88 Works

CT-informed skull osteology of Palaeolagus haydeni (Mammalia: Lagomorpha)

Lucja Fostowicz-Frelik & Andrzej Wolniewicz
Lagomorpha is a clade of herbivorous mammals nested within Euarchontoglires, one of the major placental groups represented today. It comprises two extant families with markedly different body plans: the long-eared and long-limbed Leporidae (hares and rabbits) and the short-eared and short-limbed Ochotonidae (pikas). These two lagomorph lineages diverged probably during the latest Eocene/early Oligocene, but it is unclear whether the last common ancestor of crown lagomorphs was more leporid- or more ochotonid-like in morphology. Palaeolagus,...

Novel laboratory index, based on fasting blood parameters, accurately reflects insulin sensitivity

Monika Karczewska-Kupczewska, Agnieszka Nikołajuk, Magdalena Stefanowicz, Natalia Matulewicz, Maria Arnoriaga-Rodriguez, Jose Manuel Fernandez-Real & Marek Strączkowski
Simple and reliable measurement of insulin sensitivity may be important for the prevention of insulin-resistance related diseases. Surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity are of limited utility in population without signs of metabolic syndrome. The aim of our study was to provide simple and accurate index of insulin sensitivity. The study group comprised 150 young healthy participants. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed. Regression models with different laboratory parameters were constructed. Validation cohort 1 comprised independent group of...

Empirical and methodological challenges to the model-based inference of diversification rates in extinct clades

David Cerny, Daniel Madzia & Graham Slater
Changes in speciation and extinction rates are key to the dynamics of clade diversification, but attempts to infer them from phylogenies of extant species face challenges. Methods capable of synthesizing information from extant and fossil species have yielded novel insights into diversification rate variation through time, but little is known about their behavior when analyzing entirely extinct clades. Here, we use empirical and simulated data to assess how two popular methods, PyRate and Fossil BAMM,...

Identification of determinants of pollen donor fecundity using the hierarchical neighborhood model

Igor Chybicki, Andrzej Oleksa & Monika Dering
Individual differences in male reproductive success drive genetic drift and natural selection, altering genetic variation and phenotypic trait distributions in future generations. Therefore, identifying the determinants of reproductive success is important for understanding the ecology and evolution of plants. Here, based on the spatially-explicit mating model (the neighborhood model), we develop a hierarchical probability model that links co-dominant genotypes of offspring and candidate parents with the phenotypic determinants of male reproductive success. The model accounts...

Data from: Plant – herbivorous beetle networks: molecular characterization of trophic ecology within a threatened steppic environment

Łukasz Kajtoch, Daniel Kubisz, Waldemar Heise, Miłosz A. Mazur & Wieslaw Babik
DNA barcoding facilitates many evolutionary and ecological studies, including the examination of the dietary diversity of herbivores. In this study, we present a survey of ecological associations between herbivorous beetles and host plants from seriously threatened European steppic grasslands. We determined host plants for the majority (65%) of steppic leaf beetles (55 species) and weevils (59) known from central Europe using two barcodes (trnL and rbcL) and two sequencing strategies (Sanger for mono/oligophagous species and...

Data from: Morphological analysis of phylogenetic relationships among extant rhynchonellide brachiopods

Holly A. Schreiber, Maria Aleksandra Bitner & Sandra J. Carlson
Rhynchonellida is the stratigraphically oldest and phylogenetically most basal of the extant rhynchonelliform brachiopod orders, yet phylogenetic relationships among rhynchonellides are poorly known. The fourteen named rhynchonellide superfamilies (four of which have extant representatives) were defined primarily on the basis of features of the dorsal cardinalia, particularly crural morphology, but their homology and polarity have not been investigated rigorously. Superfamily monophyly is unclear, as is the evolution of several distinctive rhynchonellide morphological features, such as...

Data from: Genetics redraws pelagic biogeography of Calanus

Marvin Choquet, Maja Hatlebakk, Anusha K.S. Dhanasiri, Ksenia Kosobokova, Irina Smolina, Janne E. Søreide, Camilla Svensen, Webjørn Melle, Sławomir Kwaśniewski, Ketil Eiane, Malin Daase, Vigdis Tverberg, Stig Skreslet, Ann Bucklin & Galice Hoarau
Planktonic copepods of the genus Calanus play a central role in North Atlantic/Arctic marine food webs. Here, using molecular markers, we redrew the distributional ranges of Calanus species inhabiting the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans and revealed much wider and more broadly overlapping distributions than previously described. The Arctic shelf species, C. glacialis, dominated the zooplankton assemblage of many Norwegian fjords, where only C. finmarchicus has been reported previously. In these fjords, high occurrences of...

Data from: Genetic structure and effective population sizes in European red deer (Cervus elaphus) at a continental scale: insights from microsatellite DNA

Frank E. Zachos, Alain C. Frantz, Ralph Kuehn, Sabine Bertouille, Marc Colyn, Magdalena Niedzialkowska, Javier Pérez-González, Anna Skog, Nikica Šprem & Marie-Christine Flamand
We analysed more than 600 red deer (Cervus elaphus) from large parts of its European distribution range at 13 microsatellite loci, presenting the first continent-wide study of this species using nuclear markers. Populations were clearly differentiated (overall FST = 0.166, Jost’s Dest = 0.385), and the BAPS clustering algorithm yielded mainly geographically limited and adjacent genetic units. When forced into only three genetic clusters our data set produced a very similar geographic pattern as previously...

Data from: Size-mediated priority and temperature effects on intra-cohort competition and cannibalism in a damselfly

Szymon Sniegula, Maria J. Golab & Frank Johansson
1. A shift in the relative arrival of offspring, e.g., a shift in hatching time, can affect competition at the intraspecific level through size-mediated priority effects, where the larger individuals gain more resources. These priority effects are likely to be affected by climate warming and the rate of intraspecific predation, i.e., cannibalism. 2. In a laboratory experiment, we examined size-mediated priority effects in larvae of the univoltine damselfly, Lestes sponsa, at two different temperatures (21°C...

Data from: Biological introduction threats from shipping in a warming Arctic

Chris Ware, Jørgen Berge, Anders Jelmert, Steffen M. Olsen, Loïc Pellissier, Mary Wisz, Darren Kriticos, Georgy Semenov, Slawomir Kwasniewski & Inger G. Alsos
Several decades of research on invasive marine species have yielded a broad understanding of the nature of species invasion mechanisms and associated threats globally. However, this is not true of the Arctic, a region where ongoing climatic changes may promote species invasion. Here, we evaluated risks associated with non-indigenous propagule loads discharged with ships' ballast water to the high-Arctic archipelago, Svalbard, as a case study for the wider Arctic. We sampled and identified transferred propagules...

Data from: Evolutionary dynamics of quantitative variation in an adaptive trait at the regional scale: the case of zinc hyperaccumulation in Arabidopsis halleri

Alicja Babst-Kostecka, Henk Schat, Pierre Saumitou-Laprade, Krystyna Grodzińka, Angélique Bourceaux, Maxime Pauwels & Hélène Frérot
Metal hyperaccumulation in plants is an ecological trait whose biological significance remains debated, in particular because the selective pressures that govern its evolutionary dynamics are complex. One of the possible causes of quantitative variation in hyperaccumulation may be local adaptation to metalliferous soils. Here we explored the population genetic structure of Arabidopsis halleri at fourteen metalliferous and non-metalliferous sampling sites in Southern Poland. The results were integrated with a quantitative assessment of variation in zinc...

Data from: Unveiling tipping points in long-term ecological records from Sphagnum-dominated peatlands

Mariusz Lamentowicz, Mariusz Gałka, Katarzyna Marcisz, Michał Słowiński, Kajukało-Drygalska Kajukało, Milva Druguet Dayras & Vincent E.J. Jassey
Unveiling past tipping points is a prerequisite for a better understanding of how individual species and entire ecosystems will respond to future climate change. Such knowledge is key for the implementation of biodiversity conservation. We identify the relationships between peatland vegetation and hydrological conditions over the past 2000 years using macrofossils, testate amoebae-based quantitative hydrological reconstructions, and Sphagnum-moss functional traits from seven Polish peatland records. Using threshold indicator taxa analysis (TITAN), we discovered that plant...

Data from: Genome-wide analyses suggest parallel selection for universal traits may eclipse local environmental selection in a highly mobile carnivore

Astrid Vik Stronen, Bogumiła Jędrzejewska, Cino Pertoldi, Ditte Demontis, Ettore Randi, Magdalena Niedziałkowska, Tomasz Borowik, Vadim E. Sidorovich, Josip Kusak, Ilpo Kojola, Alexandros A. Karamanlidis, Janis Ozolins, Vitalii Dumenko & Sylwia D. Czarnomska
Ecological and environmental heterogeneity can produce genetic differentiation in highly mobile species. Accordingly, local adaptation may be expected across comparatively short distances in the presence of marked environmental gradients. Within the European continent, wolves (Canis lupus) exhibit distinct north–south population differentiation. We investigated more than 67-K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for signatures of local adaptation in 59 unrelated wolves from four previously identified population clusters (northcentral Europe n = 32, Carpathian Mountains n =...

Timing and synchrony of birth in Eurasian lynx across Europe

Jenny Mattisson, John D.C. Linnell, Ole Anders, Elisa Belotti, Christine Breitenmoser-Würsten, Ludek Bufka, Christian Fuxjäger, Marco Heurich, Gjorge Ivanov, Włodzimierz Jędrzejewski, Radio Kont, Rafał Kowalczyk, Miha Krofel, Dime Melovski, Deniz Mengüllüoğlu, Tomma Lilli Middelhoff, Anja Molinari-Jobin, John Odden, Jānis Ozoliņš, Henryk Okarma, Jens Persson, Krzysztof Schmidt, Kristina Vogt, Fridolin Zimmermann & Henrik Andrén
The ecology and evolution of reproductive timing and synchrony has been a topic of great interest in evolutionary ecology for decades. Originally motivated by questions related to behavioural and reproductive adaptation to environmental conditions, the topic has acquired new relevance in the face of climate change. However, there has been relatively little research on reproductive phenology in mammalian carnivores. The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) occurs across the Eurasian continent, covering three of the four main...

Data from: Three-dimensional visualization of the internal plastid membrane network during runner bean chloroplast biogenesis: dynamic model of the tubular-lamellar transformation

Łucja Maria Kowalewska, Radosław Mazur, Szymon Suski, Maciej Garstka & Agnieszka Mostowska
Chloroplast biogenesis is a complex process integrated with plant development, leading to fully differentiated and functionally mature plastids. In this paper, the process of structural membrane transformation during the etioplast - chloroplast transition is reconstructed with the help of electron tomography and confocal microscopy. 3D reconstruction is the only method that leads to an understanding of the transformation of the regular, tubular network of paracrystalline prolamellar bodies (PLB) and prothylakoids (PT), flattened porous membranes, to...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: The contemporary genetic pattern of European moose is shaped by postglacial recolonization, bottlenecks, and the geographical barrier of the Baltic Sea

Magdalena Niedziałkowska, Kris J. Hundertmark, Bogumiła Jędrzejewska, Vadim E. Sidorovich, Hanna Zalewska, Rauno Veeroja, Erling J. Solberg, Sauli Laaksonen, Håkan Sand, Vyacheslav A. Solovyev, Andrey Sagaydak, Juha Tiainen, Rimvydas Juškaitis, Gundega Done, Vadim A. Borodulin, Evgenii A. Tulandin & Krzysztof Niedziałkowski
To investigate genetic diversity and the population structure of the European moose (Alces alces), we analyzed 14 microsatellite loci for 694 samples collected across 16 localities. The highest genetic diversity was detected in Belarus and Russia and the lowest was found in Scandinavia. Two major genetic clusters existed, Scandinavian and continental, and some further spatial structure was detected. There was high concordance between the spatial distribution of microsatellite clusters analyzed in the present study and...

Data from: Time constraint effects on phenology and life history synchrony in a damselfly along a latitudinal gradient

Szymon Śniegula, Maria J. Gołąb & Frank Johansson
In organisms with complex life cycles living in seasonal environments, the synchronisation of phenological events is important from the ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Life history transitions should be synchronised to a greater degree at northern latitudes. We quantified hatching and emergence timing and synchrony in the obligate univoltine damselfly Lestes sponsa along a latitudinal gradient covering its entire north–south range in Europe. In our first experiment, populations from different latitudes were grown in separate climate...

Data from: Trends in shell fragmentation as evidence of mid- Paleozoic changes in marine predation

Przemysław Gorzelak, Mariusz A. Salamon, Robert Niedźwiedzki, Dawid Trzęsiok & Tomasz K. Baumiller
Recent observations indicate that shell fragmentation can be a useful tool in assessing crushing predation in marine communities. However, criteria for recognizing shell breakage caused by durophagous predators versus physical factors are still not well established. Here, we provide data from tumbling and aquarium experiments to argue that physical and biotic processes lead to different patterns of shell damage, specifically that angular shell fragments are good indicators of durophagous predation. Using such angular shell fragments...

Data from: Lock-picks: fungal infection facilitates the intrusion of strangers into ant colonies

Enikő Csata, Natalia Timuș, Magdalena Witek, Luca Pietro Casacci, Christophe Lucas, Anne-Geneviève Bagnères, Anna Sztencel-Jabłonka, Francesca Barbero, Simona Bonelli, László Rákosy & Bálint Marko
Studies investigating host-parasite systems rarely deal with multispecies interactions, and mostly explore impacts on hosts as individuals. Much less is known about the effects at colony level, when parasitism involves host organisms that form societies. We surveyed the effect of an ectoparasitic fungus, Rickia wasmannii, on kin-discrimination abilities of its host ant, Myrmica scabrinodis, identifying potential consequences at social level and subsequent changes in colony infiltration success of other organisms. Analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs),...

Data from: Age-related parasite load and longevity patterns in the sedge warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus

Wojciech Bielański, Aleksandra Biedrzycka, Tadeusz Zając, Adam Ćmiel & Wojciech Solarz
We report the results from a nine-year study on parasite infection in males of a small migrant passerine, the sedge warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus. Every year, for each male caught during territory establishment we estimated infection intensity of two lineages of Haemoproteus belopolskyi (SW1 and SW3), using molecular methods. We found a significant relationship between infection intensity and males’ longevity in both studied lineages. There was severe mortality of second-year sedge warblers after their first breeding...

Data from: Soil organic carbon stability in forests: distinct effects of tree species identity and traits

Gerrit Angst, Kevin E. Mueller, David M. Eissenstat, Susan Trumbore, Katherine H. Freeman, Sarah E. Hobbie, Jon Chorover, Jacek Oleksyn, Peter B. Reich & Carsten W. Mueller
Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased interest in the potential for forest ecosystems and soils to act as carbon (C) sinks. While soil organic C contents often vary with tree species identity, little is known about if, and how, tree species influence the stability of C in soil. Using a 40‐year‐old common garden experiment with replicated plots of eleven temperate tree species, we investigated relationships between soil organic matter (SOM) stability in mineral soils and...

Data from: Blood parasites shape extreme major histocompatibility complex diversity in a migratory passerine

Aleksandra Biedrzycka, Wojciech Bielański, Adam Ćmiel, Wojciech Solarz, Tadeusz Zając, Magdalena Migalska, Alvaro Sebastian, Helena Westerdahl & Jacek Radwan
Pathogens are one of the main forces driving the evolution and maintenance of the highly polymorphic genes of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Although MHC proteins are crucial in pathogen recognition, it is still poorly understood how pathogen-mediated selection promotes and maintains MHC diversity, and especially so in host species with highly duplicated MHC genes. Sedge warblers (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) have highly duplicated MHC genes and using data from high-throughput MHC genotyping we were able...

Data from: Plant-herbivore interactions: silicon concentration in tussock sedges and population dynamics of root voles

Monika Wieczorek, Karol Zub, Paulina A. Szafrańska, Aneta Książek & Marek Konarzewski
1. It has been hypothesized that the induction of silicon (Si)-based plant defence in response to herbivore damage may engender rodent population cycles. Many studies have also considered accumulation of Si as a process controlled by geo-hydrological factors. 2. To test these ideas, we investigated the relationship between concentration of Si in fibrous tussock sedge (Carex appropinquata) and the population density of a major sedge consumer, the root vole (Microtus oeconomus), in field enclosures in...

Leaf functional traits and insular colonization: subtropical islands as a melting pot of trait diversity in a widespread plant lineage

Carlos Garcia-Verdugo, Pedro Monroy, Francisco I. Pugnaire, Joana Jura-Morawiec, Xoaquín Moreira & Jaume Flexas
Aim: One of the main goals of functional biogeography is to examine distribution patterns of trait diversity, and islands provide excellent study cases for this emerging field. We tested the hypothesis that multiple dispersals from a common mainland pool would promote functional similarity among island systems when environmental conditions are similar, but also novel phenotypic traits related to colonization history and exploitation of new habitats. Location: Mediterranean Basin and Macaronesian islands Methods: We used the...

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  • Polish Academy of Sciences
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • Jagiellonian University
  • University of Warsaw
  • Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
  • Aarhus University
  • University of Białystok
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana