17 Works

Data from: Insecticide resistance mediated by an exon skipping event

Madeleine Berger, Alin Mirel Puinean, Emma Randall, Christoph T. Zimmer, Wellington M. Silva, Pablo Bielza, Linda M. Field, David Hughes, Ian Mellor, Keywan Hassani-Pak, Herbert A. A. Siqueira, Martin S. Williamson & Chris Bass
Many genes increase coding capacity by alternate exon usage. The gene encoding the insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α6 subunit, target of the bio-insecticide spinosad, is one example of this and expands protein diversity via alternative splicing of mutually exclusive exons. Here, we show that spinosad resistance in the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta is associated with aberrant regulation of splicing of Taα6 resulting in a novel form of insecticide resistance mediated by exon skipping....

Data from: TP53 copy number expansion is associated with the evolution of increased body size and an enhanced DNA damage response in elephants

Michael Sulak, Lindsey Fong, Katelyn Mika, Sravanthi Chigurupati, Lisa Yon, Nigel P. Mongan, Richard D. Emes & Vincent J. Lynch
A major constraint on the evolution of large body sizes in animals is an increased risk of developing cancer. There is no correlation, however, between body size and cancer risk. This lack of correlation is often referred to as 'Peto's Paradox'. Here we show that the elephant genome encodes 20 copies of the tumor suppressor gene TP53 and that the increase in TP53 copy number occurred coincident with the evolution of large body sizes, the...

Data from: Formin is associated with left-right asymmetry in the pond snail and the frog

Angus Davison, Gary S. McDowell, Jennifer M. Holden, Harriet F. Johnson, Georgios D. Koutsovoulos, M. Maureen Liu, Paco Hulpiau, Frans Van Roy, Christopher M. Wade, Ruby Banerjee, Fengtang Yang, Satoshi Chiba, John W. Davey, Daniel J. Jackson, Michael Levin & Mark L. Blaxter
While components of the pathway that establishes left-right asymmetry have been identified in diverse animals, from vertebrates to flies, it is striking that the genes involved in the first symmetry-breaking step remain wholly unknown in the most obviously chiral animals, the gastropod snails. Previously, research on snails was used to show that left-right signaling of Nodal, downstream of symmetry breaking, may be an ancestral feature of the Bilateria. Here, we report that a disabling mutation...

Palaeolimnological data from 5 Arctic lakes in Greenland, Alaska and Norway [Lakes and Arctic Carbon]

E.J. Whiteford, E. Hopla, N. Solovieva, J. Swales, S. Turner, M. Van Hardenbroek, E. Wiik, M.E. Edwards, V.J. Jones, P.G. Langdon, S. McGowan & N.J. Anderson
This dataset contains palaeolimnological data from sediment cores taken from five Arctic lakes. Two lakes located in Alaska were cored in July 2013, one lake located in Greenland was cored in April 2013, and two lakes located in Norway were cored in March 2014. The data includes macrofossil, chironomids and Cladocera analysis at 2 cm resolution; and loss on ignition, diatoms, biogenic silica, nitrogen and carbon isotopes, algal photosynthetic pigments and pollen analyses at 1...

Data from: The roles of contact conformity, temperature and displacement amplitude on the lubricated fretting wear of a steel-on-steel contact

Austin R. Warmuth, Wei Sun & Philip H. Shipway
This paper investigates the effect of contact geometry, temperature and displacement amplitude on the fretting behaviour of an aero-turbo oil lubricated cylinder-on-flat contact. To be effective, the lubricant needed both to penetrate the contact and then offer protection. Lubricant penetration into the fretting contact is found to be controlled by two physical parameters, namely (i) the width of the contact that remains covered throughout the fretting test and (ii) the lubricant viscosity. The protection offered...

Data from: Experimental measurements of water molecule binding energies for the second and third solvation shells of [Ca(H2O)n]2+ complexes

Eleonora Bruzzi & Anthony J. Stace
Further understanding of the biological role of the Ca2+ ion in an aqueous environment requires quantitative measurements of both the short- and long-range interactions experienced by the ion in an aqueous medium. Here, we present experimental measurements of binding energies for water molecules occupying the second and, quite possibly, the third solvation shell surrounding a central Ca2+ ion in [Ca(H2O)n]2+ complexes. Results for these large, previously inaccessible, complexes have come from the application of finite...

Data from: Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications

Andrew Rollinson, Orla Williams & Andrew N. Rollinson
Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of...

Data from: Cross-modal individual recognition in wild African lions

Geoffrey Gilfillan, Jessica Vitale, John Weldon McNutt & Karen McComb
Individual recognition is considered to have been fundamental in the evolution of complex social systems and is thought to be a widespread ability throughout the animal kingdom. Although robust evidence for individual recognition remains limited, recent experimental paradigms that examine cross-modal processing have demonstrated individual recognition in a range of captive non-human animals. It is now highly relevant to test whether cross-modal individual recognition exists within wild populations and thus examine how it is employed...

Data from: The ecology of an adaptive radiation of three-spined stickleback from North Uist, Scotland

Isabel S. Magalhaes, Daniele D'Agostino, Paul A. Hohenlohe & Andrew D. C. MacColl
There has been a large focus on the genetics of traits involved in adaptation, but knowledge of the environmental variables leading to adaptive changes is surprisingly poor. Combined use of environmental data with morphological and genomic data should allow us to understand the extent to which patterns of phenotypic and genetic diversity within a species can be explained by the structure of the environment. Here, we analyse the variation of populations of three-spined stickleback from...

Data from: Geographic variation and trade-offs in parasitoid virulence

Lisa Fors, Robert Markus, Ulrich Theopold, Lars Ericson & Peter A. Hambäck
Host–parasitoid systems are characterized by a continuous development of new defence strategies in hosts and counter-defence mechanisms in parasitoids. This co-evolutionary arms race makes host–parasitoid systems excellent for understanding trade-offs in host use caused by evolutionary changes in host immune responses and parasitoid virulence. However, knowledge obtained from natural host–parasitoid systems on such trade-offs is still limited. In this study, the aim was to examine trade-offs in parasitoid virulence in Asecodes parviclava (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) when...

Data from: Global population divergence and admixture of the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus)

Emily E. Puckett, Jane Park, Matthew Combs, Michael J. Blum, Juliet E. Bryant, Adalgisa Caccone, Federico Costa, Eva E. Deinum, Alexandra Esther, Chelsea G. Himsworth, Peter D. Keightley, Albert Ko, Ake Lundkvist, Lorraine M. McElhinney, Serge Morand, Judith Robins, James Russell, Tanja M. Strand, Olga Suarez, Lisa Yon & Jason Munshi-South
Native to China and Mongolia, the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) now enjoys a worldwide distribution. While black rats and the house mouse tracked the regional development of human agricultural settlements, brown rats did not appear in Europe until the 1500s, suggesting their range expansion was a response to relatively recent increases in global trade. We inferred the global phylogeography of brown rats using 32 k SNPs, and detected 13 evolutionary clusters within five expansion routes....

Data from: Do perceptual biases emerge early or late in visual processing? Decision-biases in motion perception

Elisa Zamboni, Timothy Ledgeway, Paul V. McGraw & Denis Schluppeck
Visual perception is strongly influenced by contextual information. A good example is reference repulsion, where subjective reports about the direction of motion of a stimulus are significantly biased by the presence of an explicit reference. These perceptual biases could arise early, during sensory encoding, or alternatively, they may reflect decision-related processes occurring relatively late in the task sequence. To separate these two competing possibilities, we asked (human) subjects to perform a fine motion-discrimination task and...

Data from: The ecology of wildlife disease surveillance: demographic and prevalence fluctuations undermine surveillance

Laura Walton, Glenn Marion, Ross S. Davidson, Piran C. L. White, Lesley A. Smith, Dolores Gavier-Widen, Lisa Yon, Duncan Hannant, Michael R. Hutchings & Piran C.L. White
Wildlife disease surveillance is the first line of defence against infectious disease. Fluctuations in host populations and disease prevalence are a known feature of wildlife disease systems. However, the impact of such heterogeneities on the performance of surveillance is currently poorly understood. We present the first systematic exploration of the effects of fluctuations' prevalence and host population size on the efficacy of wildlife disease surveillance systems. In this study, efficacy is measured in terms of...

Data from: Intrinsic honesty and the prevalence of rule violations across societies

Simon Gächter & Jonathan F. Schulz
Deception is common in nature and humans are no exception. Modern societies have created institutions to control cheating, but many situations remain where only intrinsic honesty keeps people from cheating and violating rules. Psychological, sociological and economic theories suggest causal pathways to explain how the prevalence of rule violations in people’s social environment, such as corruption, tax evasion or political fraud, can compromise individual intrinsic honesty. Here we present cross-societal experiments from 23 countries around...

Data from: High throughput method for analysis of repeat number for 28 phase variable loci of Campylobacter jejuni strain NCTC11168

Lea Lango-Scholey, Jack Aidley, Alexandra Woodacre, Michael A. Jones & Christopher D. Bayliss
Mutations in simple sequence repeat tracts are a major mechanism of phase variation in several bacterial species including Campylobacter jejuni. Changes in repeat number of tracts located within the reading frame can produce a high frequency of reversible switches in gene expression between ON and OFF states. The genome of C. jejuni strain NCTC11168 contains 29 loci with polyG/polyC tracts of seven or more repeats. This protocol outlines a method—the 28-locus-CJ11168 PV-analysis assay—for rapidly determining...

Data from: Phenological shifts in hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae): linking measurement and mechanism

Christopher Hassall, Jennifer Owen, Francis S. Gilbert & Francis Gilbert
An understanding of ecological and evolutionary responses to global environmental change requires both a robust measurement of the change that is occurring and a mechanistic framework for understanding the drivers of that change. Such a requirement provides a challenge because biological monitoring is often ad hoc, and mechanistic experiments are often performed under highly simplified conditions. This study integrates multiple datasets to evaluate our current knowledge of the measurement and mechanism of phenological shifts in...

Data from: Parasites contribute to ecologically dependent postmating isolation in the adaptive radiation of three spined stickleback

Aliya El Nagar & Andrew D. C. MacColl
Spatial variation in parasitic infections is common, and has the potential to drive population divergence and the reproductive isolation of hosts. However, despite support from theory and model laboratory systems, little strong evidence has been forthcoming from the wild. Here, we show that parasites are likely to cause reproductive isolation in the adaptive radiation of three-spined stickleback. Adjacent wild populations on the Scottish island of North Uist differ greatly and consistently in the occurrence of...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    17

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    17

Affiliations

  • University of Nottingham
    17
  • University of Edinburgh
    2
  • CIUDAD
    1
  • University of Buenos Aires
    1
  • University of Sussex
    1
  • Ghent University
    1
  • University of Cambridge
    1
  • University of Warwick
    1
  • Tohoku University
    1
  • University of Southampton
    1