64 Works

Data from: The evolutionary consequences of blood-stage vaccination on the rodent malaria Plasmodium chabaudi

Victoria C. Barclay, Derek Sim, Brian H. K. Chan, Lucas A. Nell, Maia A. Rabaa, Andrew S. Bell, Robin F. Anders & Andrew F. Read
Malaria vaccine developers are concerned that antigenic escape will erode vaccine efficacy. Evolutionary theorists have raised the possibility that some types of vaccine could also create conditions favoring the evolution of more virulent pathogens. Such evolution would put unvaccinated people at greater risk of severe disease. Here we test the impact of vaccination with a single highly purified antigen on the malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi evolving in laboratory mice. The antigen we used, AMA-1, is...

Data from: Extracellular space preservation aids the connectomic analysis of neural circuits

Marta Pallotto, Paul V. Watkins, Boma Fubara, Joshua H. Singer & Kevin L. Briggman
Dense connectomic mapping of neuronal circuits is limited by the time and effort required to analyze 3D electron microscopy (EM) datasets. Algorithms designed to automate image segmentation suffer from substantial error rates and require significant manual error correction. Any improvement in segmentation error rates would therefore directly reduce the time required to analyze 3D EM data. We explored preserving extracellular space (ECS) during chemical tissue fixation to improve the ability to segment neurites and to...

Data from: Origins of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in swine in Mexico

Ignacio Mena, Martha I. Nelson, Francisco Quezada-Monroy, Jayeeta Dutta, Refugio Cortes-Fernández, J. Horacio Lara-Puente, Felipa Castro-Peralta, Luis F. Cunha, Nídia Sequeira-Trovão, Bernardo Lozano-Dubernard, Andrew Rambaut, Harm Van Bakel & Adolfo García-Sastre
Asia is considered an important source of influenza A virus (IAV) pandemics, owing to large, diverse viral reservoirs in poultry and swine. However, the zoonotic origins of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) remain unclear, due to conflicting evidence from swine and humans. There is strong evidence that the first human outbreak of pdmH1N1 occurred in Mexico in early 2009. However, no related swine viruses have been detected in Mexico or any part of...

Data from: Mapping polyclonal HIV-1 antibody responses via next-generation neutralization fingerprinting

Nicole A. Doria-Rose, Han R. Altae-Tran, Ryan S. Roark, Stephen D. Schmidt, Matthew S. Sutton, Mark K. Louder, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Robert T. Bailer, Valerie Cortez, Rui Kong, Krisha McKee, Sijy O'Dell, Felicia Wang, Salim S. Abdool Karim, James M. Binley, Mark Connors, Barton F. Haynes, Malcolm A. Martin, David C. Montefiori, Lynn Morris, Julie Overbaugh, Peter D. Kwong, John R. Mascola, Ivelin S. Georgiev & Sijy O’Dell
Computational neutralization fingerprinting, NFP, is an efficient and accurate method for predicting the epitope specificities of polyclonal antibody responses to HIV-1 infection. Here, we present next-generation NFP algorithms that substantially improve prediction accuracy for individual donors and enable serologic analysis for entire cohorts. Specifically, we developed algorithms for: (a) selection of optimized virus neutralization panels for NFP analysis, (b) estimation of NFP prediction confidence for each serum sample, and (c) identification of sera with potentially...

Data from: High throughput functional genomics identifies modulators of TCE metabolite genotoxicity and candidate susceptibility genes

Vanessa Y. De La Rosa, Jonathan Asfaha, Michael Fasullo, Alex Loguinov, Peng Li, Lee E. Moore, Nathaniel Rothman, Jun Nakamura, James A. Swenberg, Ghislaine Scelo, Luoping Zhang, Martyn T. Smith & Chris D. Vulpe
Trichloroethylene (TCE), an industrial chemical and environmental contaminant, is a human carcinogen. Reactive metabolites are implicated in renal carcinogenesis associated with TCE exposure, yet the toxicity mechanisms of these metabolites and their contribution to cancer and other adverse effects remain unclear. We employed an integrated functional genomics approach that combined functional profiling studies in yeast and avian DT40 cell models to provide new insights into the specific mechanisms contributing to toxicity associated with TCE metabolites....

Data from: Dietary challenges differentially affect activity and sleep/wake behavior in mus musculus: isolating independent associations with diet/energy balance and body weight

Isaac J. Perron, Brendan T. Keenan, Karthikeyani Chellappa, Nicholas F. Lahens, Nicole Y. Yohn, Keith R. Shockley, Allan I. Pack & Sigrid C. Veasey
Background and Aims: Associated with numerous metabolic and behavioral abnormalities, obesity is classified by metrics reliant on body weight (such as body mass index). However, overnutrition is the common cause of obesity, and may independently contribute to these obesity-related abnormalities. Here, we use dietary challenges to parse apart the relative influence of diet and/or energy balance from body weight on various metabolic and behavioral outcomes. Materials and Methods: Seventy male mice (mus musculus) were subjected...

Data from: Emergence and evolution of novel reassortant influenza A viruses in canines in southern China

Ying Chen, Nídia S. Trovão, Guojun Wang, Weifeng Zhao, Ping He, Huabo Zhou, Yanning Mo, Zuzhang Wei, Kang Ouyang, Weijiang Huang, Adolfo García-Sastre, Martha I. Nelson & Weijian Huang
The capacity of influenza A viruses (IAVs) to host jump from animal reservoir species to humans presents an ongoing pandemic threat. Birds and swine are considered major reservoirs of viral genetic diversity, whereas equines and canines have historically been restricted to one or two stable IAV lineages with no transmission to humans. Here, by sequencing the complete genomes of 16 IAVs obtained from canines in southern China (Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region [Guangxi]) in 2013 to...

Data from: Predictive Bayesian selection of multistep Markov chains, applied to the detection of the hot hand and other statistical dependencies in free throws

Joshua C. Chang
When extended to data from the 2016--2017 NBA season specifically for LeBron James, a model depending on the previous shot (single-step Markovian) does not clearly beat a model with independent outcomes. An error-correcting variable length model of two parameters, where James shoots a higher percentage after a missed free throw than otherwise, is more predictive than either model.

Computerized analysis of brain MRI parameters dynamics in young patients with Cushing Syndrome – a case-control study

Amit Tirosh, Harish RaviPrakash, Georgios Z Papadakis, Christina Tatsi, Elena Belyavskaya, Lyssikatos Charalampos, Maya B. Lodish, Ulas Bagci & Constantine A Stratakis
Background – Young patients with Cushing Syndrome (CS) may develop cognitive and behavioral alterations during disease course. Methods - To define the implications of CS on the brain, we analyzed consecutive MRI scans of patients with (n=29) vs. without CS (n=8). Multiple brain compartments were processed for total and gray/white matter (GM/WM) volumes and intensities; and cortical volume, thickness and surface-area. Dynamics (last/baseline scans ratio per parameter) were analyzed vs. cortisol levels and CS status...

Data from: Hot spring frogs (Buergeria japonica) prefer cooler water to hot water

Shohei Komaki, Yoichi Sutoh, Kensuke Kobayashi, Shigeru Saito, Claire Saito, Takeshi Igawa & Quintin Lau
“Hot spring frog” is an informal name used for the Japanese stream tree frog (Buergeria japonica), which is widely distributed in Taiwan and the Ryukyu Archipelago in Japan. Some populations of the species are known to inhabit hot springs. However, water temperature can be extremely high around the sources of hot springs. Thus, it is questionable whether B. japonica selectively inhabits such dangerous environments. To address this question, we conducted a series of observations of...

Atlas of impact-induced, in vivo human brain kinematics

Arnold Gomez, Philip Bayly, John Butman, Dzung Pham, Jerry Prince & Andrew Knutsen
Accelerations cause brain tissue to move, and this data summarizes MRI-based observations of 3D brain movement during an in vivo impact (brain-skull displacement and brain tissue deformation). The data is a group average, or atlas, of indivudial data from two groups of study participants: neck extension (n=10) and neck rotation (n=9).

Datasets for: The HIV-1 viral protease is activated during assembly and budding prior to particle release

Caroline Tabler, Sarah Wegman, Jiji Chen, Hari Shroff, John Tilton & Najwa Alhusaini
HIV-1 encodes a viral protease that is essential for the maturation of infectious viral particles. While protease inhibitors are effective antiretroviral agents, recent studies have shown that prematurely activating – rather than inhibiting – protease function leads to the pyroptotic death of infected cells, with exciting implications for efforts to eradicate viral reservoirs. Despite 40 years of research into the kinetics of protease activation, it remains unclear exactly when protease becomes activated. Recent reports have...

Ripples reflect a spectrum of synchronous spiking activity in human anterior temporal lobe

Ai Phuong Tong, Alex Vaz, John Wittig, Sara Inati & Kareem Zaghloul
Direct brain recordings have provided important insights into how high-frequency activity captured through intracranial EEG (iEEG) supports human memory retrieval. The extent to which such activity is comprised of transient fluctuations that reflect the dynamic coordination of underlying neurons, however, remains unclear. Here, we simultaneously record iEEG, local field potential (LFP), and single unit activity in the human temporal cortex. We demonstrate that fast oscillations within the previously identified 80–120 Hz ripple band contribute to...

A B cell actomyosin arc network couples integrin co-stimulation to mechanical force-dependent immune synapse formation

Jia Wang
B-cell activation and immune synapse (IS) formation with membrane-bound antigens are actin-dependent processes that scale positively with the strength of antigen-induced signals. Importantly, ligating the B-cell integrin, LFA-1, with ICAM-1 promotes IS formation when antigen is limiting. Whether the actin cytoskeleton plays a specific role in integrin-dependent IS formation is unknown. Here we show using super-resolution imaging of mouse primary B cells that LFA-1: ICAM-1 interactions promote the formation of an actomyosin network that dominates...

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