115 Works

A meta-analysis of the influence of anthropogenic noise on terrestrial wildlife communication strategies

Cameron Duquette, Cameron Duquette, Torre Hovick & Scott Loss
1. Human-caused noise pollution dominates the soundscape of modern ecosystems, from urban centers to national parks. Though wildlife can generally alter their communication to accommodate many types of natural noise (e.g. wind, wave action, heterospecific communication), noise pollution from anthropogenic sources pushes the limits of wildlife communication flexibility by causing loud, low-pitched, and near-continuous interference. Because responses to noise pollution are variable and taxa-specific, multi-species risk assessments and mitigation are not currently possible. 2. We...

Scaling up experimental stress responses of grass invasion to predictions of continental-level range suitability

Bo Zhang, Yingdan Yuan, Lele Shu, Edwin Grosholz, Yuxi Guo, James Cuda, Jinchi Zhang, Lu Zhai & Jiangxiao Qiu
Understanding how the biological invasion is driven by environmental factors will improve model prediction and advance early detection, especially in the context of accelerating anthropogenic ecological changes. Although a large body of studies has examined how favorable environments promote biological invasions, a more comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of invasive species response to unfavorable/stressful conditions is still developing. Grass invasion has been problematic across the globe; in particular, C4 grass invaders, with high drought tolerance, adaptations...

Data from: Inter-annual climate variation influences nest initiation date and nest productivity of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker at the northwestern edge of its range

Matthew Fullerton, Jeffrey Walters, Rodney Will & Scott Loss
Climate change, including directional shifts in weather averages and extremes and increased inter-annual weather variation, is influencing demograhy and distributions for many bird species. We examined how temperature and precipitation coinciding with multiple nesting seasons affected overall nesting success and productivity for two red-cockaded woodpecker (Dryobates borealis, RCW) populations at the species' northwestern range periphery. We used 26 years of nesting data (1991-2016) from the two RCW populations to determine if inter-annual weather variation has...

Why did the chicken NOT cross the road? Anthropogenic development influences the movement of a grassland bird

David Londe, Robert Elmore, Craig Davis, Torre Hovick, Samuel Fuhlendorf & Jimmy Rutledge
Movement and selection are inherently linked behaviors that form the foundation of a species space-use patterns. Anthropogenic development in natural ecosystems can result in a variety of behavioral responses that can involve changes in either movement (speed or direction of travel) or selection (resources used) behaviors which in turn may cause differential population level consequences including loss of landscape level connectivity. Understanding how a species alters these different behaviors in response to human activity is...

Directed movement changes coexistence outcomes in heterogeneous environments

Bo Zhang
Understanding mechanisms of coexistence is a central topic in ecology. Mathematical analysis of models of competition between two identical species moving at different rates of symmetric diffusion in heterogeneous environments show that the slower mover excludes the faster one. The models have not been tested empirically and lack inclusions of a component of directed movement toward favorable areas. To address these gaps, we extended previous theory by explicitly including exploitable resource dynamics and directed movement....

Data from: Relationships between spatio-temporal environmental and genetic variation reveal an important influence of exogenous selection in a pupfish hybrid zone

Evan W. Carson, Michael Tobler, W. L. Minckley, Ryan J. Ainsworth & Thomas E. Dowling
The importance of exogenous selection in a natural hybrid zone between the pupfishes Cyprinodon atrorus and C. bifasciatus was tested via spatio-temporal analyses of environmental and genetic change over winter, spring, and summer for three consecutive years. A critical influence of exogenous selection on hybrid zone regulation was demonstrated by a significant relationship between environmental (salinity and temperature) and genetic (three diagnostic nuDNA loci) variation over space and time (seasons) in the Rio Churince system,...

Data from: Diversification rates are more strongly related to microhabitat than climate in squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes)

Melissa Bars-Closel, Tiana Kohlsdorf, Daniel S. Moen & John J. Wiens
Patterns of species richness among clades can be directly explained by the ages of clades or their rates of diversification. The factors that most strongly influence diversification rates remain highly uncertain, since most studies typically consider only a single predictor variable. Here, we explore the relative impacts of macroclimate (i.e., occurring in tropical vs. temperate regions) and microhabitat use (i.e., terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal, aquatic) on diversification rates of squamate reptile clades (lizards and snakes). We...

Data from: Genomic prediction accuracies in space and time for height and wood density of Douglas-fir using exome capture as the genotyping platform

Frances R. Thistlethwaite, Blaise Ratcliffe, Jaroslav Klápště, Ilga Porth, Charles Chen, Michael U. Stoehr & Yousry A. El-Kassaby
Background Genomic selection (GS) can offer unprecedented gains, in terms of cost efficiency and generation turnover, to forest tree selective breeding; especially for late expressing and low heritability traits. Here, we used: 1) exome capture as a genotyping platform for 1372 Douglas-fir trees representing 37 full-sib families growing on three sites in British Columbia, Canada and 2) height growth and wood density (EBVs), and deregressed estimated breeding values (DEBVs) as phenotypes. Representing models with (EBVs)...

Data from: Incorporating abundance information and guiding variable selection for climate-based ensemble forecasting of species' distributional shifts

Evan P. Tanner, Monica Papes, R. Dwayne Elmore, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf & Craig A. Davis
Ecological niche models (ENMs) have increasingly been used to estimate the potential effects of climate change on species’ distributions worldwide. Recently, predictions of species abundance have also been obtained with such models, though knowledge about the climatic variables affecting species abundance is often lacking. To address this, we used a well-studied guild (temperate North American quail) and the Maxent modeling algorithm to compare model performance of three variable selection approaches: correlation/variable contribution (CVC), biological (i.e.,...

Data from: Development and validation of a weather-based warning system to advise fungicide applications to control dollar spot on turfgrass

Damon L. Smith, James P. Kerns, Nathan R. Walker, Andrea F. Payne, Brandon Horvath, John C. Inguagiato, John E. Kaminski, Maria Tomaso-Peterson & Paul L. Koch
Dollar spot is one of the most common diseases of golf course turfgrass and numerous fungicide applications are often required to provide adequate control. Weather-based disease warning systems have been developed to more accurately time fungicide applications; however, they tend to be ineffective and are not currently in widespread use. The primary objective of this research was to develop a new weather-based disease warning system to more accurately advise fungicide applications to control dollar spot...

Data from: Pyric-carnivory: raptor use of prescribed fires

Torre J. Hovick, Devan A. McGranahan, Robert Dwayne Elmore, John R. Weir & Samuel D. Fuhlendorf
Fire is a process that shaped and maintained most terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Changes in land use and patterns of human settlement have altered fire regimes and led to fire suppression resulting in numerous undesirable consequences spanning individual species and entire ecosystems. Many obvious and direct consequences of fire suppression have been well studied, but several, albeit less obvious, costs of alteration to fire regimes on wildlife are unknown. One such phenomenon is the response of...

Data from: \"Transcriptome sequence identity between Lyme disease tick vectors, Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus\" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 April 2014 to 31 May 2014

Marinela Contreras, Raquel Tobes, Libor Grubhoffer, Agustin Estrada-Peña & Jose De La Fuente
Ixodes scapularis and I. ricinus transmit the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi in the U.S. and Europe, respectively. The only tick genome sequence available is that of I. scapularis, which constitutes a limitation for tick research. Recent evidences suggest that I. ricinus and I. scapularis transcriptomes share some degree of sequence identity. However, only the global transcriptome comparison reported here demonstrated that I. ricinus and I. scapularis share a 99.232±0.005 percent sequence identity with a...

Data from: Genetic differentiation and selection against migrants in evolutionarily replicated extreme environments

Martin Plath, Markus Pfenninger, Hannes Lerp, Rüdiger Riesch, Christoph Eschenbrenner, Patrick A. Slattery, David Bierbach, Nina Herrmann, Matthias Schulte, Lenin Arias-Rodriguez, Jeane Rimber Indy, Courtney N. Passow, Michael Tobler & Courtney Passow
We investigated mechanisms of reproductive isolation in livebearing fishes (genus Poecilia) inhabiting sulfidic and nonsulfidic habitats in three replicate river drainages. Although sulfide spring fish convergently evolved divergent phenotypes, it was unclear if mechanisms of reproductive isolation also evolved convergently. Using microsatellites, we found strongly reduced gene flow between adjacent populations from different habitat types, suggesting that local adaptation to sulfidic habitats repeatedly caused the emergence of reproductive isolation. Reciprocal translocation experiments indicate strong selection...

Data from: Integrated metabolic strategy: a framework for predicting the evolution of carbon-water tradeoffs within plant clades

Ellie M. Goud, Jed P. Sparks, Mark Fishbein & Anurag A. Agrawal
1. The fundamental tradeoff between carbon gain and water loss has long been predicted as an evolutionary driver of plant strategies across environments. Nonetheless, challenges in measuring carbon gain and water loss in ways that integrate over leaf lifetime have limited our understanding of the variation in and mechanistic bases of this tradeoff. Furthermore, the microevolution of plant traits within species versus the macroevolution of strategies among closely related species may not be same, and...

Data from: Evolution of body shape in differently colored sympatric congeners and allopatric populations of Lake Malawi’s rock-dwelling cichlids

Martin Husemann, Michael Tobler, Cagney McCauley, Baoqing Ding & Patrick D. Danley
The cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi represent one of the most diverse adaptive radiations of vertebrates known. Among the rock-dwelling cichlids (mbuna), closely related sympatric congeners possess similar trophic morphologies (i.e. cranial and jaw structures), defend overlapping or adjacent territories, but can be easily distinguished based on male nuptial coloration. The apparent morphological similarity of congeners, however, leads to an ecological conundrum: theory predicts that ecological competition should lead to competitive exclusion. Hence, we hypothesized...

Data from: Preference evaluation of ground beef by untrained subjects with three levels of finely textured beef

Bailey Norwood, Sandra Molly Depue, Jayson L. Lusk, F. Bailey Norwood, Morgan Marie Neilson, Gretchen Mafi, Ranjith Ramanathan & Deborah VanOverbeke
After receiving bad publicity in 2012 and being removed from many ground beef products, finely textured beef (referred to as 'pink slime' by some) is making a comeback. Some of its proponents argue that consumers prefer ground beef containing finely textured beef, but no objective scientific party has tested this claim—that is the purpose of the present study. Over 200 untrained subjects participated in a sensory analysis in which they tasted one ground beef sample...

Data from: Pyric herbivory, scales of heterogeneity, and drought

Christine H. Bielski, Dirac Twidwell, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, Carissa L. Wonkka, Brady W. Allred, Tyson E. Ochsner, Erik S. Krueger, J. D. Carlson & David M. Engle
1. Understanding how extreme drought alters spatial patterns and temporal stability in grassland biomass will become increasingly important by the end of the century when climate model forecasts suggest drought events will occur more frequently. In grassland landscapes where grazing is driven by fire (termed pyric herbivory), temporal stability in aboveground plant biomass at landscape scales typically coincides with greater spatial variability across local communities (time-since fire patches), whereas variability within local communities is associated...

Data from: Worldwide patterns of ancestry, divergence, and admixture in domesticated cattle

Jared Egan Decker, Stephanie D. McKay, Megan M. Rolf, JaeWoo Kim, Antonio Molina Alcalá, Tad S. Sonstegard, Olivier Hanotte, Anders Götherström, Christopher M. Seabury, Lisa Praharani, Masroor Ellahi Babar, Luciana Correia De Almieda Regitano, Mehmet Ali Yildiz, Michael P. Heaton, Wan-Sheng Liu, Chu-Zhao Lei, James M. Reecy, Muhammad Saif-Ur-Rehman, Robert D. Schnabel & Jeremy F. Taylor
The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns...

Data from: A generalized solution procedure for in-plane free vibration of rectangular plates and annular sectorial plates

Siyuan Bao & Shuodao Wang
A generalized solution procedure is developed for in-plane free vibration of rectangular and annular sectorial plates with general boundary conditions. For the annular sectorial plate, the introduction of a logarithmic radial variable simplifies the basic theory and the expression of the total energy. The coordinates, geometric parameters and potential energy for the two different shapes are organized in a unified framework such that a generalized solving procedure becomes feasible. By using the improved Fourier-Ritz approach,...

Anchorage by seed mucilage prevents seed dislodgement in high surface flow: a mechanistic investigation

Vincent Pan, Cecilia Girvin & Eric LoPresti
Background and Aims: Seed mucilage is a common and highly diverse trait shared among thousands of angiosperm species. While long recognized that mucilage allows seeds to anchor to substrates (antitelechory), resisting abiotic and biotic dislodgement, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of this process. Methods: We propose a mechanistic model of how mucilage affects substrate anchorage and fluid resistance, ultimately contributing to dislodgement resistance. To test this model, we subjected mucilaginous seeds of 52 species,...

Manipulating plant microbiomes in the field: native mycorrhizae advance plant succession and improve native plant restoration

Liz Koziol, Jonathan Bauer, Eric Duell, Karen Hickman, Geoffrey House, Peggy Schultz, Alice Tipton, Gail Wilson & James Bever
The plant microbiome is critical to plant health and is degraded with anthropogenic disturbance. However, the value of re-establishing the native microbiome is rarely considered in ecological restoration. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are particularly important microbiome components, as they associate with most plants, and later successional grassland plants are strongly responsive to native AM fungi. With five separate sites across the United States, we inoculated mid- and late successional plant seedlings with one of three...

Raw mass-standardized ionomic data from seven fish species and raw transcriptome sequences for mosquitofish inhabiting the Tar Creek Superfund Site in OK, USA

John Coffin, Joanna Kelley, Punidan Jeyasingh & Michael Tobler
Our understanding of the mechanisms mediating the resilience of organisms to environmental change remains lacking. Heavy metals negatively affect processes at all biological scales, yet organisms inhabiting contaminated environments must maintain homeostasis to survive. Tar Creek in Oklahoma, USA, contains high concentrations of heavy metals and an abundance of Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), though several fish species persist at lower frequency. To test hypotheses about the mechanisms mediating the persistence and abundance of mosquitofish in...

Effect of stressors on the carrying capacity of spatially distributed metapopulations

Bo Zhang, Donald DeAngelis, Wei-Ming Ni, Yuanshi Wang, Lu Zhai, Alex Kula, Shuang Xu & David Van Dyken
Stressors such as antibiotics, herbicides and pollutants are becoming increasingly common in the environment. The effects of stressors on populations are typically studied in homogeneous, non-spatial settings. However, most populations in nature are spatially distributed over environmentally heterogeneous landscapes with spatially-restricted dispersal. Little is known about the effects of stressors in these more realistic settings. Here, we combine laboratory experiments with novel mathematical theory to rigorously investigate how a stressor’s physiological effect and spatial distribution...

Structural and compositional heterogeneity influences the thermal environment across multiple scales

David Londe, Dwayne Elmore, Craig Davis, Sam Fuhlendorf, Barney Luttbeg & Torre Hovick
Heterogeneity is becoming increasingly recognized as a critical driver of biodiversity and ecosystem processes. While the influence of heterogeneity on species diversity and abundance is well documented, how heterogeneity influences the distribution and arrangement of important resources across a landscape is still unclear. In particular, the mechanistic relationship between temperature and heterogeneity remains to be explored. Heterogeneity in vegetation structure and composition is often cited as important drivers of the near ground thermal environment. Due...

Phosphorus-supply driven shifts in the quotas of multiple elements in algae and Daphnia: ionomic basis of stoichiometric constraints

Punidan Jeyasingh, Jared Goos, Patrick Lind & Ryan Sherman
The growth rate hypothesis posits that the rate of protein synthesis is constrained by phosphorus (P) supply. P scarcity invokes differential expression of genes involved in processing of most if not all elements encompassing an individual (the ionome). Whether such ionome-wide adjustments to P supply impact growth and trophic interactions is unclear. We quantified the ionomes of a resource-consumer pair in contrasting P supply conditions. Consumer growth penalty was driven by not only P imbalance...

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