166 Works

Data from: Worldwide patterns of ancestry, divergence, and admixture in domesticated cattle

Jared Egan Decker, Stephanie D. McKay, Megan M. Rolf, JaeWoo Kim, Antonio Molina Alcalá, Tad S. Sonstegard, Olivier Hanotte, Anders Götherström, Christopher M. Seabury, Lisa Praharani, Masroor Ellahi Babar, Luciana Correia De Almieda Regitano, Mehmet Ali Yildiz, Michael P. Heaton, Wan-Sheng Liu, Chu-Zhao Lei, James M. Reecy, Muhammad Saif-Ur-Rehman, Robert D. Schnabel & Jeremy F. Taylor
The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns...

Data from: Coordination strategies of chimpanzees and human children in a stag hunt game

Shona Duguid, Emily Wyman, Anke F. Bullinger, Katharina Herfurth-Majstorovic & Michael Tomasello
Much of human cooperation takes place in mutualistic contexts in which the main challenge for individuals is how to coordinate decisions. In the current studies, we compared the abilities of chimpanzees and young children to coordinate with a partner in two versions of a Stag Hunt game. When risks were low (the hare was of low value) and information was cheap (the partner's behaviour was readily observable), partners of both species were able to successfully...

Data from: Shape up or ship out: migratory behaviour predicts morphology across spatial scale in a freshwater fish

Ben B. Chapman, Kaj Hulthén, Christer Brönmark, Anders P. Nilsson, Christian Skov, Lars-Anders Hansson & Jakob Brodersen
1. Migration is a widespread phenomenon, with powerful ecological and evolutionary consequences. Morphological adaptations to reduce the energetic costs associated with migratory transport are commonly documented for migratory species. However, few studies have investigated whether variation in body morphology can be explained by variation in migratory strategy within a species. 2. We address this question in roach Rutilus rutilus, a partially migratory freshwater fish that migrates from lakes into streams during winter. We both compare...

Data from: Evidence for Batesian mimicry in a polymorphic hoverfly

Malcolm Edmunds & Tom Reader
Palatable Batesian mimics are avoided by predators because they resemble noxious or defended species. The striking resemblance of many hoverflies to noxious Hymenoptera is a “textbook” example of Batesian mimicry, but evidence that selection by predators has shaped the evolution of hoverfly patterns is weak. We looked for geographical and temporal trends in frequencies of morphs of the polymorphic hoverfly Volucella bombylans that would support the hypothesis that these morphs are Batesian mimics of different...

Data from: Substandard and falsified medicines in the UK: A retrospective review of drug alerts (2001–2011)

Tariq Almuzaini, Helen Sammons & Imti Choonara
Objective: To determine the extent of substandard and falsified medicines in the UK. Design: A retrospective review of drug alerts and company-led recalls. Setting: The Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) website search for drug alerts issued between 2001 and 2011. Eligibility criteria: Drug alerts related to quality defect in medicinal products. Main outcome measure: Relevant data about defective medicines reported in drug alerts and company-led recalls, including description of the defect, type of...

Data from: The island-mainland species turnover relationship

Yoel E. Stuart, Jonathan B. Losos & Adam C. Algar
Many oceanic islands are notable for their high endemism, suggesting that islands may promote unique assembly processes. However, mainland assemblages sometimes harbour comparable levels of endemism, suggesting that island biotas may not be as unique as often assumed. Here, we test the uniqueness of island biotic assembly by comparing the rate of species turnover among islands and the mainland, after accounting for distance decay and environmental gradients. We modeled species turnover as a function of...

Data from: Localization of QTL for diapause and other photoperiodically regulated life-history traits important in adaptation to seasonally varying environments

Venera I. Tyukmaeva, Paris Veltsos, Jon Slate, Emma Gregson, Hannele Kauranen, Maaria Kankare, Michael G. Ritchie, Roger K. Butlin & Anneli Hoikkala
Seasonally changing environments at high latitudes present great challenges for the reproduction and survival of insects, and photoperiodic cues play an important role in helping them to synchronize their life cycle with prevalent and forthcoming conditions. We have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for the photoperiodic regulation of four life history traits, female reproductive diapause, cold tolerance, egg-to-eclosion development time and juvenile body weight in Drosophila montana strains from different latitudes in Canada and...

Data from: Economic evaluation of a general hospital unit for older people with delirium and dementia (TEAM randomised controlled trial)

Lukasz Tanajewski, Matthew Franklin, Georgios Gkountouras, Vladislav Berdunov, Rowan H. Harwood, Sarah E. Goldberg, Lucy E. Bradshaw, John R. F. Gladman & Rachel A. Elliott
Background: One in three hospital acute medical admissions is of an older person with cognitive impairment. Their outcomes are poor and the quality of their care in hospital has been criticised. A specialist unit to care for older people with delirium and dementia (the Medical and Mental Health Unit, MMHU) was developed and then tested in a randomised controlled trial where it delivered significantly higher quality of, and satisfaction with, care, but no significant benefits...

Data from: Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications

Andrew Rollinson, Orla Williams & Andrew N. Rollinson
Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of...

Data from: Conflict of interest and signal interference lead to the breakdown of honest signalling

Roman Popat, Eric Pollitt, Freya J. G. Harrison, Hardeep Naghra, Kar-Wai Hong, Kok-Gan Chan, Ashleigh S. Griffin, Paul Williams, Sam P. Brown, Stuart A. West, Stephen P. Diggle, Eric J. G. Pollitt & Freya Harrison
Animals use signals to coordinate a wide range of behaviours, from feeding offspring to predator avoidance. This poses an evolutionary problem, because individuals could potentially signal dishonestly to coerce others into behaving in ways that benefit the signaller. Theory suggests that honest signalling is favoured when individuals share a common interest and signals carry reliable information. Here, we exploit the opportunities offered by bacterial signalling, to test these predictions with an experimental evolution approach. We...

Data from: Change in quality of life for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome following referral to a gastroenterologist: a cohort study

Caroline Canavan, Joe West & Timothy Card
Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a chronic functional condition, considerably reduces quality of life (QoL) and referral to gastroenterology is common. Until now, however, the impact of seeing a gastroenterologist for IBS on patients’ QoL and utility has not been assessed. Methods: Patients referred with “probable IBS” to the Nottingham Treatment Centre between October 2012 and March 2014 were invited to complete a QoL questionnaire (EuroQol–5 Dimension) before their first appointment. Patients with confirmed IBS...

Nutrient chemistry of Arctic Lakes in Greenland, Norway, Russia and Alaska

E. J. Whiteford, M. Van Hardenbroek, S. McGowan, V. J. Jones, M.E. Edwards, P. G. Langdon & N. J. Anderson
This dataset contains nutrient chemistry data from 14 lakes in the Arctic region: 4 in Russia and Alaska and 3 in Greenland and Norway. Nutrient chemistry was measured on one occasion only at each lake, with date of collection ranging from 01/04/2011 to 14/03/2014. The following nutrients were measured: total phosphorus, soluble reactive phosphorus, total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, chlorophyll a, silicate, sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, sulphate, chloride and dissolved organic carbon. All nutrients were measured...

Data from: The ecology of an adaptive radiation of three-spined stickleback from North Uist, Scotland

Isabel S. Magalhaes, Daniele D'Agostino, Paul A. Hohenlohe & Andrew D. C. MacColl
There has been a large focus on the genetics of traits involved in adaptation, but knowledge of the environmental variables leading to adaptive changes is surprisingly poor. Combined use of environmental data with morphological and genomic data should allow us to understand the extent to which patterns of phenotypic and genetic diversity within a species can be explained by the structure of the environment. Here, we analyse the variation of populations of three-spined stickleback from...

Data from: Cross-modal individual recognition in wild African lions

Geoffrey Gilfillan, Jessica Vitale, John Weldon McNutt & Karen McComb
Individual recognition is considered to have been fundamental in the evolution of complex social systems and is thought to be a widespread ability throughout the animal kingdom. Although robust evidence for individual recognition remains limited, recent experimental paradigms that examine cross-modal processing have demonstrated individual recognition in a range of captive non-human animals. It is now highly relevant to test whether cross-modal individual recognition exists within wild populations and thus examine how it is employed...

Data from: Climate change may drive cave spiders to extinction

Stefano Mammola, Sara L. Goodacre & Marco Isaia
Subterranean ecosystems present ideal opportunities to study mechanisms underlying responses to changes in climate because species within them are often adapted to a largely constant temperature. We have characterized the thermal conditions of caves in the Western Alps, and related these hypogean climate data to the occurrence of Troglohyphantes spiders (Araneae, Linyphiidae). Our data indicated that present distributions reflect Pleistocene glaciation events and also pointed to specific responses as a consequence of changes in temperature....

Data from: Precipitation drives global variation in natural selection

Adam Siepielski, Michael B. Morrissey, Mathieu Buoro, Stephanie M. Carlson, Christina M. Caruso, Sonya M. Clegg, Tim Coulson, Joseph DiBattista, Kiyoko M. Gotanda, Clinton D. Francis, Joe Hereford, Joel G. Kingsolver, Kate E. Augustine, Loeske E. B. Kruuk, Ryan A. Martin, Ben C. Sheldon, Nina Sletvold, Erik I. Svensson, Michael J. Wade & Andrew D. C. MacColl
Climate change has the potential to affect the ecology and evolution of every species on Earth. Although the ecological consequences of climate change are increasingly well documented, the effects of climate on the key evolutionary process driving adaptation—natural selection—are largely unknown. We report that aspects of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, along with the North Atlantic Oscillation, predicted variation in selection across plant and animal populations throughout many terrestrial biomes, whereas temperature explained little variation. By...

Data from: Waterjet and laser etching: the nonlinear inverse problem

Aitor Bilbao-Guillerna, Dragos A. Axinte, John Billingham, Guillaume B.J. Cadot & G. B. J. Cadot
In waterjet and laser milling, material is removed from a solid surface in a succession of layers to create a new shape, in a depth-controlled manner. The inverse problem consists of defining the control parameters, in particular, the two-dimensional beam path, to arrive at a prescribed freeform surface. Waterjet milling (WJM) and pulsed laser ablation (PLA) are studied in this paper, since a generic nonlinear material removal model is appropriate for both of these processes....

Relationships between immune gene expression and circulating cytokine levels in wild house mice

Stuart Young, Jonathan Fenn, Elena Arriero, Ann Lowe, Benoit Poulin, Andrew MacColl & Jan Bradley
1. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been commonly used to measure gene expression in a number of research contexts, but the measured RNA concentrations do not always represent the concentrations of active proteins which they encode. This can be due to transcriptional regulation or post-translational modifications, or localisation of immune environments, as can occur during infection. However, in studies using free-living non-model species, such as in ecoimmunological research, qPCR may be the only available option to...

Aboveground carbon density plots from a logged forest, Danum Valley, Borneo, 1992-2016

M.E.J. Cutler, C.D. Philipson, D.F.R.P. Burslem, G.M. Foody, P. Lincoln, M.A. Pinard, M. Snoep, C.E. Wheeler, H. Tangki & Y.S. Wai
Data are presented for Above ground Carbon Density (ACD) estimated from a series of forest census surveys which took place from 1992 – 2016 in a mixture of logged and unlogged tropical lowland dipterocarp forest in the Ulu Segama Forest Reserve (USFR) and Danum Valley Conservation Area (DVCA), Sabah, Malaysia. Additional data on logging method, coupe and year of logging is also presented. The USFR comprises of forested land divided into coupes that were each...

Data from: A genetics-based approach confirms immune associations with life history across multiple populations of an aquatic vertebrate (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

James R. Whiting, Isabel S. Magalhaes, Abdul R. Singkam, Shaun Robertson, Daniele D'Agostino, Janette E. Bradley, Andrew D.C. MacColl & Andrew D. C. MacColl
Understanding how wild immune variation covaries with other traits can reveal how costs and trade-offs shape immune evolution in the wild. Divergent life history strategies may increase or alleviate immune costs, helping shape immune variation in a consistent, testable way. Contrasting hypotheses suggest that shorter life histories may alleviate costs by offsetting them against increased mortality; or increase the effect of costs if immune responses are traded off against development or reproduction. We investigated the...

Data from: Predictable genome-wide sorting of standing genetic variation during parallel adaptation to basic versus acidic environments in stickleback fish

Quiterie Haenel, Marius Roesti, Dario Moser, Andrew D. C. MacColl & Daniel Berner
Genomic studies of parallel (or convergent) evolution often compare multiple populations diverged into two ecologically different habitats to search for loci repeatedly involved in adaptation. Because the shared ancestor of these populations is generally unavailable, the source of the alleles at adaptation loci, and the direction in which their frequencies were shifted during evolution, remain elusive. To shed light on these issues, we here use multiple populations of stickleback fish adapted to two different types...

Data from: Immune state is associated with natural dietary variation in wild mice Mus musculus domesticus

Christopher H. Taylor, Stuart Young, Jonathan Fenn, Angela L. Lamb, Ann E. Lowe, Benoit Poulin, Andrew D. C. MacColl & Jannette E. Bradley
1.The ability, propensity and need to mount an immune response vary both among individuals and within a single individual over time. 2.A wide array of parameters have been found to influence immune state in carefully controlled experiments, but we understand much less about which of these parameters are important in determining immune state in wild populations. 3.Diet can influence immune responses, for example when nutrient availability is limited. We therefore predict that natural dietary variation...

Data from: A view from above: A view from above: unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide a new tool for assessing liana infestation in tropical forest canopies

Catherine E. Waite, Geertje M.F. Van Der Heijden, Richard Field, Doreen S. Boyd & Geertje M. F. Van Der Heijden
1. Tropical forests store and sequester large quantities of carbon, mitigating climate change. Lianas (woody vines) are important tropical forest components, most conspicuous in the canopy. Lianas reduce forest carbon uptake and their recent increase may, therefore, limit forest carbon storage with global consequences for climate change. Liana infestation of tree crowns is traditionally assessed from the ground, which is labour-intensive and difficult, particularly for upper canopy layers. 2. We used a light-weight unmanned aerial...

The impact of smoking status on the efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

Kimberley Sonnex, Hanna Alleemudder & Roger Knaggs
Objectives: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) reduce exacerbation rates and the decline in lung function in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is evidence that smoking causes ‘steroid resistance’ and thus reduces the effect of ICS. This systematic review aimed to investigate the effect of smoking on efficacy of ICS in COPD in terms of lung function and exacerbation rates. Design: Systematic review Data Sources: An electronic database search of PubMed, Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase...

Dataset for estimation of the biotic and climatic niche breadths and geographic range size of beech (Fagus) species worldwide

Qiong Cai, Erik Welk, Chengjun Ji, Wenjing Fang, Francesco Maria Sabatini, Jianxiao Zhu, Jiangling Zhu, Zhiyao Tang, Fabio Attorre, Juan Antonio Campos, Andraž Čarni, Milan Chytrý, Süleyman Çoban, Jürgen Dengler, Jiri Dolezal, Richard Field, József Pál Frink, Hamid Gholizadeh, Adrian Indreica, Ute Jandt, Dirk Nikolaus Karger, Jonathan Lenoir, Robert K. Peet, Remigiusz Pielech, Michele De Sanctis … & Helge Bruelheide
This dataset could be used to test whether the commonly observed positive range size–niche breadth relationship, as posited by the “niche breadth hypothesis”, exists for Fagus, one of the most dominant and widespread broad‐leaved deciduous tree genera in temperate forests of the Northern Hemisphere. There are many ways to estimate niche breadth. Here, we estimated biotic and climatic niche breadths per species using plot‐based co‐occurrence data and climate data, respectively. The range sizes of the...

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