39 Works

Data from: Incidence of influenza A(H3N2) virus infections in Hong Kong in a longitudinal sero-epidemiological study, 2009-2015

Vivian W. I. Wei, Jessica Y. T. Wong, Ranawaka A. P. M. Perera, Kin On Kwok, Vicky J. Fang, Ian G. Barr, J. S. Malik Peiris, Steven Riley & Benjamin J. Cowling
Background: Many serologic studies were done during and after the 2009 influenza pandemic, to estimate the cumulative incidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections, but there are few comparative estimates of the incidence of influenza A(H3N2) virus infections during epidemics. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal serologic study in Hong Kong. We collected sera annually and tested samples from 2009-13 by HAI against the A/Perth/16/2009(H3N2) virus, and samples from 2013-15 against the A/Victoria/361/2011(H3N2) virus using the hemagglutination...

Data from: Multiple refugia from penultimate glaciations in East Asia demonstrated by phylogeography and ecological modelling of an insect pest

Wei Song, Li-Jun Cao, Bing-Yan Li, Ya-Jun Gong, Ary A. Hoffmann & Shu-Jun Wei
Background: Refugial populations in Quaternary glaciations are critical to understanding the evolutionary history and climatic interactions of many extant species. Compared with the well-studied areas of Europe and Northern America, refugia of species in eastern Asia remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the phylogeographic history of a globally important insect pest, the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, in its native range of China. Results: Genetic structure analyses unveiled three distinct groups and a set of...

Data from: Combining optimization and simulation modelling to measure the cumulative impacts of prescribed fire and wildfire on vegetation species diversity

Matthew P. Chick, Alan York, Holly Sitters, Julian Di Stefano & Craig R. Nitschke
1. Growth-stage optimisation (GSO) offers a new approach to biodiversity conservation in fire-prone regions through estimating the optimal distribution of vegetation growth stages that maximises a species diversity index. This optimal growth-stage structure provides managers an operational goal explicitly linked to a positive conservation outcome but does not define the fire regime needed to achieve it. 2. We paired GSO with LANDIS II, a landscape succession and disturbance simulation model, to (1) estimate the optimal...

Data from: Adaptation to reef habitats through selection on the coral animal and its associated microbiome

Madeleine J.H. Van Oppen, Pim Bongaerts, Pedro Frade, Lesa M. Peplow, Sarah E. Boyd, Hieu T. Nim, Line K. Bay & Madeleine J. H. Van Oppen
Spatially adjacent habitats on coral reefs can represent highly distinct environments, often harbouring different coral communities. Yet, certain coral species thrive across divergent environments. It is unknown whether the forces of selection are sufficiently strong to overcome the counteracting effects of the typically high gene flow over short distances, and for local adaptation to occur. We screened the coral genome (using restriction-site-associated sequencing [RAD-seq]), and characterized both the dinoflagellate photosymbiont and tissue-associated prokaryote microbiomes (using...

Data from: The microstructure of white feathers predicts their visible and near-infrared reflectance properties

Devi Stuart-Fox, Elizabeth Newton, Raoul A. Mulder, Liliana D'Alba, Matthew D. Shawkey, Branislav Igic & Liliana D’Alba
Research on the optical properties of animal integuments, including fur, feather, skin and cuticle, has focussed almost exclusively on animal-visible wavelengths within the narrow range of 300 - 700 nm. By contrast, the near-infrared (NIR) portion of direct sunlight, spanning 700 - 2600 nm, has been largely ignored despite its potentially important thermal consequences. We quantified variation in visible and NIR reflectance and transmission for white body contour feathers of 50 bird species, and examined...

Data from: An experimental test of whether pyrodiversity promotes mammal diversity in a northern Australian savanna

Hugh F. Davies, Michael A. McCarthy, Willie Rioli, José Puruntatameri, Willie Roberts, Colin Kerinaiua, Vivian Kerinauia, Kim Brooks Womatakimi, Alan N. Andersen & Brett P. Murphy
1. The increasing awareness that a fire regime that promotes biodiversity in one system can threaten biodiversity in another has resulted in a shift away from fire management based on vague notions of maximising pyrodiversity, towards determining the optimal fire regime based on the demonstrated requirements of target species. 2. We utilised a long-running, replicated fire experiment on Melville Island, the largest island off the northern Australian coast, to test the importance of pyrodiversity for...

Data from: From ornament to armament or loss of function? Breeding plumage acquisition in a genetically monogamous bird

Marie Fan, Niki Teunissen, Michelle L. Hall, Nataly Hidalgo Aranzamendi, Sjouke A. Kingma, Michael Roast, Kaspar Delhey & Anne Peters
1. The evolution of conspicuous male traits is thought to be driven by female mate choice or male-male competition. These two mechanisms are often viewed as distinct processes, with most studies focusing on female choice. 2. However, both mechanisms of sexual selection can act simultaneously on the same trait (i.e. dual function) and/or interact in a synergistic or conflicting way. Dual function-traits are commonly assumed to originate through male-male competition before being used in female...

Data from: Environmental determinism, and not interspecific competition, drive morphological variability in Australasian warblers (Acanthizidae)

Vicente García-Navas, Marta Rodriguez-Rey, Petter Z. Marki & Les Christidis
Interspecific competition is thought to play a key role in determining the coexistence of closely related species within adaptive radiations. Competition for ecological resources can lead to different outcomes from character displacement to, ultimately, competitive exclusion. Accordingly, divergent natural selection should disfavor those species that are the most similar to their competitor in resource use, thereby increasing morphological disparity. Here we examined ecomorphological variability within an Australo-Papuan bird radiation, the Acanthizidae, which include both allopatric...

Data from: Trait-dependant tolerance of bats to urbanisation: a global meta-analysis

Kirsten Jung & Caragh Grace Threlfall
Urbanization is a severe threat to global biodiversity, often leading to taxonomic and functional homogenization. However, current urban ecology research has focused mostly on urban birds and plants, limiting our ability to make generalisations about the drivers of urban biodiversity globally. To address this gap, we conducted a global meta-analysis of 87 studies, including 180 bat species (Chiroptera) from urban areas in Asia, Australia, Europe, North & South America. We aimed to 1) understand the...

Data from: Assessment of plasma proteomics biomarker’s ability to distinguish benign from malignant lung nodules

Gerard A. Silvestri, Nichole T. Tanner, Paul Kearney, Anil Vachani, Pierre P. Massion, Alexander Porter, Steven C. Springmeyer, Kenneth C. Fang, David Midthun, Peter J. Mazzone, D. Madtes, J. Landis, A. Levesque, K. Rothe, M. Balaan, B. Dimitt, B. Fortin, N. Ettinger, A. Pierre, L. Yarmus, K. Oakjones-Burgess, N. Desai, Z. Hammoud, A. Sorenson, R. Murali … & F. Allison
Background: Lung nodules are a diagnostic challenge, with an estimated yearly incidence of 1.6 million in the United States. This study evaluated the accuracy of an integrated proteomic classifier in identifying benign nodules in patients with a pretest probability of cancer (pCA) ≤ 50%. Methods: A prospective, multicenter observational trial of 685 patients with 8- to 30-mm lung nodules was conducted. Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry was used to measure the relative abundance of two...

Data from: Elevated [CO2] mitigates the effect of surface drought by stimulating root growth to access sub-soil water

Shihab Uddin, Markus Löw, Shahnaj Parvin, Glenn J. Fitzgerald, Sabine Tausz-Posch, Roger Armstrong, Garry O’Leary & Michael Tausz
Through stimulation of root growth, increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) may facilitate access of crops to sub-soil water, which could potentially prolong physiological activity in dryland environments, particularly because crops are more water use efficient under elevated [CO2] (e[CO2]). This study investigated the effect of drought in shallow soil versus sub-soil on agronomic and physiological responses of wheat to e[CO2] in a glasshouse experiment. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yitpi) was grown in split-columns with...

Data from: Early-life telomere length predicts lifespan and lifetime reproductive success in a wild bird

Justin R. Eastwood, Michelle L. Hall, Niki Teunissen, Sjouke A. Kingma, Nataly Hidalgo Aranzamendi, Marie Fan, Michael Roast, Simon Verhulst & Anne Peters
Poor conditions during early development can initiate trade-offs that favour current survival at the expense of somatic maintenance and subsequently, future reproduction. However, the mechanisms that link early and late life-history are largely unknown. Recently it has been suggested that telomeres, the nucleoprotein structures at the terminal end of chromosomes, could link early-life conditions to lifespan and fitness. In wild purple-crowned fairy-wrens, we combined measurements of nestling telomere length (TL) with detailed life-history data to...

Data from: Prevalence and correlates of anemia among adolescents in Nepal: findings from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey

Binaya Chalise, Krishna Kumar Aryal, Ranju Kumari Mehta, Meghnath Dhimal, Femila Sapkota, Suresh Mehata, Khem Bahadur Karki, Donya Madjdian, George Patton & Susan Sawyer
Anemia is regarded as major public health problem among adolescents in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) but there is limited primary data in many countries, including Nepal. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of anemia in a nationally representative sample of adolescents within the 2014 National Adolescent Nutrition Survey in Nepal. A total of 3780 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years were selected from a cross-sectional survey through multi-stage cluster sampling. Structured interviews, anthropometric...

Data from: Generalized polyspike train: an EEG biomarker of drug-resistant idiopathic generalized epilepsy

Yanping Sun, Udaya Seneviratne, Piero Perucca, Zhibin Chen, Meng Kee Tan, Terence John O'Brien, Wendyl D'Souza & Patrick Kwan
Objective: To identify clinical and EEG biomarkers of drug resistance in adults with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Methods: We conducted a case-control study consisting of a discovery cohort and a replication cohort independently assessed at two different centres. In each centre patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy phenotype and generalized spike-wave discharges on EEG were classified as drug-resistant or drug-responsive. EEG changes were classified into pre-defined patterns and compared between the two groups in the discovery cohort....

Data from: Understanding co-occurrence by modelling species simultaneously with a Joint Species Distribution Model (JSDM)

Laura J. Pollock, Reid Tingley, William K. Morris, Nick Golding, Robert B. O'Hara, Kirsten M. Parris, Peter A. Vesk & Michael A. McCarthy
A primary goal of ecology is to understand the fundamental processes underlying the geographic distributions of species. Two major strands of ecology – habitat modelling and community ecology – approach this problem differently. Habitat modellers often use species distribution models (SDMs) to quantify the relationship between species’ and their environments without considering potential biotic interactions. Community ecologists, on the other hand, tend to focus on biotic interactions and, in observational studies, use co‐occurrence patterns to...

Data from: Sleep-disordered breathing among patients admitted for inpatient video-EEG monitoring

Shobi Sivathamboo, Sarah Farrand, Zhibin Chen, Elise Jenna White, Andreas Pattichis, Callum Hollis, John Carino, Caitlin Jane Roberts, Thomas Minogue, Nigel Charles Jones, Raju Yerra, Christopher R. French, Piero Perucca, Patrick Kwan, Dennis Velakoulis, Terence John O'Brien & Jeremy Goldin
Objective: Examine the frequency and risk factors of sleep-disordered breathing in individuals with epilepsy and psychogenic non-epileptic events (PNES). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of consecutive patients admitted for inpatient video-EEG monitoring at The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia between December 1, 2011 and July 31, 2017. Participants underwent routine clinical investigations during their monitoring period including polysomnography, neurocognitive testing, and screening instruments of daytime somnolence, sleep quality, and quality of life. Results: Our study...

Data from: Phylodynamic model adequacy using posterior predictive simulations

Sebastian Duchene, Remco Bouckaert, David A Duchene, Tanja Stadler & Alexei J Drummond
Rapidly evolving pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria, accumulate genetic change at a similar timescale over which their epidemiological processes occur, such that it is possible to make inferences about their infectious spread using phylogenetic time-trees. For this purpose it is necessary to choose a phylodynamic model. However, the resulting inferences are contingent on whether the model adequately describes key features of the data. Model adequacy methods allow formal rejection of a model if it...

Data from: Invasion history alters the behavioural consequences of immune system activation in cane toads.

Gregory P. Brown, Damian Holden, Richard Shine & Ben L. Phillips
1. Acute activation of the immune system often initiates a suite of behavioural changes. These ‘sickness behaviours’—involving lethargy and decreased activity—may be particularly costly on invasion fronts, where evolutionary pressures on dispersal favour individuals that move large distances. 2. We used a combination of field and laboratory studies to compare sickness behaviours of cane toads from populations differing in invasion history. To do this we stimulated immune system activation by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic...

Data from: Top carnivore decline has cascading effects on scavengers and carrion persistence

Calum X. Cunningham, Christopher N. Johnson, Leon A. Barmuta, Tracey Hollings, Eric J. Woehler & Menna E. Jones
Top carnivores have suffered widespread global declines, with well-documented effects on mesopredators and herbivores. We know less about how carnivores affect ecosystems through scavenging. Tasmania’s top carnivore, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), has suffered severe disease-induced population declines, providing a natural experiment on the role of scavenging in structuring communities. Using remote cameras and experimentally-placed carcasses, we show that mesopredators consume more carrion in areas where devils have declined. Carcass consumption by the two native...

Data from: Exploring mechanisms and origins of reduced dispersal in island Komodo dragons

Tim S. Jessop, Achmad Arieifandy, Deni Purwandana, Claudio Ciofi, Jeri Imansyah, Yunias Jackson Benu, Damien A. Fordham, David M. Forsyth, Raoul A. Mulder, Benjamin L. Phillips & Achmad Ariefiandy
Loss of dispersal typifies island biotas, but the selective processes driving this phenomenon remain contentious. This is because selection via, both indirect (e.g. relaxed selection or island syndromes) and direct (e.g. natural selection or spatial sorting) processes may be involved, and no study has yet convincingly distinguished between these alternatives. Here we combined observational and experimental analyses of an island lizard, the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis, the world’s largest lizard), to provide evidence for the...

Data from: Space use and genetic structure do not maintain colour polymorphism in a species with alternative behavioural strategies

Madeleine St. Clair Yewers, Devi Stuart-Fox, Claire Alice McLean & Madeleine St Clair Yewers
Space use including territoriality and spatial arrangement within a population can reveal important information on the nature, dynamics and evolutionary maintenance of alternative strategies in colour polymorphic species. Despite the prevalence of colour polymorphic species as model systems in evolutionary biology, the interaction between space-use and genetic structuring of morphs within populations has rarely been examined. Here we assess the spatial and genetic structure of male throat colour morphs within a population of the tawny...

Data from: A comprehensive assessment of inbreeding and laboratory adaptation in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

Perran A. Ross, Nancy M. Endersby-Harshman & Ary A. Hoffmann
Modified Aedes aegypti mosquitoes reared in laboratories are being released around the world to control wild mosquito populations and the diseases they transmit. Several efforts have failed due to poor competitiveness of the released mosquitoes. We hypothesized that colonized mosquito populations could suffer from inbreeding depression and adapt to laboratory conditions, reducing their performance in the field. We established replicate populations of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes collected from Queensland, Australia, and maintained them in the laboratory...

Data from: Floral community predicts pollinators' color preference: implications for Batesian floral mimicry

Michael R. Whitehead, Anne C. Gaskett, Steve D. Johnson & Steven D Johnson
Animals that rely on nectar are expected to display floral trait preferences correlating to the signals of nectar source flowers. Batesian mimicry evolves to exploit these pre-existing signal-receiver relationships, attracting pollinators through an adaptive resemblance to specific co-occurring rewarding species. The nectar-feeding long-proboscid flies of South Africa are pollinators for several deceptive orchid species that are putatively Batesian mimics. We tested whether flies’ measured color preference varied among communities providing different nectar-source diets, which would...

Data from: Specific MHC class I supertype associated with parasite infection and colour morph in a wild lizard population

Jessica D. Hacking, Devi Stuart-Fox, Stephanie S. Godfrey & Michael G. Gardner
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a large gene family that plays a central role in the immune system of all jawed vertebrates. Non-avian reptiles are under-represented within the MHC literature and little is understood regarding the mechanisms maintaining MHC diversity in this vertebrate group. Here, we examined the relative roles of parasite-mediated selection and sexual selection in maintaining MHC class I diversity of a colour polymorphic lizard. We discovered evidence for parasite-mediated selection acting...

Data from: Strong effects of coral species on the diversity and structure of reef fish communities: a multi-scale analysis

Valeriya Komyakova, Geoffrey P. Jones & Philip L. Munday
While there is increasing evidence for habitat specialization in coral reef fishes, the extent to which different corals support different fish communities is not well understood. Here we quantitatively assess the relative importance of different coral species in structuring fish communities and evaluate whether sampling scale and coral colony size affect the perceived strength of fish-habitat relationships. Fish communities present on colonies of 8 coral species (Porites cylindrica, Echinopora horrida, Hydnophora rigida, Stylophora pistillata, Seriatopora...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Melbourne
  • Monash University
  • University of Groningen
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
  • University of Adelaide
  • University of California System
  • University of Queensland
  • University of Sydney
  • University of Auckland
  • Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation