39 Works

Data from: Plant-fungal symbiosis affects litter decomposition during primary succession

Lukas Bell-Dereske, Xiaodong Gao, Caroline A. Masiello, Robert L. Sinsabaugh, Sarah M. Emery & Jennifer A. Rudgers
Microbial symbionts of plants can affect decomposition by altering the quality or quantity of host plant tissue (substrate) or the micro-environment where decomposition occurs (conditioning). In C3 grasses, foliar fungal endophytes (Clavicipitaceae) can increase plant resistance to drought and/or produce alkaloids that reduce herbivory – effects that may also influence host litter composition and subsequent litter decomposition. We studied the effect of the endophyte Epichloë sp. on litter decomposition in the Great Lakes dunes (USA)...

Caterpillar survival in the city: Attack rates on model lepidopteran larvae along an urban-rural gradient show no increase in predation with increasing urban intensity (Raw Data)

Lindsay Nason, Perri Eason & Margaret Carreiro
Growing native plants in urban gardens is often promoted as a possible means of increasing lepidopteran populations. However, the efficacy of such efforts has not been well studied. Lepidopterans vary widely in their ability to survive in cities, and the few previous studies of caterpillar abundance or biomass across an urban-rural gradient have yielded mixed results. We placed clay caterpillar models in native plant gardens to assess whether the attack rate on these models varied...

Data from: A mechanistic and empirically-supported lightning risk model for forest trees

Evan Gora, Jeffrey Burchfield, Helene Muller-Landau, Phillip Bitzer, Stephen Hubbell & Stephen Yanoviak
Tree death due to lightning influences tropical forest carbon cycling and tree community dynamics. However, the distribution of lightning damage among trees in forests remains poorly understood. We developed models to predict direct and secondary lightning damage to trees based on tree size, crown exposure, and local forest structure. We parameterized these models using data on the locations of lightning strikes and censuses of tree damage in strike zones, combined with drone-based maps of tree...

The contributions of lightning to biomass turnover, gap formation, and plant mortality in a tropical forest

Evan Gora, Phillip Bitzer, Jeffrey Burchfield, Cesar Gutierrez & Stephen Yanoviak
Lightning is a common source of disturbance, but its ecological effects in tropical forests are largely undescribed. Here we quantify the contributions of lightning strikes to forest turnover and plant mortality in a lowland Panamanian forest using a real-time lightning monitoring system. We examined 2195 lightning-damaged trees distributed among 93 different strikes. None exhibited scars or fires. On average, each strike disturbed 451 m2 (95% CI: 365-545 m2), created canopy gaps of 304 m2 (95%...

Intraspecific dietary variation in niche partitioning within a community of ecologically similar snakes

Micah Perkins, Carl Cloyed & Perri Eason
Niche partitioning is an important mechanism for allowing ecologically similar species to coexist, contributing to biodiversity and the functioning of ecological communities. Species partition niches by taking advantage of environmental heterogeneity. However, niche partitioning and species coexistence investigations often do not include intraspecific variation or individual differences like sex and body size even though these factors can have important ecological consequences. Such intrapopulation factors can reduce the number of individuals among species that overlap in...

Data from: Fire and non-native grass invasion interact to suppress tree regeneration in temperate deciduous forests

S. Luke Flory, Keith Clay, Sarah M. Emery, Joseph R. Robb & Brian Winters
1. While many ecosystems depend on fire to maintain biodiversity, non-native plant invasions can enhance fire intensity, suppressing native species and generating a fire–invasion feedback. These dynamics have been observed in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, but fire–invasion interactions in temperate deciduous forests, where prescribed fires are often used as management tools to enhance native diversity, have rarely been investigated. 2. Here we evaluated the effects of a widespread invasive grass on fire behaviour in eastern...

Data from: Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens species group recovery from human homes varies seasonally and by environment

Susanna K. Remold, Megan E. Purdy-Gibson, Michael T. France & Thomas C. Hundley
By shedding light on variation in time as well as in space, long-term biogeographic studies can help us define organisms’ distribution patterns and understand their underlying drivers. Here we examine distributions of Pseudomonas in and around 15 human homes, focusing on the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups. We describe recovery from 10,941 samples collected during up to 8 visits per home, occurring on average 2.6 times per year. We collected a mean of...

Data from: Density dependence in demography and dispersal generates fluctuating invasion speeds

Lauren L. Sullivan, Bingtuan Li, Tom E. X. Miller, Michael G. Neubert & Allison K. Shaw
Density dependence plays an important role in population regulation and is known to generate temporal fluctuations in population density. However, the ways in which density dependence affects spatial population processes, such as species invasions, are less understood. Although classical ecological theory suggests that invasions should advance at a constant speed, empirical work is illuminating the highly variable nature of biological invasions, which often exhibit nonconstant spreading speeds, even in simple, controlled settings. Here, we explore...

Data from: Effects of climatic and geological processes during the Pleistocene on the evolutionary history of the northern cavefish, Amblyopsis spelaea (Teleostei: Amblyopsidae)

Matthew Lance Niemiller, James R. McCandless, Robert Graham Reynolds, James Caddle, Thomas J. Near, Christopher R. Tillquist, William D. Pearson & Benjamin Minault Fitzpatrick
Climatic and geological processes associated with glaciation cycles during the Pleistocene have been implicated in influencing patterns of genetic variation and promoting speciation of temperate flora and fauna. However, determining the factors promoting divergence and speciation is often difficult in many groups because of our limited understanding of potential vicariant barriers and connectivity between populations. Pleistocene glacial cycles are thought to have significantly influenced the distribution and diversity of subterranean invertebrates; however, impacts on subterranean...

Data from: An alternative pathway to eusociality: exploring the molecular and functional basis of fortress defense

Sarah P. Lawson, Leah Sigle, Abigail L. Lind, Andrew W. Legan, Jessica N. Mezzanotte, Hans-Willi Honegger, Patrick Abbot & Leah T. Sigle
Some animals express a form of eusociality known as 'fortress defense', in which defense rather than brood care is the primary social act. Aphids are small plant-feeding insects, but like termites, some species express division of labor and castes of aggressive juvenile 'soldiers'. What is the functional basis of fortress defense eusociality in aphids? Previous work showed that the acquisition of venoms might be a key innovation in aphid social evolution. We show that the...

Data from: Fear of predation shapes social network structure and the acquisition of foraging information in guppy shoals

Matthew J. Hasenjager & Lee A. Dugatkin
Spatio-temporal variation in predation risk is predicted to select for plastic anti-predator responses, which may in turn impact the fine-scale social structure of prey groups and processes mediated by that structure. To test these predictions, we manipulated the ambient predation risk experienced by Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) groups before quantifying their social networks and recording individual latencies to approach and solve a novel foraging task. High-risk conditions drove the formation of social networks that were...

Data from: Fungal symbiont effects on dune plant diversity depend on precipitation

Jennifer A. Rudgers, Lukas Bell-Dereske, Kerri M. Crawford & Sarah M. Emery
1. Historically, mutualisms have been considered to be less important than antagonisms in affecting the composition of ecological communities. In plant communities, beneficial microbes may feature as keystone mutualists in structuring community composition. Understanding the direction and magnitude of mutualist effects at the community scale may be critical for making accurate predictions on plant responses to climate change, particularly for mutualists that ameliorate climate-induced stressors. Such mitigation could shift outcomes between mutualist-enhanced species diversity and...

Data from: Connectivity explains local ant community structure in a Neotropical forest canopy: a large-scale experimental approach

Benjamin Adams, Stefan Schnitzer & Stephen Yanoviak
Understanding how habitat structure and resource availability affect local species distributions is a key goal of community ecology. Where habitats occur as a mosaic, variation in connectivity among patches influences both local species richness and composition, and connectivity is a key conservation concern in fragmented landscapes. Similarly, availability of limiting resources frequently determines species co-existence or exclusion. For primarily cursorial arthropods like ants, gaps between neighboring trees are a significant barrier to movement through the...

Data from: Antibiotics as chemical warfare across multiple taxonomic domains and trophic levels

Jane M Lucas, Evan Gora & Michael Kaspari
Bacteria and fungi secrete antibiotics to suppress and kill other microbes, but can these compounds be agents of competition against macroorganisms? We explore how one competitive tactic, antibiotic production, can structure the composition and function of brown food webs. This aspect of warfare between microbes and invertebrates is particularly important today as antibiotics are introduced into ecosystems via anthropogenic activities, but the ecological implications of these introductions are largely unknown. We hypothesized that antimicrobial compounds...

Phenotypic divergence among threespine stickleback that differ in nuptial coloration

Clara Jenck, Whitley Lehto, Brian Ketterman, Lukas Sloan, Aaron Sexton & Robin Tinghitella
By studying systems in their earliest stages of differentiation, we can learn about the evolutionary forces acting within and among populations and how those forces could contribute to reproductive isolation. Such an understanding would help us better discern and predict how selection leads to the maintenance of multiple morphs within a species, rather than speciation. The postglacial adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is one of the best-studied cases of evolutionary diversification and...

Data from: Spatial structure maintains diversity of pyocin inhibition in household Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Aubrey Mojesky & Susanna Remold
Nearly all bacteria produce narrow-spectrum antibiotics called bacteriocins. Studies have shown that bacteriocins can mediate microbial interactions, but the mechanisms underlying patterns of inhibition are less well understood. We assembled a spatially structured collection of isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from bathroom and kitchen sink drains in nine households. Growth inhibition of these P. aeruginosa by bacteriocins, known as pyocins in this species, was measured using pairwise inhibition assays. Carbon source usage of these isolates was...

Hemodynamic data from the Inspired Therapeutics NeoMate Mechanical Circulatory Support System for neonates and infants as tested in static mock circulatory loops, dynamic mock circulatory loops, and acute animal studies

Gretel Monreal, Steven Koenig, Mark Slaughter, Gino Morello, Steven Prina, Landon Tompkins, Jiapang Huang, Barry Gellman & Kurt Dasse
Inspired Therapeutics (Merritt Island, FL) is developing a mechanical circulatory support (MCS) system designed as a single driver with interchangeable, extracorporeal, magnetically levitated pumps. The NeoMate system design features an integrated centrifugal rotary pump, motor, and controller that will be housed in a single compact unit. Conceptually, the primary innovation of this technology will be the combination of disposable, low-cost pumps for use with a single, multi-functional, universal controller to support multiple pediatric cardiopulmonary indications....

Selection on dispersal drives evolution of metabolic capacities for energy production in female wing‐polymorphic sand field crickets, Gryllus firmus

Lisa Treidel, Lisa A. Treidel, Gessen S. Quintanilla Ramirez, Dillon J. Chung, Michael A. Menze, José P. Vázquez‐Medina & Caroline M. Williams
Life history and metabolism covary, but the mechanisms and individual traits responsible for these linkages remain unresolved. Dispersal capability is a critical component of life history that is constrained by metabolic capacities for energy production. Conflicting relationships between metabolism and life histories may be explained by accounting for variation in dispersal and maximal metabolic rates. We used female wing-polymorphic sand field crickets, Gryllus firmus, selected either for long wings (LW) and flight-capability or short wings...

Data from: Inbreeding depression increases with environmental stress: an experimental study and meta-analysis

Charles W Fox & David H Reed
Inbreeding-environment interactions occur when inbreeding leads to differential fitness loss in different environments. Inbred individuals are often more sensitive to environmental stress than are outbred individuals, presumably because stress increases the expression of deleterious recessive alleles or cellular safeguards against stress are pushed beyond the organism's physiological limits. We examined inbreeding-environment interactions, along two environmental axes (temperature and rearing host) that differ in the amount of developmental stress they impose, in the seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus...

Data from: Differentially expressed mRNA targets of differentially expressed miRNAs predict changes in the TP53 axis and carcinogenesis related pathways in human keratinocytes chronically exposed to arsenic

Laila Al-Eryani, Sabine Waigel, Ashish Tyagi, Jana Peremarti, Samantha F. Jenkins, Chendil Damodaran & J. Christopher States
Background: Arsenic is a widely distributed toxic natural element. Chronic arsenic ingestion causes several cancers, especially skin cancer. Arsenic-induced cancer mechanisms are not well defined, but several studies indicate that mutation is not the driving force and that microRNA expression changes play a role. Chronic low arsenite exposure malignantly transforms immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT), serving as a model for arsenic-induced skin carcinogenesis. Hypothesis: Early changes in miRNA expression in HaCaT cells chronically exposed to arsenite...

Lightning-caused disturbance in the Peruvian Amazon

Evan M. Gora & Stephen P. Yanoviak
Lightning is a major agent of disturbance in tropical terrestrial ecosystems, but its effects often are overlooked or misidentified in lowland forests. We used an unmanned aerial vehicle (i.e., drone) to locate 12 probable lightning strike sites in ca. 47 ha of forest in the Peruvian Amazon. Subsequent ground-based surveys of the 10 accessible sites revealed 7 that were unambiguously caused by lightning. The seven sites included 121 lightning-damaged trees, 45 of which were dead....

Endocrine regulation of egg rejection in an avian brood parasite host

Mikus Abolins-Abols & Mark Hauber
Parasite-host coevolution can lead to novel behavioural adaptations in hosts to resist parasitism. In avian obligate ­­­brood parasite and host systems, many hosts species have evolved diverse cognitive and behavioural traits to recognize and reject parasitic eggs. Our understanding of the evolution and ecology of these defences hinges on our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate them. We hypothesized that corticosterone, a hormone linked to the stress-response, vigilance, and the suppression of parental behaviour, stimulates...

Data from: Pantropical geography of lightning-caused disturbance and its implications for tropical forests

Evan Gora, Jeffrey Burchfield, Helene Muller-Landau, Phillip Bitzer & Stephen Yanoviak
Lightning is a major agent of disturbance, but its ecological effects in the tropics are unquantified. Here, we used ground and satellite sensors to quantify the geography of lightning strikes in terrestrial tropical ecosystems, and to evaluate whether spatial variation in lightning frequency is associated with variation in tropical forest structure and dynamics. Between 2013 and 2018, tropical terrestrial ecosystems received an average of 100.4 million lightning strikes per year, and the frequency of strikes...

Evolutionary and taphonomic implications of a new species of Amphoracrinus from the early Viséan of Kentucky

William Ausich, Steven Koenig, Alan Goldstein & Gretel Monreal
The youngest species of Amphoracrinus, A. tenax n. sp., is described from the Muldraugh Member of the Borden Formation (early Viséan) of north-central Kentucky. With this new occurrence, both the oldest and youngest named species of Amphoracrinus are from North America. Numerous Tournaisian and Viséan crinoid faunas are documented in the United States, but only four are known to contain Amphoracrinus. Morphological analysis indicates that A. tenax is more closely aligned with species from China...

Data from: Niche partitioning and the role of intraspecific niche variation in structuring a guild of generalist anurans

Carl S. Cloyed & Perri K. Eason
Intra-population niche differences in generalist foragers have captured the interest of ecologists, because such individuality can have important ecological and evolutionary implications. Few researchers have investigated how these differences affect the relationships among ecologically similar, sympatric species. Using stable isotopes, stomach contents, morphology and habitat preference, we examined niche partitioning within a group of five anurans and determined whether variation within species could facilitate resource partitioning. Species partitioned their niches by trophic level and by...

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  • University of Louisville
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
  • University of Alabama in Huntsville
  • Rice University
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of Kentucky
  • University of California Los Angeles
  • Royal Holloway University of London
  • Marquette University
  • Georgetown College