14 Works

Seasonal rainfall in subtropical montane cloud forests drives demographic fluctuations in a Green-backed Tit population

Ming-Tang Shiao, Mei-Chen Chuang, Hsiao-Wei Yuan & Ying Wang
Montane birds are vulnerable to climate change. However, the mechanisms by which weather drives demographic processes in montane birds have seldom been investigated. We conducted a long-term study (2009–2019) on the Green-backed Tit (Parus monticolus), an insectivorous passerine, in the montane cloud forest of subtropical Taiwan. We explored the effects of weather variability on the productivity and survival of adult Green-backed Tits. Nest survival was negatively associated with seasonal rainfall during the breeding season (April–July)...

Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America

Duncan N. L. Menge, Ryan A. Chisholm, Stuart J. Davies, Kamariah Abu Salim, David Allen, Mauricio Alvarez, Norm Bourg, Warren Y. Brockelman, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Nathalie Butt, Min Cao, Wirong Chanthorn, Wei-Chun Chao, Keith Clay, Richard Condit, Susan Cordell, João Batista Da Silva, H. S. Dattaraja, Ana Cristina Segalin De Andrade, Alexandre A. Oliveira, Jan Den Ouden, Michael Drescher, Christine Fletcher, Christian P. Giardina, C. V. Savitri Gunatilleke … & Tak Fung
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America...

Data from: Influences of environmental and spatial factors on genetic and epigenetic variations in Rhododendron oldhamii (Ericaceae)

Chun-Lin Huang, Jui-Hung Chen, Ming-Hsuan Tsang, Jeng-Der Chung, Chung-Te Chang & Shih-Ying Hwang
Test of the relationship of genetic and particularly epigenetic variation with geographic isolation and environment is important to reveal potential environmental drivers for selection. Rhododendron oldhamii is widespread but inhabits fragmented subtropical forest landscapes and populations across its range may exhibit different levels of genetic and epigenetic structuring correlated to their environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the genetic and epigenetic variations and their ecological correlates in R. oldhamii. Genetic and epigenetic variations were surveyed using...

Data from: Historical connectivity, contemporary isolation, and local adaptation in a widespread but discontinuously distributed species, Rhododendron oldhamii, endemic to Taiwan

Shih-Ying Hwang, Y-C Hsieh, J-D Chung, C-N Wang, C-T Chang & C-Y Chen
Elucidation of the evolutionary processes that constrain or facilitate adaptive divergence is a central goal in evolutionary biology, especially in non-model organisms. We tested whether changes in dynamics of gene flow (historical vs contemporary) caused population isolation and examined local adaptation in response to environmental selective forces in fragmented Rhododendron oldhamii populations. Variation in 26 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat loci from 18 populations in Taiwan was investigated by examining patterns of genetic diversity, inbreeding,...

Demographic rates and stature of tree species in 13 sub-tropical forests: annual growth, annual survival, annual recruitment >( 1 cm dbh), stature (max dbh)

Stephan Kambach, Richard Condit, Salomón Aguilar, Helge Bruelheide, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Chia-Hao Chang-Yang, Yu-Yun Chen, George Chuyong, Stuart J. Davies, Sisira Ediriweera, Corneille E. N. Ewango, Edwino S. Fernando, Nimal Gunatilleke, Savitri Gunatilleke, Stephen P Hubbell, Akira Itoh, David Kenfack, Somboon Kiratiprayoon, Yi-Ching Lin, Jean-Remy Makana, Mohizah Bt. Mohamad, Nantachai Pongpattananurak, Rolando Pérez, Lillian Jennifer V. Rodriguez, I-Fang Sun … & Nadja Rüger
Organisms of all species must balance their allocation to growth, survival and recruitment. Among tree species, evolution has resulted in different life-history strategies for partitioning resources to these key demographic processes. Life-history strategies in tropical forests have often been shown to align along a trade-off between fast growth and high survival, i.e. the well-known fast-slow continuum. In addition, an orthogonal trade-off has been proposed between tall stature – resulting from fast growth and high survival...

Data from: Demography of the upward-shifting temperate woody species of the Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum complex and ecologically relevant adaptive divergence in its trailing edge populations

Chia-Ying Chen, Bo-Kai Liang, Jeng-Der Chung, Chung-Te Chang, Yi-Chiang Hsieh, Teng-Chiu Lin & Shih-Ying Hwang
Trailing edge populations of upward migrating species induced by postglacial climatic warming can be evolutionarily significant in the face of global warming. We tested for population size changes between lower- and higher-elevation populations located in the same mountainous regions of the upward-shifting temperate woody species of the Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum complex in Taiwan. We also tested whether natural selection evoked adaptive divergence in trailing edge populations of this species complex. We genotyped 26 expressed sequence tag-simple...

Data from: Antrophyum nambanense, a new vittarioid fern (Pteridaceae; Polypodiales) from Vietnam

Cheng Wei Chen, Minh Tri Dang, Hong Truong Luu, Tzu-Tong Kao, Yao-Moan Huang & Chia-Wei Li
A new species, Antrophyum nambanense , is described here based on the evidence from morphology and molecular phylogeny. Morphologically, short taeniform soral paraphyses and large fronds are the diagnostic characteristics of A. nambanense . Phylogenetically, it is most closely related to A. annamense , but can be readily distinguished from A. annamense by taeniform soral paraphyses (vs. filiform). We suggest A. nambanense is an allopolyploid of hybrid origin involving A. annamense and A. henryi ,...

Refugia during the last glacial period and the origin of the disjunct distribution of the insular plant Microtropis japonica (Celastraceae)

Takayuki Yamada, Goro Kokubugata, Shinji Fujii, Chien-Fan Chen, Akira Asakawa, Takuro Ito & Masayuki Maki
Aim: While many phylogeographical studies have focused on continental refugia, the function of islands as refugia has been long overlooked. In this study, we examined the biogeographic history of Microtropis japonica and its insular distribution to elucidate the hidden status of islands on the range expansion of plants. Location: Two disjunct island areas of Japan (the Izu and Ryukyu Islands) and their adjacent areas (the Japanese mainlands Honshu and Kyushu, and Taiwan). Taxon: Microtropis japonica...

Data from: Divergent selection and local adaptation in disjunct populations of an endangered conifer, Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana (Pinaceae)

Jing-Yu Fang, Jeng-Der Chung, Yu-Chung Chiang, Chung-Te Chang, Chia-Ying Chen & Shih-Ying Hwang
The present study investigated the genetic diversity, population structure, FST outliers, and extent and pattern of linkage disequilibrium in five populations of Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana, which is listed as a critically endangered species by the Council of Agriculture, Taiwan. Twelve amplified fragment length polymorphism primer pairs generated a total of 465 markers, of which 83.74% on average were polymorphic across populations, with a mean Nei’s genetic diversity of 0.233 and a low level of...

Data from: Patterns of reproductive isolation in a haplodiploid – strong post‐mating, prezygotic barriers among three forms of a social spider mite

Yukie Sato, Hironori Sakamoto, Tetsuo Gotoh, Yutaka Saito, Jung-Tai Chao, Martijn Egas & Atsushi Mochizuki
In speciation research, much attention is paid to the evolution of reproductive barriers, preventing diverging groups from hybridizing back into one gene pool. The prevalent view is that reproductive barriers evolve gradually as a byproduct of genetic changes accumulated by natural selection and genetic drift in groups that are segregated spatially and/or temporally. Reproductive barriers, however, can also be reinforced by natural selection against maladaptive hybridization. These mutually compatible theories are both empirically supported by...

Data from: Genetic relationships and ecological divergence in Salix species and populations in Taiwan

Chun-Lin Huang, Chung-Te Chang, Bing-Hong Huang, Jeng-Der Chung, Jui-Hung Chen, Yu-Chung Chiang & Shih-Ying Hwang
Linking ecology with evolutionary biology is important to understand how environments drive population and species divergence. Phenotypically diverse Salix species, such as lowland riparian willow trees and middle- to high-elevation multistemmed shrubs and alpine dwarf shrubs, provide opportunities for studying genetic divergence driven by ecological factors. We used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to quantify the genetic variation of 185 individuals from nine populations of four Salix species in Taiwan. Our phylogenetic analyses distinguished two...

Data from: Floral traits of mammal-pollinated Mucuna macrocarpa (Fabaceae): implications for generalist-like pollination systems

Shun Kobayashi, Tetsuo Denda, Chi-Cheng Liao, Yu-Hsiu Lin, Shu-Hui Wu & Masako Izawa
Floral traits are adapted by plants to attract pollinators. Some of those plants that have different pollinators in different regions adapt to each pollinator in each region to maximize their pollination success. Mucuna macrocarpa (Fabaceae) limits the pollinators using its floral structure and is pollinated by different mammals in different regions. Here, we examine the relationships between floral traits of M. macrocarpa and the external morphology of mammalian pollinators in different regions of its distribution....

Data from: Origin and demographic history of the endemic Taiwan spruce (Picea morrisonicola)

Sofia Bodare, Michael Stocks, Jeng-Chuann Yang & Martin Lascoux
Taiwan spruce (Picea morrisonicola) is a vulnerable conifer species endemic to the island of Taiwan. A warming climate and competition from subtropical tree species has limited the range of Taiwan spruce to the higher altitudes of the island. Using seeds sampled from an area in the central mountain range of Taiwan, 15 nuclear loci were sequenced in order to measure genetic variation and to assess the long-term genetic stability of the species. Genetic diversity is...

Species packing and the latitudinal gradient in local beta-diversity

Ke Cao, Richard Condit, Xiangcheng Mi, Lei Chen, Wubing Xu, David F. R. P. Burslem, Chunrong Cai, Min Cao, Li-Wan Chang, Chengjin Chu, Hu Du, Sisira Ediriweera, C. S. V. Gunatilleke, I. U. A. N. Gunatilleke, Zhanqing Hao, Jinbo Li, Guangze Jin, Buhang Li, Yankun Liu, Yide Li, Michael J. O'Brien, Xiujuan Qiao, Hongwei Ni, Guochun Shen, Xihua Wang … & Jens-Christian Svenning
The decline in species richness at higher latitudes is among the most fundamental patterns in ecology. Whether changes in species composition across space (beta-diversity) contribute to this gradient of overall local species richness (gamma diversity) remains hotly debated. Previous studies that failed to resolve the issue suffered from a well-known tendency for small samples in areas with high gamma-diversity to have inflated measures of beta-diversity. We provide here a novel analytical test, using beta-diversity metrics...

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