259 Works

Data from: Replicated analysis of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in two wild great tit populations

Anna W. Santure, Jocelyn Poissant, Isabelle De Cauwer, Kees Van Oers, Matthew R. Robinson, John L. Quinn, Martien A. M. Groenen, Marcel E. Visser, Ben C. Sheldon & Jon Slate
Currently there is much debate on the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in wild populations. Is trait variation influenced by many genes of small effect or by a few genes of major effect? Where is additive genetic variation located in the genome? Do the same loci cause similar phenotypic variation in different populations? Great tits (Parus major) have been studied extensively in long-term studies across Europe, and consequently are considered an ecological 'model organism'. Recently,...

Data from: Parasitism overrides herbivore identity allowing hyperparasitoids to locate their parasitoid host by using herbivore-induced plant volatiles

Feng Zhu, Colette Broekgaarden, Berhane T. Weldegergis, Jeffrey A. Harvey, Ben Vosman, Marcel Dicke & Erik H. Poelman
Foraging success of predators profoundly depends on reliable and detectable cues indicating the presence of their often inconspicuous prey. Carnivorous insects rely on chemical cues to optimize foraging efficiency. Hyperparasitoids that lay their eggs in the larvae or pupae of parasitic wasps may find their parasitoid hosts developing in different herbivores. They can use herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) to locate parasitized caterpillars. Because different herbivore species induce different HIPV emission from plants, hyperparasitoids may have...

Data from: What you need is what you eat? Prey selection by the bat Myotis daubentonii

Eero J. Vesterinen, Lasse Ruokolainen, Niklas Wahlberg, Carlos Peña, Tomas Roslin, Veronika N. Laine, Ville Vasko, Ilari E. Sääksjärvi, Kai Norrdahl & Thomas M. Lilley
Optimal foraging theory predicts that predators are selective when faced with abundant prey, but become less picky when prey gets sparse. Insectivorous bats in temperate regions are faced with the challenge of building up fat reserves vital for hibernation during a period of decreasing arthropod abundances. According to optimal foraging theory, prehibernating bats should adopt a less selective feeding behaviour – yet empirical studies have revealed many apparently generalized species to be composed of specialist...

Data from: Phenological mismatch drives selection on elevation, but not on slope, of breeding time plasticity in a wild songbird

Jip J.C. Ramakers, Phillip Gienapp & Marcel E. Visser
Phenotypic plasticity is an important mechanism for populations to respond to fluctuating environments, yet may be insufficient to adapt to a directionally changing environment. To study whether plasticity can evolve under current climate change, we quantified selection and genetic variation in both the elevation (RNE) and slope (RNS) of the breeding time reaction norm in a long-term (1973–2016) study population of great tits (Parus major). The optimal RNE (the caterpillar biomass peak date regressed against...

Data from: Carrying a logger reduces escape flight speed in a passerine bird, but relative logger mass may be a misleading measure of this flight performance detriment

Barbara M. Tomotani, Wender Bil, Henk P. Van Der Jeugd, Remco P.M. Pieters, Florian T. Muijres & Remco P. M. Pieters
1. The recent boost in bird migration studies following the development of various tracking devices raised awareness of how detrimental attaching devices can be for animals. Such effects can occur during migration, but also immediately post-release if the device impairs escape flight performance and, consequently, the bird’s ability to evade predators. 2. In this study, we investigated the effect of carrying a device on the escape flight speed and aerodynamic force production in a migratory...

Data from: Fitting functional responses: direct parameter estimation by simulating differential equations

Benjamin Rosenbaum & Björn Christian Rall
1. The feeding functional response is one of the most widespread mathematical frameworks in Ecology, Marine Biology, Freshwater Biology, Microbiology and related scientific fields describing the resource-dependent uptake of a consumer. Since the exact knowledge of its parameters is crucial to predict, for example, the efficiency of biocontrol agents, population dynamics, food web structure and subsequently biodiversity, a trustworthy parameter estimation method is highly important for scientists using this framework. Classical approaches for estimating functional...

Data from: Fitness consequences of indirect plant defence in the annual weed, Sinapis arvensis

Rieta Gols, Roel Wagenaar, Erik H. Poelman, Marjolein Kruidhof, Joop J. A. Van Loon, Jeffrey A. Harvey, H. Marjolein Kruidhof & Joop J.A. Van Loon
1. Plant traits that enhance the attraction of the natural enemies of their herbivores have been postulated to function as an ‘indirect defence’. An important underlying assumption is that this enhanced attraction results in increased plant fitness due to reduced herbivory. This assumption has been rarely tested. 2. We investigated whether there are fitness consequences for the charlock mustard Sinapis arvensis, a short-lived outcrossing annual weedy plant, when exposed to groups of large cabbage white...

Data from: The influence of balanced and imbalanced resource supply on biodiversity-functioning relationship across ecosystems

Aleksandra M. Lewandowska, Antje Biermann, Elizabeth T. Borer, Miguel A. Cebrian-Piqueras, Steven A. J. Declerck, Luc De Meester, Ellen Van Donk, Lars Gamfeldt, Daniel S. Gruner, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Kevin P. Kirkman, Christopher A. Klausmeier, Michael Kleyer, Johannes M. H. Knops, Pieter Lemmens, Eric M. Lind, Elena Litchman, Jasmin Mantilla-Contreras, Koen Martens, Sandra Meier, Vanessa Minden, Joslin L. Moore, Harry Olde Venterink, Eric W. Seabloom … & Helmut Hillebrand
Numerous studies show that increasing species richness leads to higher ecosystem productivity. This effect is often attributed to more efficient portioning of multiple resources in communities with higher numbers of competing species, indicating the role of resource supply and stoichiometry for biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships. Here, we merged theory on ecological stoichiometry with a framework of biodiversity–ecosystem functioning to understand how resource use transfers into primary production. We applied a structural equation model to define patterns...

Data from: Nectar accessibility determines fitness, flower choice and abundance of hoverflies that provide natural pest control

Paul C.J. Van Rijn, Felix L. Wäckers & Paul C. J. Van Rijn
1. In modern agricultural landscapes many organisms providing ecosystem services such as pollination and natural pest control are likely constrained by shortage of nectar and/or pollen required for adult nutrition. More and more flower-rich field margin strips and other habitats are created to eliminate these constraints. For most target organisms, however, it is not well known which (types of) flowers are effective in providing suitable pollen and nectar. 2. We studied the suitability of a...

Data from: Lifespan and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction

Emeline Mourocq, Pierre Bize, Sandra Bouwhuis, Russell Bradley, Anne Charmantier, Carlos De La Cruz, Szymon Marian Obniak, Richard H. M. Espie, Márton Herenyi, Hermann Hötker, Oliver Kruger, John Marzluff, Anders P. Møller, Shinichi Nakagawa, Richard A. Phillips, Andrew N. Radford, Alexandre Roulin, János Török, Juliana Valencia, Martijn Van De Pol, Ian G. Warkentin, Isabel S. Winney, Andrew G. Wood, Michael Griesser & Szymon M. Drobniak
Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life-history as well as social and...

Data from: Simulated moult reduces flight performance but overlap with breeding does not affect breeding success in a long-distance migrant

Barbara M. Tomotani, Florian T. Muijres, Julia Koelman, Stefania Casagrande & Marcel E. Visser
1. Long-distance migrants are time-constrained as they need to incorporate many annual cycle stages within a year. Migratory passerines moult in the short interval between breeding and migration. To widen this interval, moult may start while still breeding, but this results in flying with moulting wings when food provisioning. 2. We experimentally simulated wing gaps in breeding male pied flycatchers by plucking 2 primary feathers from both wings. We quantified the nest visitations of both...

Data from: Species-specific plant-soil feedback effects on above-ground plant-insect interactions

Martine Kos, Maarten A. B. Tuijl, Joris De Roo, Patrick P. J. Mulder & T. Martijn Bezemer
1. Plant–soil feedback (PSF) effects on plant performance strongly depend on the plant species that conditioned the soil. Recent studies have shown that PSF can change above-ground plant–insect interactions via soil-mediated changes in plant quality, but whether these effects depend on species-specific soil conditioning is unknown. We examined how PSF effects of several plant species influence above-ground plant–aphid interactions. 2. We grew ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris) in field soil conditioned specifically by 10 plant species, belonging...

Data from: Estimating the variation, autocorrelation, and environmental sensitivity of phenotypic selection

Luis-Miguel Chevin, Marcel E. Visser & Jarle Tufto
Despite considerable interest in temporal and spatial variation of phenotypic selection, very few methods allow quantifying this variation while correctly accounting for the error variance of each individual estimate. Furthermore, the available methods do not estimate the autocorrelation of phenotypic selection, which is a major determinant of eco-evolutionary dynamics in changing environments. We introduce a new method for measuring variable phenotypic selection using random regression. We rely on model selection to assess the support for...

Data from: Heritable variation in maternally-derived yolk androgens, thyroid hormones and immune factors

Suvi Ruuskanen, Phillip Gienapp, Ton G.G Groothuis, Sonja V. Schaper, Veerle M. Darras, Cheyenne Pereira, Bonnie De Vries & Marcel E. Visser
Maternal reproductive investment can critically influence offspring phenotype, and thus these maternal effects are expected to be under strong natural selection. Knowledge on the extent of heritable variation in the physiological mechanisms underlying maternal effects is however limited. In birds, resource allocation to eggs is a key mechanism for mothers to affect their offspring and different components of the egg may or may not be independently adjusted. We studied the heritability of egg components and...

Data from: Native and non-native plants provide similar refuge to invertebrate prey, but less than artificial plants

Bart M.C. Grutters, Bart J.A. Pollux, Wilco C.E.P. Verberk, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Bart M. C. Grutters, Bart J. A. Pollux & Wilco C. E. P. Verberk
Non-native species introductions are widespread and can affect ecosystem functioning by altering the structure of food webs. Invading plants often modify habitat structure, which may affect the suitability of vegetation as refuge and could thus impact predator-prey dynamics. Yet little is known about how the replacement of native by non-native vegetation affects predator-prey dynamics. We hypothesize that plant refuge provisioning depends on (1) the plant’s native status, (2) plant structural complexity and morphology, (3) predator...

Data from: Interspecific transfer of parasites following a range-shift in Ficedula flycatchers

William Jones, Katarzyna Kulma, Staffan Bensch, Mariusz Cichoń, Anvar Kerimov, Miloš Krist, Toni Laaksonen, Juan Moreno, Pavel Munclinger, Fred Slater, Eszter Szöllősi, Marcel E. Visser, Anna Qvarnström & Fred M. Slater
Human-induced climate change is expected to cause major biotic changes in species distributions and thereby including escalation of novel host-parasite associations. Closely related host species that come into secondary contact are especially likely to exchange parasites and pathogens. Two competing theories, the Enemy Release Hypothesis, where invading hosts escape their original parasites; and the Novel Weapon Hypothesis, where invading hosts bring new parasites that have detrimental effects on native hosts, have been described to predict...

Data from: Maternal transfer of androgens in eggs is affected by food supplementation but not by predation risk

Chiara Morosinotto, Robert L. Thomson, Suvi Ruuskanen, Erkki Korpimäki, Esa Lehikoinen, Erich Möstl & Toni Laaksonen
Mothers may affect the future success of their offspring by varying allocation to eggs and embryos. Allocation may be adaptive based on the environmental conditions perceived during early breeding. We investigated the effects of food supplementation and predation risk on yolk hormone transfer in the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca. In a food supplementation experiment, females were food-supplemented prior to and during egg-laying and androgen concentrations were measured throughout the laying order. Predation risk was investigated...

Data from: Temperature effects on prey and basal resources exceed that of predators in an experimental community

Madhav P. Thakur, John N. Griffin, Tom Künne, Susanne Dunker, Andrea Fanesi & Nico Eisenhauer
Climate warming alters the structure of ecological communities by modifying species interactions at different trophic levels. Yet, the consequences of warming-led modifications in biotic interactions at higher trophic levels on lower trophic groups are lesser known. Here, we test the effects of multiple predator species on prey population size and traits, and subsequent effects on basal resources along an experimental temperature gradient (12-15C, 17-20C, and 22-25C). We experimentally assembled food web modules with two congeneric...

Data from: Insect herbivory on native and exotic aquatic plants: phosphorus and nitrogen drive insect growth and nutrient release

Bart M. C. Grutters, Elisabeth M. Gross & Elisabeth S. Bakker
Eutrophication and globalisation facilitate the dominance of exotic plants in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Aquatic omnivores can provide biotic resistance to plant invasions, but little is known about whether obligate aquatic herbivores can do the same. Herbivores such as insects can decimate aquatic vegetation, but may not be able to consume exotic plants due to their more or less specialised nature of feeding. We experimentally tested the larval feeding of an aquatic insect, the moth Parapoynx...

Data from: Costs of sleeping in: circadian rhythms influence cuckoldry risk in a songbird

Timothy Greives, Sjouke Kingma, Bart Kranstauber, Kim Mortega, Martin Wikelski, Kees Van Oers, Christa Mateman, Glen Ferguson, Giulia Beltrami, Michaela Hau, Sjouke A. Kingma & Timothy J. Greives
1. Circadian (i.e. daily) regulation of behaviors is thought to provide fitness benefits to organisms by enabling them to anticipate diel changes in the environment, such as sunrise. 2. A common behavior among socially monogamous songbirds that usually takes place in the early mornings is extra-pair mating, i.e. copulating with partners outside of the social pair bond. 3. Thus, variation in when individuals begin their daily activity may influence their reproductive success; early risers may...

Data from: Eggs brought in from afar: Svalbard-breeding pink-footed geese can fly their eggs across the Barents Sea

Marcel Klaassen, Steffen Hahn, Harry Korthals & Jesper Madsen
Many Arctic-breeding waterbirds are thought to bring nutrients for egg production from southern latitudes to allow early breeding. It has proved problematic to quantify the extent of such capital breeding and identify whether nutrients for egg production are brought in from nearby or from afar. Before reaching their breeding grounds on Svalbard, pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus fly ∼ 1100 km across the Barents Sea from Norway. Using abdominal profile indexing (API) we scored body stores...

Data from: Complementarity and selection effects in early and mid-successional plant communities are differentially affected by plant-soil feedback

Jingying Jing, T. Martijn Bezemer & Wim H. Van Der Putten
1. Many studies that provided evidence for a positive relationship between plant diversity and productivity have proposed that this effect may be explained by complementarity among species in resources utilization, or selection of particularly productive species in high-diversity plant communities. Recent studies have related the higher productivity in diverse plant communities to suppression of pathogenic soil biota. If soil biota plays a role in diversity–productivity relationships, the question remains about how they may influence complementarity...

Data from: Testing for biases in selection on avian reproductive traits and partitioning direct and indirect selection using quantitative genetic models

Thomas E. Reed, Phillip Gienapp & Marcel E. Visser
Key life history traits such as breeding time and clutch size are frequently both heritable and under directional selection, yet many studies fail to document micro-evolutionary responses. One general explanation is that selection estimates are biased by the omission of correlated traits that have causal effects on fitness, but few valid tests of this exist. Here we show, using a quantitative genetic framework and six decades of life-history data on two free-living populations of great...

Data from: Tackling extremes: challenges for ecological and evolutionary research on extreme climatic events

Liam D. Bailey & Martijn Van De Pol
1. Extreme climatic events (ECEs) are predicted to become more frequent as the climate changes. A rapidly increasing number of studies - though few on animals - suggest that the biological consequences of ECEs can be severe. 2. However, ecological research on the impacts of extreme climatic events (ECEs) has been limited by a lack of cohesiveness and structure. ECEs are often poorly defined and have often been confusingly equated with climatic variability, making comparison...

Data from: Functional and evolutionary consequences of cranial fenestration in birds

Sander W.S. Gussekloo, Michael A. Berthaume, Daniel R Pulaski, Irene Westbroek, Jan H. Waarsing, Robin Heinen, Ian R. Grosse, Elizabeth R. Dumont & Sander W. S. Gussekloo
Ostrich-like birds (Palaeognathae) show very little taxonomic diversity while their sister taxon (Neognathae) contains roughly 10000 species. The main anatomical differences between the two taxa are in the crania. Palaeognaths lack an element in the bill called the lateral bar that is present in both ancestral theropods and modern neognaths, have thin zones in the bones of the bill, and robust bony elements on the ventral surface of their crania. Here we use a combination...

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