115 Works

Phylogenomic data for hyperdiverse daisy tribes

Jennifer Mandel, Linda Watson & Carolina Siniscalchi
Asteraceae account for 10% of all flowering plant species, and 35-40% of these are in five closely-related tribes that total over 10,000 species. These tribes include Anthemideae, Astereae, Calenduleae, Gnaphalieae, and Senecioneae, which form one of two enormous clades within Subfamily Asteroideae. We took a phylogenomics approach to resolve evolutionary relationships among these five tribes. We sampled the nuclear and plastid genomes via HybSeq target enrichment and genome skimming, and recovered 74 plastid genes and...

Data for: Effects of fire on ground-dwelling arthropods in a shrub-dominated grassland

Shawn Wilder & Anna Butler
Arthropods are abundant and diverse animals in many terrestrial food webs. In western Oklahoma, some shrublands are interspersed with discrete, dense thickets of tall, woody vegetation, known as mottes. Some of these shrublands are managed with prescribed burning. The goal of this study was to examine if prescribed burning interacted with habitat type (i.e., shrubland vs. mottes) to affect ground-dwelling arthropod communities. Arthropods were collected in pitfall traps at four sampling locations in relation to...

Review and synthesis of the global literature on domestic cat impacts on wildlife

Scott Loss, Scott Loss, Brooke Boughton, Samantha Cady, David Londe, Caleb McKinney, Tim O'Connell, Georgia Riggs & Ellen Robertson
A vast global literature documents that free-roaming domestic cats (Felis catus) have substantial negative effects on wildlife, including through predation, fear, disease, and competition-related impacts that have contributed to numerous wildlife extinctions and population declines worldwide. However, no study has synthesized this literature on cat impacts on wildlife to evaluate its overarching biases and major gaps. To direct future research and conservation related to cat impacts on wildlife, we conducted a global literature review that...

Data from: Changes in waterfowl migration phenologies in central North America: implications for future waterfowl conservation

Kent Andersson, Craig Davis, Grant Harris & David Haukos
Globally, migration phenologies of numerous avian species have shifted over the past half-century. Despite North American waterfowl being well researched, published data on shifts in waterfowl migration phenologies remain scarce. Understanding shifts in waterfowl migration phenologies along with potential drivers is critical for guiding future conservation efforts. Therefore, we utilized historical (1955–2008) nonbreeding waterfowl survey data collected at 21 National Wildlife Refuges in the mid- to lower portion of the Central Flyway to summarize changes...

Supplementary datasets, data analysis code, and R tutorials for: Phylogenetic analysis of adaptation in comparative physiology and biomechanics: overview and a case study of thermal physiology in treefrogs

Daniel Moen, Elisa Cabrera-Guzmán, Itzue Caviedes-Solis, Edna González-Bernal & Allison Hanna
Comparative phylogenetic studies of adaptation are uncommon in biomechanics and physiology. Such studies require collecting data from many species, a challenge when data collection is experimentally intensive. Moreover, researchers struggle to employ the most biologically appropriate phylogenetic tools for identifying adaptive evolution. Here, we detail an established but greatly underutilized phylogenetic comparative framework—the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process—that explicitly models long-term adaptation. We discuss challenges in implementing and interpreting the model, and we outline potential solutions. We demonstrate...

Data from: Are thyroid hormones mediators of incubation temperature-induced phenotypes in birds?

Sarah E. DuRant, Amanda W. Carter, Robert J. Denver, Gary R. Hepp & William A. Hopkins
Incubation temperature influences a suite of traits in avian offspring. However, the mechanisms underlying expression of these phenotypes are unknown. Given the importance of thyroid hormones in orchestrating developmental processes, we hypothesized that they may act as an upstream mechanism mediating the effects of temperature on hatchling phenotypic traits such as reduced growth and thermoregulation. We found that plasma T3, but not T4 concentrations, differed among newly-hatched wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from different embryonic incubation...

Data from: Reproductive plasticity and landscape heterogeneity benefit a ground-nesting bird in a fire-prone ecosystem

J. Matthew Carroll, Torre J. Hovick, Craig A. Davis, Robert Dwayne Elmore & Samuel D. Fuhlendorf
Disturbance is critical for the conservation of rangeland ecosystems worldwide and many of these systems are fire dependent. Although it is well established that restoring fire as an ecological process can lead to increased biodiversity in grasslands and shrublands, the underlying mechanisms driving community patterns are poorly understood for fauna in fire-prone landscapes. Much of this uncertainty stems from the paucity of studies that examine the effects of fire at scales relevant to organism life...

Data from: Resource levels and prey state influence antipredator behavior and the strength of nonconsumptive predator effects

Catherine M. Matassa, Sarah C. Donelan, Barney Luttbeg & Geoffrey C. Trussell
The risk of predation can drive trophic cascades by causing prey to engage in antipredator behavior (e.g. reduced feeding), but these behaviors can be energetically costly for prey. The effects of predation risk on prey (nonconsumptive effects, NCEs) and emergent indirect effects on basal resources should therefore depend on the ecological context (e.g. resource abundance, prey state) in which prey manage growth/predation risk tradeoffs. Despite an abundance of behavioral research and theory examining state-dependent responses...

Data from: Ontogenetic development of otoliths in alligator gar

James M. Long & Richard A. Snow
Alligator Gar Atractosteus spatula is a species of conservation concern throughout its range and an examination of otoliths during early development would aid understanding its life history and ecology. We conducted X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and light microscopy to examine the three pairs of otoliths and how they developed over time in relation to fish size and age. The sagittae are the largest, with distinct dorsal and ventral lobes, and...

Data from: Shaped by the past, acting in the present: transgenerational plasticity of anti-predatory traits

Lynne E. Beaty, Jillian D. Wormington, Bart J. Kensinger, Kristen N. Bayley, Scott R. Goeppner, Kyle D. Gustafson & Barney Luttbeg
Phenotypic expression can be altered by direct perception of environmental cues (within-generation phenotypic plasticity) and by the environmental cues experienced by previous generations (transgenerational plasticity). Few studies, however, have investigated how the characteristics of phenotypic traits affect their propensity to exhibit plasticity within and across generations. We tested whether plasticity differed within and across generations between morphological and behavioral anti-predator traits of Physa acuta, a freshwater snail. We reared 18 maternal lineages of P. acuta...

Data from: Predators buffer the effects of variation in prey nutrient content for nutrient deposition

Cody L. Barnes, Dror Hawlena & Shawn M. Wilder
Predator feeding behavior and digestion regulate the flow of nutrients through ecosystems by determining the fate of prey nutrients. Most predators feed on a diversity of prey items, which differ widely in traits including their nutrient content. Yet, relatively little is known of the mechanisms through which variation in prey nutrient content affects the form by which nutrients are deposited into the environment. The overall goal of this study was to test how variation in...

Data from: Mycorrhizal symbioses influence the trophic structure of the Serengeti

Bo Maxwell Stevens, Jeffrey Propster, Gail W. T. Wilson, Andrew Abraham, Chase Ridenour, Chris Doughty, Nancy Collins Johnson & Christopher Doughty
It is known that tropical grasslands such as Serengeti host large populations of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and that they respond to abiotic and biotic factors. It is also known that AM symbioses are important for the uptake of essential plant nutrients, which, in turn, influences the biomass and nutritional quality of herbivores and their predators. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of AM symbioses on the biomass of different trophic...

Data from: Disrupting information alters the response to a signal trait in both sexes of Nicrophorus beetles

Jillian D. Wormington & Barney Luttbeg
Effective signals transfer information in a way that enhances the fitness of the sender. Signal traits are often sexually dimorphic. However, in some species males and females display similar signals, and these mutual signals are less often studied. Competition for resources occurs in both males and females, and mate choice is likely to occur whenever mates vary in quality and reproductive investment is high. Nicrophorus burying beetles compete intrasexually over the carrion resources on which...

Data from: The rediscovery of a long described species reveals additional complexity in speciation patterns of poeciliid fishes in sulfide springs

Maura Palacios, Lenin Arias-Rodrigues, Martin Plath, Constanze Eifert, Hannes Lerp, Anton Lamboj, Gary Voelker, Michael Tobler & Lenin Arias-Rodriguez
The process of ecological speciation drives the evolution of locally adapted and reproductively isolated populations in response to divergent natural selection. In Southern Mexico, several lineages of the freshwater fish species of the genus Poecilia have independently colonized toxic, hydrogen sulfide-rich springs. Even though ecological speciation processes are increasingly well understood in this system, aligning the taxonomy of these fish with evolutionary processes has lagged behind. While some sulfide spring populations are classified as ecotypes...

Data from: An empirical assessment of a single family-wide hybrid capture locus set at multiple evolutionary timescales in Asteraceae

Katy E Jones, Tomáš Fér, Roswitha E Schmickl, Rebecca B Dikow, Vicki A Funk, Sonia Herrando-Moraira, Norbert Kilian, Carolina M Siniscalchi, Alfonso Susanna, Marek Slovák, Ramhari Thapa, Linda E Watson & Jennifer R Mandel
Premise of the study: Hybrid capture with high-throughput sequencing (Hyb-Seq) is a powerful tool for evolutionary studies. The applicability of an Asteraceae family-specific Hyb-Seq method and the outcomes of different phylogenetic analyses are assessed. Methods: Hyb-Seq data from 112 Asteraceae samples were organized into groups at different taxonomic levels (tribe, genus, and species). For each group, datasets of non-paralogous loci were built and proportions of parsimony informative characters estimated. The impacts of the analyzing alternative...

Data from: Safety cues can give prey more valuable information than danger cues

Barney Luttbeg, Maud C O Ferrari, Daniel T Blumstein & Douglas P Chivers
The ability of prey to assess predation risk is fundamental to their success. It is routinely assumed predator cues do not vary in reliability across levels of predation risk. We propose that cues can differ in how precisely they indicate different levels of predation risk. What we call danger cues precisely indicate high risk levels, while safety cues precisely indicate low risk levels. Using optimality modeling, we find that prey fitness is increased when prey...

QTL × environment interactions underlie adaptive divergence in switchgrass across a large latitudinal gradient

David Lowry, John Lovell, Li Zhang, Jason Bonnette, Philip Fay, Robert Mitchell, John Lloyd-Reilley, Arvid Boe, Yanqi Wu, Francis Rouquette, Richard Wynia, Xiaoyu Weng, Kathrine Behrman, Adam Healey, Kerrie Barry, Anna Lipzen, Diane Bauer, Aditi Sharma, Jerry Jenkins, Jeremy Schmutz, Felix B. Fritschi & Thomas E. Juenger
Local adaptation is the process by which natural selection drives adaptive phenotypic divergence across environmental gradients. Theory suggests that local adaptation results from genetic trade-offs at individual genetic loci, where adaptation to one set of environmental conditions results in a cost to fitness in alternative environments. However, the degree to which there are costs associated with local adaptation is poorly understood because most of these experiments rely on two-site reciprocal transplant experiments. Here, we quantify...

Locomotion and paleoclimate explain the re-evolution of quadrupedal body form in Brachymeles lizards

Philip Bergmann, , Elyse Freitas, Duncan Irschick, Gunter Wagner & Cameron Siler
Evolutionary reversals, including re-evolution of lost structures, are commonly found in phylogenetic studies. However, we lack an understanding of how these reversals happen mechanistically. A snake-like body form has evolved many times in vertebrates, and occasionally, a quadrupedal form has re-evolved, including in Brachymeles lizards. We use body form and locomotion data for species ranging from snake-like to quadrupedal to address how a quadrupedal form could re-evolve. We show that large, quadrupedal species are faster...

Woody encroachment of grasslands: near-surface thermal implications through the lens of an astronomical event

Evan Tanner, Samuel Fuhlendorf, John Polo & Jacob Peterson
Temperature has long been understood as a fundamental condition that influences ecological patterns and processes. Heterogeneity in landscapes that is structured by ultimate (climate) and proximate (vegetation, topography, disturbance events, and land use) forces serve to shape thermal patterns across multiple spatio-temporal scales. Thermal landscapes of grasslands are likely shifting as woody encroachment fragments these ecosystems and studies quantifying thermal fragmentation in grassland systems resulting from woody encroachment are lacking. We utilized the August 21st,...

Climate alters the movement ecology of a non-migratory bird - dataset

Landon Neumann
Global climate change is causing increased climate extremes threatening biodiversity and altering ecosystems. Climate is comprised of many variables including air temperature, barometric pressure, solar radiation, wind, relative humidity, and precipitation that interact with each other. As movement connects various aspects of an animal’s life, understanding how climate influences movement at a fine-temporal scale will be critical to the long-term conservation of species impacted by climate change. The sedentary nature of non-migratory species could increase...

Data from: A longitudinal analysis of the growth rate and mass of tail feathers in a great tit population: ontogeny, genetic effects and relationship between traits

Ivan De La Hera, Michael S. Reichert, Gabrielle L. Davidson & John L. Quinn
Feathers have a diversity of functions in birds and are costly to produce, so their growth rate and mass can be reliable indicators of nutritional condition at the time of production. Despite the potential for feather metrics to advance our understanding of foraging, they are underused in avian ecology. One reason for this is the difficulty of interpreting whether individual variation is driven by ontogenetic, genetic, or environmental effects, which is exacerbated by the fact...

Effects of supplemental feeding on nesting success and physiological metrics in Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis)

Danielle Perryman, Meelyn Pandit, Eric Riddell, Tiana Sanders, Ian Kanda & Jennifer Grindstaff
Supplemental feeding is a common anthropogenic influence on wildlife which, dependent on natural food availability, can have positive or negative effects on physiological condition. Animals may respond negatively to supplemental feeding if the artificial food source increases disease risk due to aggregation. We manipulated supplemental food availability in a wild population of Eastern bluebirds, Sialia sialis, to examine the influence on physiological metrics and nesting success without causing birds to aggregate to access food. Adult...

Building façade-level correlates of bird-window collisions in a small urban area

Scott R. Loss, Corey S. Riding & Timothy J. O'Connell
Urbanization increasingly exposes birds to multiple sources of direct anthropogenic mortality. Collisions with buildings, and windows in particular, are a top bird mortality source, annually causing 365-988 million fatalities in the United States. Correlates of window collision rates have been studied at the scale of entire buildings and in relation to the surrounding landscape, and most studies have only assessed correlates for all birds combined without considering season- and species-specific risk factors. In Stillwater, Oklahoma,...

Data from: Exacerbated grassland degradation and desertification in Central Asia during 2000-2014

Geli Zhang, Chandrashekhar M. Biradar, Xiangming Xiao, Jinwei Dong, Yuting Zhou, Yuanwei Qin, Yao Zhang, Fang Liu, Mingjun Ding & Richard J. Thomas
Grassland degradation and desertification is a complex process, including both state conversion (e.g., grasslands to deserts) and gradual within-state change (e.g., greenness dynamics). Existing studies hardly separated the two components and analyzed it as a whole based on time series vegetation index data, which however cannot provide a clear and comprehensive picture for grassland degradation and desertification. Here we proposed an integrated assessment strategy, by considering both state conversion and within-state change of grasslands, to...

Data from: Experimentally decoupling reproductive investment from energy storage to test the functional basis of a life-history tradeoff

Robert M. Cox, Matthew B. Lovern & Ryan Calsbeek
The ubiquitous life-history trade-off between reproduction and survival has long been hypothesized to reflect underlying energy-allocation trade-offs between reproductive investment and processes related to self-maintenance. Although recent work has questioned whether energy-allocation models provide sufficient explanations for the survival cost of reproduction, direct tests of this hypothesis are rare, especially in wild populations. This hypothesis was tested in a wild population of brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) using a two-step experiment. First, stepwise variation in...

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