92 Works

Snow bunting respirometry data

Ryan O'Connor, Audrey Le Pogam, Kevin Young, Francis Robitaille, Emily Choy, Oliver Love, Kyle Elliott, Anna Hargreaves, Dominique Berteaux, Andrew Tam & François Vézina
1. Arctic animals inhabit some of the coldest environments on the planet and have evolved physiological mechanisms for minimizing heat loss under extreme cold. However, the Arctic is warming faster than the global average and how well Arctic animals tolerate even moderately high air temperatures (Ta) is unknown. 2. Using flow-through respirometry we investigated the heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity of snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis; ≈ 31g, N = 42), a cold specialist, Arctic...

Data from: Environmental and genetic determinants of transcriptional plasticity in Chinook salmon

Kyle W. Wellband, John W. Heath & Daniel D. Heath
Variation in gene transcription is widely believed to be the mechanistic basis of phenotypically plastic traits; however, comparatively little is known about the inheritance patterns of transcriptional variation that would allow us to predict its response to selection. In addition, acclimation to different environmental conditions influences acute transcriptional responses to stress and it is unclear if these effects are heritable. To address these gaps in knowledge, we assayed levels of messenger RNA for 14 candidate...

Data from: Exploring seascape genetics and kinship in the reef sponge Stylissa carteri in the Red Sea

Emily C. Giles, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Nigel E. Hussey, Timothy Ravasi & Michael L. Berumen
A main goal of population geneticists is to study patterns of gene flow to gain a better understanding of the population structure in a given organism. To date most efforts have been focused on studying gene flow at either broad scales to identify barriers to gene flow and isolation by distance or at fine spatial scales in order to gain inferences regarding reproduction and local dispersal. Few studies have measured connectivity at multiple spatial scales...

Data from: Baseline glucocorticoids are drivers of body mass gain in a diving seabird

Holly L. Hennin, Alicia M. Wells-Berlin & Oliver P. Love
Life-history trade-offs are influenced by variation in individual state, with individuals in better condition often completing life-history stages with greater success. Although resource accrual significantly impacts key life-history decisions such as the timing of reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving resource accumulation. Baseline corticosterone (CORT, the primary avian glucocorticoid) mediates daily and seasonal energetics, responds to changes in food availability, and has been linked to foraging behavior, making it a strong potential...

Data from: Origins of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus): impacts of ice-olation and introgression

Ryan P. Walter, Denis Roy, Nigel E. Hussey, Björn Stelbrink, Kit M. Kovacs, Christian Lydersen, Bailey C. McMeans, Jörundur Svavarsson, Steven T. Kessel, Sebastian Biton Porsmoguer, Sharon Wildes, Cindy A. Tribuzio, Steven E. Campana, Stephen D. Petersen, R. Dean Grubbs, Daniel D. Heath, Kevin J. Hedges & Aaron T. Fisk
Herein, we use genetic data from 277 sleeper sharks to perform coalescent-based modeling to test the hypothesis of early Quaternary emergence of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) from ancestral sleeper sharks in the Canadian Arctic-Subarctic region. Our results show that morphologically cryptic somniosids S. microcephalus and Somniosus pacificus can be genetically distinguished using combined mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers. Our data confirm the presence of genetically admixed individuals in the Canadian Arctic and sub-Arctic, and...

Data from: Possible ballast water transfer of lionfish to the eastern Pacific Ocean

Hugh J. MacIsaac, Emma M. De Roy, Brian Leung, Alice Grgicak-Mannion & Gregory M. Ruiz
The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from...

Data from: Non-native species spread in a complex network: the interaction of global transport and local population dynamics determines invasion success

Hanno Seebens, Elizabeta Briski, Sara Ghabooli, Tamara Shiganova, Hugh MacIsaac & Bernd Blasius
The number of released individuals, which is a component of propagule pressure, is considered to be a major driver for the establishment success of non-native species. However, propagule pressure is often assumed to result from single or few release events, which does not necessarily apply to the frequent releases of invertebrates or other taxa through global transport. For instance, the high intensity of global shipping may result in frequent releases of large numbers of individuals,...

Data from: Social group signatures in hummingbird displays provide evidence of co-occurrence of vocal and visual learning

Marcelo Araya-Salas, Grace Smith-Vidaurre, Daniel J. Mennill, Paulina L. González-Gómez, James Cahill & Timothy F. Wright
Vocal learning, in which animals modify their vocalizations based on social experience, has evolved in several lineages of mammals and birds, including humans. Despite much attention, the question of how this key cognitive trait has evolved remains unanswered. The motor theory for the origin of vocal learning posits that neural centers specialized for vocal learning arose from adjacent areas in the brain devoted to general motor learning. One prediction of this hypothesis is that visual...

Data from: Seascape drivers of Macrocystis pyrifera population genetic structure in the northeast Pacific

Mattias L. Johansson, Filipe Alberto, Daniel C. Reed, Peter T. Raimondi, Nelson C. Coelho, Mary A. Young, Patrick T. Drake, Christopher A. Edwards, Kyle Cavanaugh, Jorge Assis, Lydia B. Ladah, Tom W. Bell, James A. Coyer, David A. Siegel & Ester A. Serrão
At small spatial and temporal scales, genetic differentiation is largely controlled by constraints on gene flow, while genetic diversity across a species' distribution is shaped on longer temporal and spatial scales. We assess the hypothesis that oceanographic transport and other seascape features explain different scales of genetic structure of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. We followed a hierarchical approach to perform a microsatellite-based analysis of genetic differentiation in Macrocystis across its distribution in the northeast Pacific....

Data from: The relationship between plumage colouration, problem-solving and learning performance in great tits Parus major

Laure Cauchard, Stéphanie M. Doucet, Neeltje J. Boogert, Bernard Angers & Blandine Doligez
Recent studies suggest that individuals with better problem-solving and/or learning performance have greater reproductive success, and that individuals may thus benefit from choosing mates based on these performances. However, directly assessing these performances in candidate mates could be difficult. Instead, the use of indirect cues related to problem-solving and/or learning performance, such as condition-dependent phenotypic traits, might be favored. We investigated whether problem-solving and learning performance on a novel non-foraging task correlated with sexually selected...

Data from: Two-current choice flumes for testing avoidance and preference in aquatic animals

Fredrik Jutfelt, Josefin Sundin, Graham D. Raby, Anna-Sara Krång & Timothy D. Clark
Aquatic chemical ecology is an important and growing field of research that involves understanding how organisms perceive and respond to chemical cues in their environment. Research assessing the preference or avoidance of a water source containing specific chemical cues has increased in popularity in recent years, and a variety of methods have been described in the scientific literature. Two-current choice flumes have seen the greatest increase in popularity, perhaps because of their potential to address...

Data from: Effect of temperature on oviposition behavior and egg load of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

Krystal Rae Hans, Rebecca LeBouthillier & Sherah L. VanLaerhoven
Making optimal oviposition decisions is especially important for female carrion colonizing insects whose larvae often depend on ephemeral resources. Oviposition can be influenced by a variety of factors, including temperature. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature on the oviposition behavior and egg load of two blow fly species native to southern Ontario: Phormia regina Meigen and Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Using fetal pig carcasses as an oviposition substrate,...

Data from: Predator-free space, functional responses and biological invasions

Daniel Barrios-O'Neill, Jaimie T. A. Dick, Mark C. Emmerson, Anthony Ricciardi & Hugh J. MacIsaac
Predator-prey interactions are mediated by the structural complexity of habitats, but disentangling the many facets of structure that contribute to this mediation remains elusive. In a world replete with altered landscapes and biological invasions, determining how structure mediates the interactions between predators and novel prey will contribute to our understanding of invasions and predator-prey dynamics in general. Here, using simplified experimental arenas, we manipulate predator-free space, whilst holding surface area and volume constant, to quantify...

Data from: Environmental DNA detection of rare and invasive fish species in two Great Lakes tributaries

Katherine D. Balasingham, Ryan P. Walter, Nicholas E. Mandrak & Daniel D. Heath
The extraction and characterization of DNA from aquatic environmental samples offers an alternative, non-invasive approach for the detection of rare species. Environmental DNA, coupled with PCR and next-generation sequencing (“metabarcoding”), has proven to be very sensitive for the detection of rare aquatic species. Our study used a custom designed group-specific primer set and next-generation sequencing for the detection of three species at risk; (Eastern Sand Darter, Ammocrypta pellucida; Northern Madtom, Noturus stigmosus; and Silver Shiner,...

Data from: Neutral genetic variation in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) affects brain-to-body trade-off and brain laterality

Mallory L. Wiper, Sarah J. Lehnert, Daniel D. Heath & Dennis M. Higgs
Low levels of heterozygosity can have detrimental effects on life history and growth characteristics of organisms but more subtle effects such as those on trade-offs of expensive tissues and morphological laterality, especially of the brain, have not been explicitly tested. The objective of the current study was to investigate how estimated differences in heterozygosity may potentially affect brain-to-body trade-offs and to explore how these heterozygosity differences may affect differential brain growth, focusing on directional asymmetry...

Data from: Higher rates of pre‐breeding condition gain positively impacts clutch size: a mechanistic test of the condition‐dependent individual optimization model

Holly L. Hennin, Cody J. Dey, Joel Bety, H. Grant Gilchrist, Pierre Legagneux, Tony D. Williams & Oliver P. Love
1. A combination of timing of and body condition (i.e., mass) at arrival on the breeding grounds interact to influence the optimal combination of the timing of reproduction and clutch size in migratory species. This relationship has been formalized by Rowe et al. in a condition-dependent individual optimization model (American Naturalist, 1994, 143, 689-722), which has been empirically tested and validated in avian species with a capital-based breeding strategy. 2. This model makes a key,...

Sympatry drives colour and song divergence in wood-warblers (Parulidae)

Richard Simpson, David Wilson, Allison F. Mistakidis, Daniel Mennill & Stéphanie M. Doucet
Closely related species often exhibit similarities in appearance and behaviour, yet when related species exist in sympatry, signals may diverge to enhance species recognition. Prior comparative studies provided mixed support for this hypothesis, but the relationship between sympatry and signal divergence is likely non-linear. Constraints on signal diversity may limit signal divergence, especially when large numbers of species are sympatric. We tested the effect of sympatric overlap on plumage colour and song divergence in wood-warblers...

Data from: Hierarchical analysis of genetic structure in the habitat-specialist Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida)

Robert Ginson, Ryan P. Walter, Nicholas E. Mandrak, Courtney L. Beneteau & Daniel D. Heath
Quantifying spatial genetic structure can reveal the relative influences of contemporary and historic factors underlying localized and regional patterns of genetic diversity and gene flow – important considerations for the development of effective conservation efforts. Using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci, we characterize genetic variation among populations across the range of the Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida), a small riverine percid that is highly dependent on sandy substrate microhabitats. We tested for fine scale, regional, and...

Data from: Immigrant song: males and females learn songs post-dispersal in a tropical bird

Brendan A. Graham, Daniel D. Heath, Ryan P. Walter & Daniel J. Mennill
A fundamental hypothesis about vocal learning is that young animals learn vocalizations in their natal areas and, following post-natal dispersal, they may introduce new types of vocalizations into their breeding areas. We tested this hypothesis in a tropical bird, the Rufous-and-white Wren (Thryophilus rufalbus), a species in which both sexes produce learned songs. We collected blood samples and acoustic recordings from 146 adult wrens from three populations in northwestern Costa Rica. We genotyped individuals at...

Data from: Post-spawning sexual selection in red and white Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

Sarah J. Lehnert, Daniel D. Heath, Robert H. Devlin & Trevor E. Pitcher
Post-copulatory processes, including sperm competition and cryptic female choice (CFC), can play important roles in the maintenance of polymorphisms. In Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), color morphs (red and white) exist due to genetic polymorphisms affecting carotenoid deposition in flesh, skin, and gametes. We investigated the role of post-spawning sexual selection in maintaining the polymorphism in a mixed population. First, we compared sperm velocity differences in water between morphs. Next, we measured color-based CFC via 2...

Data from: The adaptive capacity of lake food webs: from individuals to ecosystems

Bailey C. McMeans, Kevin S. McCann, Tyler D. Tunney, Aaron T. Fisk, Andrew M. Muir, Nigel Lester, Brian Shuter & Neil Rooney
Aquatic ecosystems support size structured food webs, wherein predator-prey body sizes span orders of magnitude. As such, these food webs are replete with extremely generalized feeding strategies, especially among the larger bodied, higher trophic position taxa. The movement scale of aquatic organisms also generally increases with body size and trophic position. Together, these body size, mobility, and foraging relationships suggest that organisms lower in the food web generate relatively distinct energetic pathways by feeding over...

Data from: Conservation implications of a lack of relationship between baseline glucocorticoids and fitness in a wild passerine

Christine L. Madliger & Oliver P. Love
The application of physiological measures to conservation monitoring has been gaining momentum and, while a suite of physiological traits are available to ascertain disturbance and condition in wildlife populations, glucocorticoids (i.e., GCs: cortisol and corticosterone) are the most heavily employed. The interpretation of GC levels as sensitive indicators of population change necessitates that GCs and metrics of population persistence are linked. However, the relationship between GCs and fitness may be highly context-dependent, changing direction, or...

Data from: Latitudinal and seasonal variation in space use by a large, predatory reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus

Molly E. Scott, Michelle R. Heupel, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Jordan K. Matley & Morgan S. Pratchett
1. Temperature directly affects the metabolic rate and resource requirements of ectothermic animals, which is likely to influence their movement and habitat use. Space use is a fundamental component of an animal’s ecology and the extent of an animal’s home range has consequences for individual distributions, community structure and ecosystem function. As ocean temperatures continue to rise as a result of global warming, determining the effects of temperature on space use and movement patterns of...

Rearing environment affects the genetic architecture and plasticity of DNA methylation in Chinook salmon

Clare Venney, Kyle Wellband & Daniel Heath
Genetic architecture and phenotypic plasticity are important considerations when studying trait variation within and among populations. Since environmental change can induce shifts in the genetic architecture and plasticity of traits, it is important to consider both genetic and environmental sources of phenotypic variation. While there is overwhelming evidence for environmental effects on phenotype, the underlying mechanisms are less clear. Variation in DNA methylation is a potential mechanism mediating environmental effects on phenotype due to its...

Divergence in plumage, voice, and morphology indicates speciation in Rufous-capped Warblers (Basileuterus rufifrons)

Alana Demko, Roberto Sosa-López, Richard Simpson, Stéphanie Doucet & Daniel Mennill
The biodiversity of the Neotropics is considerable, but it is likely underestimated owing to gaps in sampling effort and a focus on using morphological features of animals to determine species differences rather than divergence in their mating signals and behavior. Recent multi-trait analyses incorporating morphological, plumage, and vocal data have allowed for more accurate quantification of tropical biodiversity. We present a comprehensive study of morphological features, plumage, and vocalizations of the Neotropical resident Rufous-capped Warbler...

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