60 Works

Data from: Adaptive evolution and environmental durability jointly structure phylodynamic patterns in avian influenza viruses

Benjamin Roche, John M. Drake, Justin Brown, David E. Stallknecht, Trevor Bedford & Pejman Rohani
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been pivotal to the origination of human pandemic strains. Despite their scientific and public health significance, however, there remains much to be understood about the ecology and evolution of AIVs in wild birds, where major pools of genetic diversity are generated and maintained. Here, we present comparative phylodynamic analyses of human and AIVs in North America, demonstrating (i) significantly higher standing genetic diversity and (ii) phylogenetic trees with a weaker...

Data from: Global distribution maps of the Leishmaniases

David M. Pigott, Samir Bhatt, Nick Golding, Kirsten A. Duda, Katherine E. Battle, Oliver J. Brady, Jane P. Messina, Yves Balard, Patrick Bastien, Francine Pratlong, John S. Brownstein, Clark C Freifeld, Sumiko R. Mekaru, Peter W. Gething, Dylan B. George, Monica F. Myers, Richard Reithinger & Simon I. Hay
The leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases that have a broad global distribution throughout much of the Americas, Africa and Asia. Despite representing a significant public health burden, our understanding of the global distribution of the leishmaniases remains vague, reliant upon expert opinion and limited to poor spatial resolution. A global assessment of the consensus of evidence for leishmaniasis was performed at a sub-national level by aggregating information from a variety of sources. A database of records...

Data from: Predictive Bayesian selection of multistep Markov chains, applied to the detection of the hot hand and other statistical dependencies in free throws

Joshua C. Chang
When extended to data from the 2016--2017 NBA season specifically for LeBron James, a model depending on the previous shot (single-step Markovian) does not clearly beat a model with independent outcomes. An error-correcting variable length model of two parameters, where James shoots a higher percentage after a missed free throw than otherwise, is more predictive than either model.

Data from: Origins of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in swine in Mexico

Ignacio Mena, Martha I. Nelson, Francisco Quezada-Monroy, Jayeeta Dutta, Refugio Cortes-Fernández, J. Horacio Lara-Puente, Felipa Castro-Peralta, Luis F. Cunha, Nídia Sequeira-Trovão, Bernardo Lozano-Dubernard, Andrew Rambaut, Harm Van Bakel & Adolfo García-Sastre
Asia is considered an important source of influenza A virus (IAV) pandemics, owing to large, diverse viral reservoirs in poultry and swine. However, the zoonotic origins of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) remain unclear, due to conflicting evidence from swine and humans. There is strong evidence that the first human outbreak of pdmH1N1 occurred in Mexico in early 2009. However, no related swine viruses have been detected in Mexico or any part of...

Data from: Extracellular space preservation aids the connectomic analysis of neural circuits

Marta Pallotto, Paul V. Watkins, Boma Fubara, Joshua H. Singer & Kevin L. Briggman
Dense connectomic mapping of neuronal circuits is limited by the time and effort required to analyze 3D electron microscopy (EM) datasets. Algorithms designed to automate image segmentation suffer from substantial error rates and require significant manual error correction. Any improvement in segmentation error rates would therefore directly reduce the time required to analyze 3D EM data. We explored preserving extracellular space (ECS) during chemical tissue fixation to improve the ability to segment neurites and to...

Data from: High throughput functional genomics identifies modulators of TCE metabolite genotoxicity and candidate susceptibility genes

Vanessa Y. De La Rosa, Jonathan Asfaha, Michael Fasullo, Alex Loguinov, Peng Li, Lee E. Moore, Nathaniel Rothman, Jun Nakamura, James A. Swenberg, Ghislaine Scelo, Luoping Zhang, Martyn T. Smith & Chris D. Vulpe
Trichloroethylene (TCE), an industrial chemical and environmental contaminant, is a human carcinogen. Reactive metabolites are implicated in renal carcinogenesis associated with TCE exposure, yet the toxicity mechanisms of these metabolites and their contribution to cancer and other adverse effects remain unclear. We employed an integrated functional genomics approach that combined functional profiling studies in yeast and avian DT40 cell models to provide new insights into the specific mechanisms contributing to toxicity associated with TCE metabolites....

Computerized analysis of brain MRI parameters dynamics in young patients with Cushing Syndrome – a case-control study

Amit Tirosh, Harish RaviPrakash, Georgios Z Papadakis, Christina Tatsi, Elena Belyavskaya, Lyssikatos Charalampos, Maya B. Lodish, Ulas Bagci & Constantine A Stratakis
Background – Young patients with Cushing Syndrome (CS) may develop cognitive and behavioral alterations during disease course. Methods - To define the implications of CS on the brain, we analyzed consecutive MRI scans of patients with (n=29) vs. without CS (n=8). Multiple brain compartments were processed for total and gray/white matter (GM/WM) volumes and intensities; and cortical volume, thickness and surface-area. Dynamics (last/baseline scans ratio per parameter) were analyzed vs. cortisol levels and CS status...

Atlas of impact-induced, in vivo human brain kinematics

Arnold Gomez, Philip Bayly, John Butman, Dzung Pham, Jerry Prince & Andrew Knutsen
Accelerations cause brain tissue to move, and this data summarizes MRI-based observations of 3D brain movement during an in vivo impact (brain-skull displacement and brain tissue deformation). The data is a group average, or atlas, of indivudial data from two groups of study participants: neck extension (n=10) and neck rotation (n=9).

Data from: Hot spring frogs (Buergeria japonica) prefer cooler water to hot water

Shohei Komaki, Yoichi Sutoh, Kensuke Kobayashi, Shigeru Saito, Claire Saito, Takeshi Igawa & Quintin Lau
“Hot spring frog” is an informal name used for the Japanese stream tree frog (Buergeria japonica), which is widely distributed in Taiwan and the Ryukyu Archipelago in Japan. Some populations of the species are known to inhabit hot springs. However, water temperature can be extremely high around the sources of hot springs. Thus, it is questionable whether B. japonica selectively inhabits such dangerous environments. To address this question, we conducted a series of observations of...

Ripples reflect a spectrum of synchronous spiking activity in human anterior temporal lobe

Ai Phuong Tong, Alex Vaz, John Wittig, Sara Inati & Kareem Zaghloul
Direct brain recordings have provided important insights into how high-frequency activity captured through intracranial EEG (iEEG) supports human memory retrieval. The extent to which such activity is comprised of transient fluctuations that reflect the dynamic coordination of underlying neurons, however, remains unclear. Here, we simultaneously record iEEG, local field potential (LFP), and single unit activity in the human temporal cortex. We demonstrate that fast oscillations within the previously identified 80–120 Hz ripple band contribute to...

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  • National Institutes of Health
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