88 Works

GeldKunstNetz. Rechnungsbücher der Stettin-Danziger Kaufmannbankiersfamilie Loitz

Aleksandra Lipińska
Das interdisziplinäre und internationale Projekt untersuchte in den Jahren 2018-2019 die Rechnungsbücher (1566-1584) der Stettin (Szczecin)-Danziger (Gdańsk) Kaufmannbankiersfamilie Loitz, die sich im Staatsarchiv Danzig befinden. Das Ziel des Projekts war es, diese größte vorhandene Sammlung der frühneuzeitlichen Rechnungsbücher in Danzig (16 Archivalien, 969 S.) zu digitalisieren, online zu publizieren und wissenschaftlich aus drei methodischen Perspektiven auszuwerten. Erstens: als Quelle für die Geschichte des Finanzwesens und Handels im südlichen Ostseeraum. Zweitens: als Datenquelle für die Computer...

Data from: \"Diagnostic SNPs for inferring population structure in American mink (Neovison vison) identified through RAD sequencing\" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 October 2014 to 30 November 2014

Janne Pia Thirstrup, Aritz Ruiz-Gonzalez, Jose Martin Pujolar, Peter Foged Larsen, Rasmus O. Nielsen, Ettore Randi, Andrzej Zalewski, Cino Pertoldi, Mariella Baratti, Tiziana Di Lorenzo, Alessio Iannucci, Diana Maria Paola Galassi, Valentina Iannilli, Just Jensen, Dragos Postolache & Giovanni Giuseppe Vendramin
The article documents the public availability of RAD sequencing data and generated SNPs for the American mink (Neovison vison). 224,095 polymorphic loci were identified from 14 mink from which primers were designed for a subset of 380 SNPs. The panel was tested on 211 mink. Fisher’s F-statistics (Fis, FIT and FST) as well as observed (HO), expected (HE) and unbiased expected (uHE) heterozygosity was calculated for the SNPs and 194 SNPs was validated as being...

Data from: The early composition and evolution of the turtle shell (Reptilia, Testudinata)

Tomasz Szczygielski & Tomasz Sulej
The shell of the oldest true turtle (Testudinata) branch (Proterochersidae) from the Late Triassic (Norian) of Poland and Germany was built in its anterior and posterior part from an osteodermal mosaic which developed several million years after the plastron, neurals, and costal bones. The most detailed description of the shell composition in proterochersids thus far is provided together with a review of the shell composition in other Triassic pantestudinates, the scenario of early evolution of...

Data from: On the origin of mongrels: evolutionary history of free-breeding dogs in Eurasia

Małgorzata Pilot, Tadeusz Malewski, Andre E. Moura, Tomasz Grzybowski, Kamil Oleński, Anna Ruść, Stanisław Kamiński, Fernanda Fadel, Daniel S. Mills, Abdulaziz N. Alagaili, Osama B. Mohammed, Grzegorz Kłys, Innokentiy M. Okhlopkov, Ewa Suchecka, Wieslaw Bogdanowicz & Fernanda Ruiz Fadel
Although a large part of the global domestic dog population is free-ranging and free-breeding, knowledge of genetic diversity in these free-breeding dogs (FBDs) and their ancestry relations to pure-breed dogs is limited, and the indigenous status of FBDs in Asia is still uncertain. We analyse genome-wide SNP variability of FBDs across Eurasia, and show that they display weak genetic structure and are genetically distinct from pure-breed dogs rather than constituting an admixture of breeds. Our...

Data from: Tuberculosis-like respiratory infection in 245-million-year-old marine reptile suggested by bone pathologies

Dawid Surmik, Tomasz Szczygielski, Katarzyna Janiszewska & Bruce M. Rothschild
An absence of archaeological and palaeontological evidence of pneumonia in the remote past contrasts with its recognition in the more recent archaeologic record. We document an apparent infection-mediated periosteal reaction affecting the dorsal ribs in a Middle Triassic eosauropterygian historically referred to as ‘Proneusticosaurus’ silesiacus. High-resolution X-ray microtomography (XMT) and histological studies of the pathologically-altered ribs revealed the presence of a continuous solid periosteal reaction with multiple superficial blebs (protrusions) on the visceral surfaces of...

Data from: Genetic diversity in widespread species is not congruent with species richness in alpine plant communities

Pierre Taberlet, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, Thorsten Englisch, Andreas Tribsch, Rolf Holderegger, Nadir Alvarez, Harald Niklfeld, Zbigniew Mirek, Atte Moilanen, Wolfgang Ahlmer, Paolo Ajmone Marsan, Enzo Bona, Maurizio Bovio, Philippe Choler, Elżbieta Cieślak, Gheorghe Coldea, Licia Colli, Vasile Cristea, Jean-Pierre Dalmas, Božo Frajman, Luc Garraud, Myriam Gaudeul, Ludovic Gielly, Walter Gutermann, Nejc Jogan … & Karol Marhold
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) aims at the conservation of all three levels of biodiversity, i.e. ecosystems, species and genes. Genetic diversity represents evolutionary potential and is important for ecosystem functioning. Unfortunately, genetic diversity in natural populations is hardly considered in conservation strategies because it is difficult to measure and has been hypothesized to co-vary with species richness. This means that species richness is taken as a surrogate of genetic diversity in conservation planning,...

Data from: Cascading effects of changes in land use on the invasion of the walnut Juglans regia in forest ecosystems

Magdalena Lenda, Johannes H. Knops, Piotr Skórka, Dawid Moroń & Michał Woyciechowski
1. Plant invasions are affected by many factors that must be favourable in order for invasions to occur. Factors can be grouped into three major categories: propagule pressure, biotic factors and abiotic characteristics; all may be moderated by human activity. However, studies examining all factors simultaneously are rare, and most are limited to a single factor. This hampers our understanding of the mechanisms driving invasions. 2. In recent decades, an alien walnut (Juglans regia) has...

The expansion wave of an invasive predator leaves declining waterbird populations behind

Marcin Brzeziński, Michał Żmihorski, Marek Nieoczym, Piotr Wilniewczyc & Andrzej Zalewski
Aim: Theory predicts that the evolutionary adaptations of prey to reduce predator pressure often fail in confrontation with non-native predators; thus, their predation usually leads to sharp declines of prey populations. However, over time, prey can develop anti-predator adaptations, reduce predator impact and recover its population. We analyse the numerical response of multiple prey species to the impact of a non-native predator on a large spatiotemporal scale. Location: Poland Methods: Long-term population dynamics of 13...

Data from: Fear of the dark? contrasting impacts of humans vs lynx on diel activity of roe deer across Europe

Nadège C. Bonnot, Ophélie Couriot, Anne Berger, Francesca Cagnacci, Simone Ciuti, Johannes De Groeve, Benedikt Gehr, Marco Heurich, Petter Kjellander, Max Kröschel, Nicolas Morellet, Leif Sönnichsen & A.J. Mark Hewison
Humans, as super predators, can have strong effects on wildlife behaviour, including profound modifications of diel activity patterns. Subsequent to the return of large carnivores to human-modified ecosystems, many prey species have adjusted their spatial behaviour to the contrasting landscapes of fear generated by both their natural predators and anthropogenic pressures. The effects of predation risk on temporal shifts in diel activity of prey, however, remain largely unexplored in human-dominated landscapes. We investigated the influence...

Rethinking megafauna

Marcos Moleón, José Sánchez-Zapata, José Donázar, Eloy Revilla, Berta Martín-López, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Wayne Getz, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Larry Crowder, Mauro Galetti, Manuela González-Suárez, Fengzhi He, Pedro Jordano, Rebecca Lewison, Robin Naidoo, Norman Owen-Smith, Nuria Selva, Jens-Christian Svenning, José Tella, Christiane Zarfl, Sonja Jähnig, Matt Hayward, Søren Faurby, Nuria García … & Klement Tochner
Concern for megafauna is increasing among scientists and non-scientists. Many studies have emphasized that megafauna play prominent ecological roles and provide important ecosystem services to humanity. But, what precisely are “megafauna”? Here we critically assess the concept of megafauna and propose a goal-oriented framework for megafaunal research. First, we review definitions of megafauna and analyze associated terminology in the scientific literature. Second, we conduct a survey among ecologists and paleontologists to assess the species traits...

Data from: Seed size predicts global effects of small mammal seed predation on plant recruitment

Yvette Ortega, Łukasz Dylewski, Michał Bogdziewicz & Dean Pearson
We conducted a global literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether seed size could predict post-dispersal seed predator effects on seed removal and plant recruitment, respectively. Datasets were built using data extracted from published studies focusing on seed predation by small mammals (see Methods for criteria and data extraction protocol). We found that seed size predicted small mammal seed removal rates and their impacts on plant recruitment consistent with optimal foraging theory, with intermediate seed...

Data from: Masting increases seedling recruitment near and far: predator satiation and improved dispersal in a fleshy-fruited tree

Barbara Seget, Michał Bogdziewicz, Jan Holeksa, Mateusz Ledwoń, Łukasz Piechnik, Fiona Milne-Rostkowska, Katarzyna Kondrat & Magdalena Żywiec
The animal dispersal hypothesis predicts that mast seeding can increase dispersal rate of seeds by dispersers and enhance reproductive success of plants. However, in contrast to pollination efficiency and predator satiation hypothesis, the animal dispersal hypothesis has received mixed support. Using 12-year data on fruit production and seedling recruitment of a fleshy-fruited tree rowan (Sorbus aucuparia, Rosaceae), we tested if an increase in the fruit production at the population level results in higher proportion of...

In a comfort zone and beyond – ecological plasticity of key marine mediators

Emilia Trudnowska, Kaja Balazy, Joanna Stoń-Egiert, Irina Smolina, Thomas A. Brown & Marta Gluchowska
Copepods of the genus Calanus are the key components of zooplankton. Understanding their response to a changing climate is crucial to predict the functioning of future warmer high-latitude ecosystems. Although specific Calanus species are morphologically very similar, they have different life strategies and roles in ecosystems. In this study, C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis were thoroughly studied with regard to their plasticity in morphology and ecology both in their preferred original water mass (Atlantic vs....

Plant cover and plant-pollinator interactions in Central European grasslands (Poland/Czech Republic)

Demetra Rakosy, Elena Motivans, Valentin Ştefan, Arkadiusz Nowak, Sebastian Świerszcz, Reinart Feldmann, Elisabeth Kühn, Costanza Geppert, Neeraja Venkataraman, Anna Sobieraj-Betlińska, Anita Grossmann, Wiktoria Rojek, Katarzyna Pochrząst, Magdalena Cielniak, Anika Kirstin Gathof, Kevin Baumann & Tiffany Marie Knight
Complex socio-economic, political and demographic factors have driven the increased conversion of Europe’s semi-natural grasslands to intensive pastures. This trend is particularly strong in some of the most biodiverse regions of the continent, such as Central and Eastern Europe. Intensive grazing is known to decrease species diversity and alter the composition of plant and insect communities. Comparatively little is known, however, about how intensive grazing influences plant functional traits related to pollination and the structure...

Data from: Megaphylogeny resolves global patterns of mushroom evolution

Torda Varga, Krisztina Krizsán, Csenge Földi, Bálint Dima, Marisol Sánchez-García, Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez, Gergely J. Szöllősi, János G. Szarkándi, Viktor Papp, László Albert, William Andreopoulos, Claudio Angelini, Vladimír Antonín, Kerrie W. Barry, Neale L. Bougher, Peter Buchanan, Bart Buyck, Viktória Bense, Pam Catcheside, Mansi Chovatia, Jerry Cooper, Wolfgang Dämon, Dennis Desjardin, Péter Finy, József Geml … & László G. Nagy
Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfill diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree...

Data from: Bacterial communities within Phengaris (Maculinea) alcon caterpillars are shifted following transition from solitary living to social parasitism of Myrmica ant colonies

Mark A. Szenteczki, Camille Pitteloud, Luca Pietro Casacci, Lucie Kešnerová, Melissa R. L. Whitaker, Philipp Engel, Roger Vila & Nadir Alvarez
Bacterial symbionts are known to facilitate a wide range of physiological processes and ecological interactions for their hosts. In spite of this, caterpillars with highly diverse life histories appear to lack resident microbiota. Gut physiology, endogenous digestive enzymes, and limited social interactions may contribute to this pattern, but the consequences of shifts in social activity and diet on caterpillar microbiota are largely unknown. Phengaris alcon caterpillars undergo particularly dramatic social and dietary shifts when they...

Data from: Small herbivores slow down species loss up to 22 years but only at early successional stage

Qingqing Chen, Ruth A. Howison, Jan P. Bakker, Juan Alberti, Dries P. J. Kuijper, Han Olff & Christian Smit
The long-term influence of persistent small herbivores on successional plant community configuration is rarely studied. We used an herbivore exclusion experiment along the successional gradient in a salt-marsh system, to investigate the effects of hares and geese, and hares alone, on plant diversity at five successional stages (the earliest, two early, the intermediate and the late successional stages) in the short and long term, i.e. 7 and 22 years, respectively. Plant diversity declined over time...

Data from: Parallel evolution of jugal structures in Devonian athyridide brachiopods

Wen Guo, Yuanlin Sun & Andrzej Balinski
Here, we describe Sinathyris crassa gen. et sp. nov., a new early Emsian (Early Devonian) athyridide brachiopod with a double spiralium from the Guangxi Province of southern China. Unlike the majority of genera of the subfamily Helenathyridinae, which possess accessory spiral lamellae developed directly from the jugal branches, the form described here shows these lamellae arising from a distally bifurcating jugal stem. These differences suggest that the double spiralium in S. crassa might have appeared...

Data from: MHC, parasites and antler development in red deer: no support for the Hamilton & Zuk hypothesis

Mateusz Buczek, Henryk Okarma, Aleksander W. Demiaszkiewicz & Jacek Radwan
The Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis proposes that the genetic benefits of preferences for elaborated secondary sexual traits have their origins in the arms race between hosts and parasites, which maintains genetic variance in parasite resistance. Infection, in turn, can be reflected in the expression of costly sexual ornaments. However, the link between immune genes, infection, and the expression of secondary sexual traits has rarely been investigated. Here, we explored whether the presence and identity of functional variants...

Data from: A Miopetaurista (Sciuridae, Rodentia) cranium from the middle Miocene of Bavaria (Germany) and brain evolution in flying squirrels

Isaac Casanovas-Vilar, Montserrat Grau-Camats, Ornella C. Bertrand, Jérôme Prieto, Sergi López-Torres & Mary Silcox
Flying squirrels (Sciurinae, Pteromyini) are the most successful group of gliding mammals. However, their fossil record mostly consists of isolated dental remains which provide very limited insights into their paleobiology and evolution. Only recently, the first skeleton of a fossil flying squirrel, belonging to the species Miopetaurista neogrivensis, has been described. It presents all the diagnostic gliding-related postcranial features of its extant relatives and shows that this group has undergone very little morphological change for...

Timing and synchrony of birth in Eurasian lynx across Europe

Jenny Mattisson, John D.C. Linnell, Ole Anders, Elisa Belotti, Christine Breitenmoser-Würsten, Ludek Bufka, Christian Fuxjäger, Marco Heurich, Gjorge Ivanov, Włodzimierz Jędrzejewski, Radio Kont, Rafał Kowalczyk, Miha Krofel, Dime Melovski, Deniz Mengüllüoğlu, Tomma Lilli Middelhoff, Anja Molinari-Jobin, John Odden, Jānis Ozoliņš, Henryk Okarma, Jens Persson, Krzysztof Schmidt, Kristina Vogt, Fridolin Zimmermann & Henrik Andrén
The ecology and evolution of reproductive timing and synchrony has been a topic of great interest in evolutionary ecology for decades. Originally motivated by questions related to behavioural and reproductive adaptation to environmental conditions, the topic has acquired new relevance in the face of climate change. However, there has been relatively little research on reproductive phenology in mammalian carnivores. The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) occurs across the Eurasian continent, covering three of the four main...

Data from: Plant – herbivorous beetle networks: molecular characterization of trophic ecology within a threatened steppic environment

Łukasz Kajtoch, Daniel Kubisz, Waldemar Heise, Miłosz A. Mazur & Wieslaw Babik
DNA barcoding facilitates many evolutionary and ecological studies, including the examination of the dietary diversity of herbivores. In this study, we present a survey of ecological associations between herbivorous beetles and host plants from seriously threatened European steppic grasslands. We determined host plants for the majority (65%) of steppic leaf beetles (55 species) and weevils (59) known from central Europe using two barcodes (trnL and rbcL) and two sequencing strategies (Sanger for mono/oligophagous species and...

Data from: Biological introduction threats from shipping in a warming Arctic

Chris Ware, Jørgen Berge, Anders Jelmert, Steffen M. Olsen, Loïc Pellissier, Mary Wisz, Darren Kriticos, Georgy Semenov, Slawomir Kwasniewski & Inger G. Alsos
Several decades of research on invasive marine species have yielded a broad understanding of the nature of species invasion mechanisms and associated threats globally. However, this is not true of the Arctic, a region where ongoing climatic changes may promote species invasion. Here, we evaluated risks associated with non-indigenous propagule loads discharged with ships' ballast water to the high-Arctic archipelago, Svalbard, as a case study for the wider Arctic. We sampled and identified transferred propagules...

Data from: Genetic structure and effective population sizes in European red deer (Cervus elaphus) at a continental scale: insights from microsatellite DNA

Frank E. Zachos, Alain C. Frantz, Ralph Kuehn, Sabine Bertouille, Marc Colyn, Magdalena Niedzialkowska, Javier Pérez-González, Anna Skog, Nikica Šprem & Marie-Christine Flamand
We analysed more than 600 red deer (Cervus elaphus) from large parts of its European distribution range at 13 microsatellite loci, presenting the first continent-wide study of this species using nuclear markers. Populations were clearly differentiated (overall FST = 0.166, Jost’s Dest = 0.385), and the BAPS clustering algorithm yielded mainly geographically limited and adjacent genetic units. When forced into only three genetic clusters our data set produced a very similar geographic pattern as previously...

Data from: Size-mediated priority and temperature effects on intra-cohort competition and cannibalism in a damselfly

Szymon Sniegula, Maria J. Golab & Frank Johansson
1. A shift in the relative arrival of offspring, e.g., a shift in hatching time, can affect competition at the intraspecific level through size-mediated priority effects, where the larger individuals gain more resources. These priority effects are likely to be affected by climate warming and the rate of intraspecific predation, i.e., cannibalism. 2. In a laboratory experiment, we examined size-mediated priority effects in larvae of the univoltine damselfly, Lestes sponsa, at two different temperatures (21°C...

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