Endemic organisms of ancient lakes have been studied as models to understand processes of speciation and adaptive radiation. However, it remains unclear how ancient lakes play roles in genetic and phenotypic diversity of freshwater mollusks. In the present study, we focus on viviparid freshwater snails in the ancient lakes of East and Southeast Asia (Japan and China) to address this question. Using molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial (COI, 16S) and nuclear genes (18S, 28S,...
Disruptive selection of shell colour in land snails: a mark–recapture study of Euhadra peliomphala simodaeShun Ito & Junji Konuma
Many theoretical studies have suggested that disruptive selection plays an important role in phenotypic divergence, but few studies have determined the action of disruptive selection on phenotypic divergence via field studies. This study investigated the effect of disruptive selection on shell colour polymorphism in the Japanese land snail Euhadra peliomphala simodae to determine whether extreme phenotypes of snail shell colour are favored over intermediate phenotypes. We conducted field surveys on an oceanic island with black,...
Data from: Acoustic emissions of Sorex unguiculatus (Mammalia: Soricidae): assessing the echo-based orientation hypothesisLida Sanchez, Satoshi D. Ohdachi, Atsushi Kawahara, Lazaro M. Echenique-Diaz, Shinichiro Maruyama & Masakado Kawata
Shrew species have been proposed to utilize an echo-based orientation system to obtain additional acoustic information while surveying their environments. This system has been supported by changes in vocal emission rates when shrews encounter different habitats of varying complexity, although detailed acoustic features in this system have not been reported. In this study, behavioral experiments were conducted using the long-clawed shrew (Sorex unguiculatus) to assess this orientation system. Three experimental conditions were set, two of...
Data from: Divergence before and after the isolation of islands: phylogeography of the Bradybaena land snails on the Ryukyu Islands of JapanTakahiro Hirano, Yuichi Kameda, Takumi Saito & Satoshi Chiba
Aim: Vicariance events have been proposed as a major source of lineage divergence on continental islands, whereas dispersal events followed by isolation have been proposed as the major cause on oceanic islands. However, organisms on continental islands may include taxa with characteristics similar to those on oceanic islands. Lineage divergence unassociated with the geological events that separated islands may also have occurred. This study addresses these possibilities through morphological and molecular phylogeographic analyses of land...
Data from: Palaeobiogeography and evolutionary patterns of the larger foraminifer Borelis de Montfort (Borelidae)Davide Bassi, Juan Carlos Braga, Giovanni Di Domenico, Johannes Pignatti, Sigal Abramovich, Pamela Hallock, Janine Koenen, Zoltan Kovacs, Martin R. Langer, Giulio Pavia & Yasufumi Iryu
The palaeobiogeography of the alveolinoid Borelis species reveals the evolutionary patterns leading to the two extant representatives, which occur in shallow-water tropical carbonate, coral reef-related settings. Type material and new material of fossil Borelis species, along with Recent specimens were studied to assess their taxonomic status, species circumscriptions (based on proloculus size, occurrence of Y-shaped septula, and the index of elongation), palaeobiogeography and evolutionary dynamics. The species dealt with here are known from exclusively fossil...
Data from: Organic farming and associated management practices benefit multiple wildlife taxa: a large-scale field study in rice paddy landscapesNaoki Katayama, Yutaka Osada, Miyuki Mashiko, Yuki G. Baba, Koichi Tanaka, Yoshinobu Kusumoto, Satoru Okubo, Hiroaki Ikeda & Yosihiro Natuhara
1. Organic farming has potential for the conservation of global biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. Despite this, knowledge of the effects of organic farming systems on farmland biodiversity is limited in Asia, the worldwide leader in rice production. 2. We conducted the first national-scale study to investigate the effects of three different rice farming systems (conventional, low-input, and organic) and specific management practices (e.g. herbicide and insecticide applications, crop rotation, and levee-vegetation management) on species...
Invasions of alien species have led to serious problems, including the destruction of native ecosystems. In general, invasive species adapt to novel various environments rapidly, suggesting that they have high genetic diversity that could directly influences environmental adaptability. However, we do not yet know how genomic architecture generates genetic diversity that leads to invasive species. Recent studies showed that the proportion of duplicated genes (PD) in whole animal genomes correlated with environmental variability within habitat....
Data from: Evolution of asexual Daphnia pulex in Japan: variations and covariations of the digestive, morphological and life history traitsXiaofei Tian, Hajime Ohtsuki & Jotaro Urabe
Background Several genetic lineages of obligate parthenogenetic Daphnia pulex, a common zooplankton species, have invaded Japan from North America. Among these, a lineage named JPN1 is thought to have started colonization from a single genotype several hundred to thousand years ago and subsequently produced many genotypes in Japan. To examine the phenotypic variations due to ecological drivers diverging the genotypes in new habitats, we measured heritability and variation in 17 traits, including life history, morphology...
Genetic consequences of plant edaphic specialisation to solfatara fields; phylogenetic and population genetic analysis of Carex angustisquama (Cyperaceae)Koki Nagasawa, Hiroaki Setoguchi, Masayuki Maki, Hayato Goto, Keitaro Fukushima, Yuji Isagi, Yoshihisa Suyama, Yoshihiro Tsunamoto, Ayumi Matsuo, Kazuhiro Sawa & Shota Sakaguchi
Edaphic specialisation is one of the main drivers of plant diversification and has multifaceted effects on population dynamics. Carex angustisquama is a sedge plant growing only on heavily acidified soil in solfatara fields, where only extremophytes can survive. Because of the lack of closely related species in similar habitats and its disjunct distribution, the species offers ideal settings to investigate the effects of adaptation to solfatara fields and historical biogeography on genetic consequences of plant...
Variations in leaf economics spectrum traits for an evergreen coniferous species: Tree size dominates over environment factorsZhili Liu, Kouki Hikosaka, Fengri Li & Guangze Jin
Many leaf traits strongly vary with tree size and environmental factors, but the importance of these factors to intraspecific variations of leaf traits in forest trees have rarely been simultaneously evaluated. We measured needle longevity and specific leaf area (SLA) and nitrogen (N) content of every needle age (0 to 4 year old) for 65 individuals with 0.3-100 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) for an evergreen coniferous species, Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc., in...
Yamagata Prefectural Education Institute1
Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences1
École Supérieure d'Ingénieurs en Génie Électrique1
Eötvös Loránd University1
Miyagi University of Education1
Prirodnjacki Muzej Crne Gore1
National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences1
Sapienza University of Rome1