joana Alves, António Silva, José González, Jorge Ortega-Marcos, Oscar Aguado, Paloma Alcorlo, Francisco M. Azcárate, Libertad Chapinal, César A. López, João Loureiro, Evan A. N. Marks, Catarina Siopa, José Paulo Sousa & Sílvia Castro
Intensification of agricultural landscapes to fulfil increased global food demands has dramatically impacted biodiversity and ecosystem services. Several pollinator groups, which are vital for the maintenance of pollinator-dependent crops, have been severely affected by this intensification process. Management tools, such as the implementation of agri-environmental schemes, have been widely proposed to improve pollinator's communities and pollination services, although the effectiveness of wildflower strips in comparison to existing natural or semi-natural habitats and the impact on...

Data from: The benefit of a tough skin: bullet holes, weathering and the preservation of heritage

Lisa Mol, Miguel Gomez-Heras, Charlotte Brassey, Owen Green & Tom Blenkinsop
Projectile damage to building stone is a widespread phenomenon. Sites damaged 100 years ago during the First World War still see daily use, while in a more contemporary setting numerous reports show the damage to buildings in Babylon, Mosul and Palmyra. While research has been carried out on the long-term effects of conflict such as fire damage, little is known about the protracted damage sustained through the impact of bullets, shrapnel and other metal projectiles...

Data from: Flight reconstruction of two European enantiornithines (Aves, Pygostylia) and the achievement of bounding flight in Early Cretaceous birds

Francisco J. Serrano, Luis M. Chiappe, Paul Palmqvist, Borja Figueirido, Jesús Marugán-Lobón & José L. Sanz
Birds today follow different aerial strategies to deal with the high costs of flapping flight. Intermittent flight, through either flap-gliding or bounding, is commonly used among small birds as a strategy to optimize aerial efficiency. The broad morphological disparity of the different lineages of Mesozoic birds suggests that a range of aerial strategies could have evolved early in avian evolution. Based on biomechanics and aerodynamic theory, this study reconstructs the flying properties of two small...

Data from: Causes of variation in biotic interaction strength and phenotypic selection along an altitudinal gradient

Eduardo T. Mezquida & Craig W. Benkman
Understanding the causes of variation in biotic interaction strength and phenotypic selection remains one of the outstanding goals of evolutionary ecology. Here we examine the variation in strength of interactions between two seed predators, common crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) and European red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris), and mountain pine (Pinus uncinata) at and below tree limit in the Pyrenees, and how this translates into phenotypic selection. Seed predation by crossbills increased whereas seed predation by squirrels decreased...

Data from: Contrasting impacts of precipitation on Mediterranean birds and butterflies

Sergi Herrando, Nicolas Titeux, Lluís Brotons, Marc Anton, Andreu Ubach, Dani Villero, Enrique García-Barros, Miguel L. Munguira, Carlos Godinho & Constantí Stefanescu
The climatic preferences of the species determine to a large extent their response to climate change. Temperature preferences have been shown to play a key role in driving trends in animal populations. However, the relative importance of temperature and precipitation preferences is still poorly understood, particularly in systems where ecological processes are strongly constrained by the amount and timing of rainfall. In this study, we estimated the role played by temperature and precipitation preferences in...

Data from: Randomized phase 2 study of FcRn antagonist efgartigimod in generalized myasthenia gravis

James F. Howard, Vera Bril, Ted M. Burns, Renato Mantegazza, Malgorzata Bilinska, Andrzej Szczudlik, Said Beydoun, Francisco Javier Rodriguez De Rivera Garrido, Fredrik Piehl, Mariarosa Rottoli, Philip Van Damme, Tuan Vu, Amelia Evoli, Miriam Freimer, Tahseen Mozaffar, E. Sally Ward, Torsten Dreier, Peter Ulrichts, Katrien Verschueren, Antonio Guglietta, Hans De Haard, Nicolas Leupin & Jan J. G. M. Verschuuren
Objective: To investigate safety and explore efficacy of efgartigimod (ARGX-113), an anti-neonatal Fc receptor immunoglobulin G1 Fc fragment, in patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) with a history of anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) autoantibodies, who were on stable standard-of-care myasthenia gravis (MG) treatment. Methods: A phase 2, exploratory, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 15-center study is described. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 4 doses over a 3-week period of either 10 mg/kg IV efgartigimod or...

Plant community data for European ecoregions

Jose A. Capitan, Sara Cuenda, Alejandro Ordoñez & David Alonso
Patterns in macroecology are related to species occurrence across meaningful spatial and temporal scales. The dataset provided here reports species distribution data (presence-absence) for herbaceous plants across a number of European habitats (ecoregions). Species occurrence is accompanied by the corresponding plant's maximun stem height values. This dataset has been used to unveil patterns of herbaceous plant height clustering in mid-latitude European ecoregions. Presence-absence data for herbaceous plants were drawn from Atlas Florae Europaeae (Jalas &...

Host specificity and species colouration mediate the regional decline of nocturnal moths in central European forests

Nicolas Roth, Herrman Hacker, Lea Heidrich, Nicolas Friess, Enrique García-Barros, Jan Habel, Simon Thorn & Jörg Müller
The high diversity of insects has limited the volume of long-term community data with a high taxonomic resolution and considerable geographic replications, especially in forests. Therefore, trends and causes of changes are poorly understood. Here we analyse trends in species richness, abundance and biomass of nocturnal macro moths in three quantitative data sets collected over four decades in forests in southern Germany. Two local data sets, one from coppiced oak forests and one from high...

Scale-dependent drivers of the phylogenetic structure and similarity of tree communities in northwestern Amazonia

Sebastián González-Caro, Joost Duivenvoorden, Henrik Balslev, Jaime Cavelier, Carlos Grández, Manuel Macia, Hugo Romero-Saltos, Mauricio Sanchez, Renato Valencia & Alvaro Duque
1. The extent to which historical dispersal, environmental features and geographic barriers shape the phylogenetic structure and turnover of tree communities in northwestern Amazonia at multiple spatial scales remains poorly understood. 2. We used 85 floristically standardized 0.1-ha plots (DBH ³ 2.5 cm) distributed in three subregions of northwestern (NW) Amazonia across three main habitat types (floodplain, swamp, terra firme forests), to hypothesize that: i) historical dispersal overcome geographical barriers, which meant low local phylogenetic...

A new remarkable dwarf sedge (Carex phylloscirpoid, Cyperaceae) from Northern Chile, with insights on the evolution of Austral section Racemosae

Pedro Jiménez-Mejías, Patricio Saldivia, Sebastian Gebauer & Santiago Martín-Bravo
We describe a new remarkable dwarf and apparently acaulescent species of Carex (Cyperaceae) from the Andes of northern Chile: Carex phylloscirpoides. Morphological and molecular data (two nuclear and three plastid DNA regions) were used to study the phylogenetic placement and systematic relationships of this species, which resulted in its assignment to section Racemosae. However, despite being related to the other three species of the section present in the Southern Cone based on phylogenetic evidence, it...

Data from: Drivers of assemblage-wide calling activity in tropical anurans and the role of temporal resolution

Larissa Sayuri Sugai, Thiago Silva, Diego Llusia & Tadeu Siqueira
1. Temporal scale in animal communities is often associated with seasonality, despite the large variation in species activity during a diel cycle. A gap thus remains in understanding the dynamics of short-term activity in animal communities. 2. Here we assessed calling activity of tropical anurans and addressed how species composition varied during night activity in assemblages along gradients of local and landscape environmental heterogeneity. 3. We investigated 39 anuran assemblages in the Pantanal wetlands (Brazil)...

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  • Autonomous University of Madrid
  • Pablo de Olavide University
  • Technical University Munich
  • Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales
  • The Ohio State University
  • University of Wyoming
  • University of California, San Diego
  • Aarhus University
  • Texas A&M University
  • Spanish National Research Council