98 Works

Data from: Historical and anthropogenic factors affecting the population genetic structure of Ontario’s inland lake populations of walleye (Sander vitreus)

Ryan P. Walter, Christopher J. Cena, George C. Morgan & Daniel D. Heath
Populations existing in formerly glaciated areas often display composite historical and contemporary patterns of genetic structure. For Canadian freshwater fishes, population genetic structure is largely reflective of dispersal from glacial refugia and isolation within drainage basins across a range of scales. Enhancement of sport fisheries via hatchery stocking programs and other means has the potential to alter signatures of natural evolutionary processes. Using 11 microsatellite loci genotyped from 2182 individuals, we analyzed the genetic structure...

Data from: Latitudinal variation in ecological opportunity and intraspecific competition indicates differences in niche variability and diet specialization of Arctic marine predators

David J. Yurkowski, Steve Ferguson, Emily S. Choy, Lisa L. Loseto, Tanya M. Brown, Derek C. G. Muir, Christina A. D. Semeniuk & Aaron T. Fisk
Individual specialization (IS), where individuals within populations irrespective of age, sex, and body size are either specialized or generalized in terms of resource use, has implications on ecological niches and food web structure. Niche size and degree of IS of near-top trophic-level marine predators have been little studied in polar regions or with latitude. We quantified the large-scale latitudinal variation of population- and individual-level niche size and IS in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and beluga...

Data from: The adaptive capacity of lake food webs: from individuals to ecosystems

Bailey C. McMeans, Kevin S. McCann, Tyler D. Tunney, Aaron T. Fisk, Andrew M. Muir, Nigel Lester, Brian Shuter & Neil Rooney
Aquatic ecosystems support size structured food webs, wherein predator-prey body sizes span orders of magnitude. As such, these food webs are replete with extremely generalized feeding strategies, especially among the larger bodied, higher trophic position taxa. The movement scale of aquatic organisms also generally increases with body size and trophic position. Together, these body size, mobility, and foraging relationships suggest that organisms lower in the food web generate relatively distinct energetic pathways by feeding over...

Data from: Hierarchical analysis of genetic structure in the habitat-specialist Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida)

Robert Ginson, Ryan P. Walter, Nicholas E. Mandrak, Courtney L. Beneteau & Daniel D. Heath
Quantifying spatial genetic structure can reveal the relative influences of contemporary and historic factors underlying localized and regional patterns of genetic diversity and gene flow – important considerations for the development of effective conservation efforts. Using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci, we characterize genetic variation among populations across the range of the Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida), a small riverine percid that is highly dependent on sandy substrate microhabitats. We tested for fine scale, regional, and...

Data from: Speciation with gene flow and the genetics of habitat transitions

Melania E. Cristescu, Anna Constantin, Dan G. Bock, Carla E. Cáceres & Teresa J. Crease
Whether speciation can advance to completion in the face of initially high levels of gene flow is a very controversial topic in evolutionary biology. Extensive gene exchange is generally considered to homogenize populations and counteract divergence. Moreover, the role of introgressive hybridization in evolution remains largely unexplored in animals, particularly in freshwater zooplankton in which allopatric speciation is considered to be the norm. Our work investigates the genetic structure of two young ecological species: the...

Data from: Flexible mate choice may contribute to ecotype assortative mating in pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus)

Will M.C. Jarvis, Shevon M. Comeau, Scott F. Colborne, Beren W. Robinson & W. M. C. Jarvis
Gene flow is expected to limit adaptive divergence but the ecological and behavioural factors that govern gene flow are still poorly understood, particularly at the earliest stages of population divergence. Reduced gene flow through mate choice (sexual isolation) can evolve even under conditions of subtle population divergence if intermediate phenotypes have reduced fitness. We indirectly tested the hypothesis that mate choice has evolved between coexisting littoral and pelagic ecotypes of polyphenic pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus)...

Data from: Immigrant song: males and females learn songs post-dispersal in a tropical bird

Brendan A. Graham, Daniel D. Heath, Ryan P. Walter & Daniel J. Mennill
A fundamental hypothesis about vocal learning is that young animals learn vocalizations in their natal areas and, following post-natal dispersal, they may introduce new types of vocalizations into their breeding areas. We tested this hypothesis in a tropical bird, the Rufous-and-white Wren (Thryophilus rufalbus), a species in which both sexes produce learned songs. We collected blood samples and acoustic recordings from 146 adult wrens from three populations in northwestern Costa Rica. We genotyped individuals at...

Data from: Conservation implications of a lack of relationship between baseline glucocorticoids and fitness in a wild passerine

Christine L. Madliger & Oliver P. Love
The application of physiological measures to conservation monitoring has been gaining momentum and, while a suite of physiological traits are available to ascertain disturbance and condition in wildlife populations, glucocorticoids (i.e., GCs: cortisol and corticosterone) are the most heavily employed. The interpretation of GC levels as sensitive indicators of population change necessitates that GCs and metrics of population persistence are linked. However, the relationship between GCs and fitness may be highly context-dependent, changing direction, or...

Data from: Post-spawning sexual selection in red and white Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

Sarah J. Lehnert, Daniel D. Heath, Robert H. Devlin & Trevor E. Pitcher
Post-copulatory processes, including sperm competition and cryptic female choice (CFC), can play important roles in the maintenance of polymorphisms. In Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), color morphs (red and white) exist due to genetic polymorphisms affecting carotenoid deposition in flesh, skin, and gametes. We investigated the role of post-spawning sexual selection in maintaining the polymorphism in a mixed population. First, we compared sperm velocity differences in water between morphs. Next, we measured color-based CFC via 2...

Data from: Inbreeding effects on gene-specific DNA methylation among tissues of Chinook salmon

Clare J. Venney, Mattias L. Johansson & Daniel D. Heath
Inbreeding depression is the loss of fitness resulting from the mating of genetically related individuals. Traditionally, the study of inbreeding depression focused on genetic effects, although recent research has identified DNA methylation as also having a role in inbreeding effects. Since inbreeding depression and DNA methylation change with age and environmental stress, DNA methylation is a likely candidate for the regulation of genes associated with inbreeding depression. Here, we use a targeted, multigene approach to...

Data from: Effects of ovarian fluid and genetic differences on sperm performance and fertilization success of alternative reproductive tactics in Chinook salmon

Sarah J. Lehnert, Ian A.E. Butts, Erin W. Flannery, Kia M. Peters, Daniel D. Heath, Trevor E. Pitcher & I. A. E. Butts
In many species, sperm velocity affects variation in the outcome of male competitive fertilization success. In fishes, ovarian fluid (OF) released with the eggs can increase male sperm velocity and potentially facilitate cryptic female choice for males of specific phenotypes and/or genotypes. Therefore, to investigate the role of OF on fertilization success, we measured sperm velocity and conducted in vitro competitive fertilizations with paired Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) males representing two alternative reproductive tactics, jacks...

Data from: Evaluation of an acoustic telemetry transmitter designed to identify predation events

Edmund A. Halfyard, Dale Webber, Josh Del Papa, Todd Leadley, Steven T. Kessel, Scott F. Colborne & Aaron T. Fisk
The field of acoustic telemetry has evolved rapidly and now permits the remote sensing of animal behaviour, movement, physiology and survival in environments and species not previously possible. However, an inability to detect when a telemetered animal is consumed by a predator can complicate accurate interpretation of telemetry data. Here, we describe efforts to test two generations of a novel prototype acoustic telemetry transmitter designed specifically to detect predation. Testing involved either staged predation events...

Data from: Latitudinal and seasonal variation in space use by a large, predatory reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus

Molly E. Scott, Michelle R. Heupel, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Jordan K. Matley & Morgan S. Pratchett
1. Temperature directly affects the metabolic rate and resource requirements of ectothermic animals, which is likely to influence their movement and habitat use. Space use is a fundamental component of an animal’s ecology and the extent of an animal’s home range has consequences for individual distributions, community structure and ecosystem function. As ocean temperatures continue to rise as a result of global warming, determining the effects of temperature on space use and movement patterns of...

Rearing environment affects the genetic architecture and plasticity of DNA methylation in Chinook salmon

Clare Venney, Kyle Wellband & Daniel Heath
Genetic architecture and phenotypic plasticity are important considerations when studying trait variation within and among populations. Since environmental change can induce shifts in the genetic architecture and plasticity of traits, it is important to consider both genetic and environmental sources of phenotypic variation. While there is overwhelming evidence for environmental effects on phenotype, the underlying mechanisms are less clear. Variation in DNA methylation is a potential mechanism mediating environmental effects on phenotype due to its...

Divergence in plumage, voice, and morphology indicates speciation in Rufous-capped Warblers (Basileuterus rufifrons)

Alana Demko, Roberto Sosa-López, Richard Simpson, Stéphanie Doucet & Daniel Mennill
The biodiversity of the Neotropics is considerable, but it is likely underestimated owing to gaps in sampling effort and a focus on using morphological features of animals to determine species differences rather than divergence in their mating signals and behavior. Recent multi-trait analyses incorporating morphological, plumage, and vocal data have allowed for more accurate quantification of tropical biodiversity. We present a comprehensive study of morphological features, plumage, and vocalizations of the Neotropical resident Rufous-capped Warbler...

Data from: Development and validation of targeted environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding for early detection of 69 invasive fishes and aquatic invertebrates

Scott Colborne, Yueyang Wu, Matthew Charron & Daniel Heath
Invasive species are of concern due to their impacts on ecosystems and economies, but they pose significant control challenges. Environmental DNA (eDNA) is a powerful tool in the detection of aquatic organisms at low densities due to high sensitivity and ease of collection. Aquatic eDNA analyses have increased worldwide and are generally either applied to a few target species (quantitative PCR) or for broad taxonomic applications (metabarcoding). Here we describe the development and testing of...

Data from: Evidence for hearing loss in amblyopsid cavefishes

Matthew L. Niemiller, Dennis M. Higgs & Daphne Soares
The constant darkness of caves and other subterranean habitats imposes sensory constraints that offer a unique opportunity to examine evolution of sensory modalities. Hearing in cavefishes has not been well explored, and here we show that cavefishes in the family Amblyopsidae are not only blind but have also lost a significant portion of their hearing range. Our results showed that cave and surface amblyopsids shared the same audiogram profile at low frequencies but only surface...

Data from: Novel molecular approach demonstrates turbid river plumes reduce predation mortality on larval fish

Lucia B. Carreon-Martinez, Kyle W. Wellband, Timothy B. Johnson, Stuart A. Ludsin & Daniel D. Heath
Turbidity associated with river plumes is known to affect the search ability of visual predators and thus can drive “top-down” impacts on prey populations in complex ecosystems; however, traditional quantification of predator-prey relationships (i.e., stomach content analysis) often fail with larval fish due to rapid digestion rates. Herein, we use novel molecular genetic methods to quantify larval Yellow Perch (YP) in predator stomachs in western Lake Erie to test the hypothesis that turbidity drives variation...

Data from: Divergence in mating signals correlates with genetic distance and behavioural responses to playback

J. Roberto Sosa-López, Juan E. Martinez Gomez & Daniel J. Mennill
Animals use acoustic signals to defend resources against rivals and attract breeding partners. As with many biological traits, acoustic signals may reflect ancestry; closely related species often produce more similar signals than do distantly related species. Whether this similarity in acoustic signals is biologically relevant to animals is poorly understood. We conducted a playback experiment to measure the physical and vocal responses of male songbirds to the songs of both conspecific and allopatric-congeneric animals that...

Data from: Residual eDNA detection sensitivity assessed by quantitative real-time PCR in a river ecosystem

Katherine D. Balasingham, Ryan P. Walter & Daniel D. Heath
Several studies have demonstrated that environmental DNA (eDNA) can be used to detect the presence of aquatic species, days to weeks after the target species has been removed. However, most studies used eDNA analysis in lentic systems (ponds or lakes), or in controlled laboratory experiments. While eDNA degrades rapidly in all aquatic systems, it also undergoes dilution effects and physical destruction in flowing systems, complicating detection in rivers. However, some eDNA (i.e. residual eDNA) can...

Data from: Sperm allocation in relation to female size in a semelparous salmonid

Yuya Makiguchi, Masaki Ichimura, Takenori Kitayama, Yuuki Kawabata, Takashi Kitagawa, Takahito Kojima & Trevor E. Pitcher
To maximize reproductive success, males have to adaptively tailor their sperm expenditure in relation to the quality of potential mates because they require time to replenish their sperm supply for subsequent mating opportunities. Therefore, in mating contexts where males must choose among females in a short period of time, as is the case with semelparous species (which die after one intensely competitive short duration breeding season), selection on sperm allocation can be expected to be...

Data from: Sperm competition, but not major histocompatibility divergence, drives differential fertilization success between alternative reproductive tactics in Chinook salmon

Sarah J. Lehnert, Leila Helou, Trevor E. Pitcher, John W. Heath & Daniel D. Heath
Post-copulatory sexual selection processes, including sperm competition and cryptic female choice (CFC), can operate based on major histocompatibility (MH) genes. We investigated sperm competition between male alternative reproductive tactics [jack (sneaker) and hooknose (guard)] of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Using a full factorial design, we examined in vitro competitive fertilization success of paired jack and hooknose males at three time points after sperm activation (0, 15 and 60 s) to test for male competition, CFC...

Data from: Human-mediated and natural dispersal of an invasive fish in the eastern Great Lakes

Mattias L. Johansson, Bradley A. Dufour, Kyle W. Wellband, Lynda D. Corkum, Hugh J. MacIsaac & Daniel D. Heath
The globally invasive Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus) was introduced to the Great Lakes around 1990, spreading widely and becoming the dominant benthic fish in many areas. The speed and scope of this invasion is remarkable and calls into question conventional secondary spread models and scenarios. We utilized 9 microsatellites to identify large-scale genetic structure in Round Goby populations in the eastern Great Lakes, and assessed the role of colonization versus secondary transport and dispersal in...

Data from: A global perspective on the trophic geography of sharks

Christopher Stephen Bird, Ana Veríssimo, Sarah Magozzi, Kátya G. Abrantes, Alex Aguilar, Hassan Al-Reasi, Adam Barnett, Dana M. Bethea, Gérard Biais, Asuncion Borrell, Marc Bouchoucha, Mariah Boyle, Edward J. Brooks, Juerg Brunnschweiler, Paco Bustamante, Aaron Carlisle, Diana Catarino, Stéphane Caut, Yves Cherel, Tiphaine Chouvelon, Diana Churchill, Javier Ciancio, Julien Claes, Ana Colaço, Dean L. Courtney … & Clive N. Trueman
Sharks are a diverse group of mobile predators that forage across varied spatial scales and have the potential to influence food web dynamics. The ecological consequences of recent declines in shark biomass may extend across broader geographic ranges if shark taxa display common behavioural traits. By tracking the original site of photosynthetic fixation of carbon atoms that were ultimately assimilated into muscle tissues of 5,394 sharks from 114 species, we identify globally consistent biogeographic traits...

Data from: Hot temperatures during the dry season reduce survival of a resident tropical bird

Brad K. Woodworth, D. Ryan Norris, Brendan A. Graham, Zachary A. Kahn, Daniel J. Mennill & Bradley K. Woodworth
Understanding how climate change will shape species distributions in the future requires a functional understanding of the demographic responses of animals to their environment. For birds, most of our knowledge of how climate influences population vital rates stems from research in temperate environments, even though most of the Earth’s avian diversity is concentrated in the tropics. We evaluated effects of Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and local temperature and rainfall at multiple temporal scales on sex-specific...

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