30 Works

Data from: Satellite tracking reveals novel migratory patterns and the importance of seamounts for endangered South Pacific humpback whales

Claire Garrigue, Phillip J. Clapham, Amy S. Kennedy & Alexandre N. Zerbini
The humpback whale population of New Caledonia appears to display a novel migratory pattern characterized by multiple directions, long migratory paths and frequent pauses over seamounts and other shallow geographical features. Using satellite-monitored radio tags, we tracked 34 whales for between 5 and 110 days, travelling between 270 and 8540 km on their southward migration from a breeding ground in southern New Caledonia. Mean migration speed was 3.53±2.22 km h−1, while movements within the breeding...

Data from: Mapping and expression of candidate genes for development rate in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Matthew C. Hale, John A. Colletti, Scott A. Gahr, Julie Scardina, Frank P. Thrower, Matthew Harmon, Megan Carter, Ruth B. Phillips, Gary H. Thorgaard, Caird E. Rexroad & Krista M. Nichols
Development rate has important implications for individual fitness and physiology. In salmonid fishes, development rate correlates with many traits later in life, including life history diversity, growth, and age and size at sexual maturation. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) for embryonic development rate has been detected on chromosome 5 across populations. However, few candidate genes have been identified within this region. In this study, we use gene mapping, gene expression,...

North Pacific harbor porpoise SNP and microhaplotype genotypes, mitochondrial control region haplotype sequences

Phillip Morin, Brenna Forester, Karin Forney, Carla Crossman, Brittany Hancock-Hanser, Kelly Robertson, Lance Barrett-Lennard, Robin Baird, John Calambokidis, Pat Gearin, Bradley Hanson, Cassie Schumacher, Timothy Harkins, Michael Fontaine, Barbara Taylor & Kim Parsons
Harbor porpoises in the North Pacific are found in coastal waters from southern California to Japan, but population structure is poorly known outside of a few local areas. We used multiplexed amplicon sequencing of 292 loci and genotyped clusters of SNPs as microhaplotypes (N=271 samples) in addition to mtDNA sequence data (N=413 samples), to examine the genetic structure from samples collected along the Pacific coast and inland waterways from California to southern British Columbia. We...

From pup to predator; generalized hidden Markov models reveal rapid development of movement strategies in a naïve long‐lived vertebrate

Matt I. D. Carter, Brett T. McClintock, Clare B. Embling, Kimberley A. Bennett, Dave Thompson & Debbie J. F. Russell
Rapid development of a successful foraging strategy is critical for juvenile survival, especially for naïve animals that receive no parental guidance. However, this process is poorly understood for many species. Although observation of early-life movements is increasingly possible with miniaturisation of animalborne telemetry devices, analytical limitations remain. Here, we tracked 29 recently-weaned, grey seal Halichoerus grypus pups from colonies in two geographically distinct regions of the United Kingdom. We analysed at-sea movements of pups throughout...

Integrated animal movement and spatial capture-recapture models: simulation, implementation, and inference

Beth Gardner, Brett McClintock, Sarah Converse & Nathan Hostetter
Over the last decade, spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models have become widespread for estimating demographic parameters in ecological studies. However, the underlying assumptions about animal movement and space use are often not realistic. This is a missed opportunity because ecological questions related to animal space use, habitat selection, and behavior cannot be addressed with most SCR models, despite the fact that the data collected in SCR studies -- individual animals observed at specific locations and times...

Data to replicate: Forecasting community reassembly using climate-linked spatio-temporal ecosystem models

James Thorson, Mayumi Arimitsu, Lewis Barnett, Wei Cheng, Lisa Eisner, Alan Haynie, Albert Hermann, Kirstin Holsman, David Kimmel, Mike Lomas, Jon Richar & Elizabeth Siddon
Ecosystems are increasingly impacted by human activities, altering linkages among physical and biological components. Spatial community reassembly occurs when these human impacts modify the spatial overlap between system components, and there is need for practical tools to forecast spatial community reassembly at landscape scales using monitoring data. To illustrate a new approach, we extend a generalization of empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, which involves a spatio-temporal ecosystem model that approximates coupled physical, biological, and human...

Data from: Potentially adaptive mitochondrial haplotypes as a tool to identify divergent nuclear loci

Michael R. Garvin, William D. Templin, Anthony J. Gharrett, Nick DeCovich, Christine M. Kondzela, Jeffrey R. Guyon & Megan V. McPhee
1. Genetic tools are commonly used for conservation and management of at-risk species. Individuals are often sampled from mixtures composed of many populations, which creates a need to assign individuals to their source. This can be problematic when the genetic divergence among source populations is weak but can be improved using adaptive genetic loci, which should show stronger levels of divergence. 2. We previously reported a signature of positive selection in the mitochondrial-encoded ND5 subunit...

Data from: Taxonomy-based hierarchical analysis of natural mortality: polar and sub-polar phocid seals

Irina S. Trukhanova, Paul B. Conn & Peter L. Boveng
Knowledge of life‐history parameters is frequently lacking in many species and populations, often because they are cryptic or logistically challenging to study, but also because life‐history parameters can be difficult to estimate with adequate precision. We suggest using hierarchical Bayesian analysis (HBA) to analyze variation in life‐history parameters among related species, with prior variance components representing shared taxonomy, phenotypic plasticity, and observation error. We develop such a framework to analyze U‐shaped natural mortality patterns typical...

Data from: Broad-scale trophic shift in the pelagic North Pacific revealed by an oceanic seabird

Peggy H. Ostrom, Anne E. Wiley, Helen F. James, Sam Rossman, William A. Walker, Elise F. Zipkin & Yoshito Chikaraishi
Human-induced ecological change in the open oceans appears to be accelerating. Fisheries, climate change and elevated nutrient inputs are variously blamed, at least in part, for altering oceanic ecosystems. Yet it is challenging to assess the extent of anthropogenic change in the open oceans, where historical records of ecological conditions are sparse, and the geographical scale is immense. We developed millennial-scale amino acid nitrogen isotope records preserved in ancient animal remains to understand changes in...

Data from: Host‐derived population genomics data provides insights into bacterial and diatom composition of the killer whale skin

Rebecca Hooper, Jaelle C. Brealey, Tom Van Der Valk, Antton Alberdi, John W. Durban, Holly Fearnbach, Kelly M. Robertson, Robin W. Baird, M. Bradley Hanson, Paul Wade, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Philip A. Morin, Jochen B. W. Wolf, Andrew D. Foote, Katerina Guschanski & Phillip A. Morin
Recent exploration into the interactions and relationship between hosts and their microbiota has revealed a connection between many aspects of the host's biology, health and associated micro‐organisms. Whereas amplicon sequencing has traditionally been used to characterize the microbiome, the increasing number of published population genomics data sets offers an underexploited opportunity to study microbial profiles from the host shotgun sequencing data. Here, we use sequence data originally generated from killer whale Orcinus orca skin biopsies...

Data from: Crossing to safety: Dispersal, colonization and mate choice in evolutionarily distinct populations of Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus.

Gregory O’Corry-Crowe, Tom Gelatt, Lorrie Rea, Carolina Bonin, Michael Rehberg & Greg O'Corry-Crowe
Population growth typically involves range expansion and establishment of new breeding sites, while the opposite occurs during declines. Although density-dependence is widely invoked in theoretical studies of emigration and colonization in expanding populations, few empirical studies have documented the mechanisms. Still fewer have documented the direction and mechanisms of individual transfer in declining populations. Here we screen large numbers of pups sampled on their natal rookeries for variation in mtDNA (n=1,106) and 16 microsatellite loci...

Supplemental material for Climate forcing by battered-and-breaded fillets and crab-flavored sticks from Alaska pollock

Brandi McKuin, Jordan Watson, Alan Haynie & J. Elliott Campbell
Detailed supplemental datasets: inputs and output information and emission factors for ingredients, non-ingredient materials, and embodied energy of pollock products.

Data and code for simulation study and case study in \"A Bayesian Dirichlet process community occupancy model to estimate community structure and species similarity\"

Rahel Sollmann, Mitchell Eaton, William Link, Paul Mulondo, Samuel Ayebare, Sarah Prinsloo & Devin Johnson
This dataset contains the R and JAGS code underlying the simulation study, as well as the data and code underlying the case study on bird occurrence in Murchison Falls National Park, presented in the paper "A Bayesian Dirichlet process community occupancy model to estimate community structure and species similarity".

Environmental DNA provides quantitative estimates of Pacific hake abundance and distribution in the open ocean.

Andrew Shelton, Ana Ramon-Laca, Abigail Wells, Julia Clemons, Dezhang Chu, Blake Feist, Ryan Kelly, Sandra Parker-Stetter, Rebecca Thomas, Krista Nichols & Linda Park
All species inevitably leave genetic traces in their environments, and the resulting environmental DNA (eDNA) reflects the species present in a given habitat. It remains unclear whether eDNA signals can provide quantitative metrics of abundance on which human livelihoods or conservation successes depend. Here, we report the results of a large eDNA ocean survey (spanning 86,000 km2 to depths of 500m) to understand the abundance and distribution of Pacific hake Merluccius productus, the target of...

Data from: Geographic and temporal dynamics of a global radiation and diversification in the killer whale

Phillip A. Morin, Kim M. Parsons, Frederick I. Archer, María C. Ávila-Arcos, Lance G. Barrett-Lennard, Luciano Dalla Rosa, Sebastián Duchêne, John W. Durban, Graeme M. Ellis, Steven H. Ferguson, John K. Ford, Michael J. Ford, Cristina Gabrilao, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Kristin Kaschner, Craig O. Matkin, Stephen D. Petersen, Kelly M. Robertson, Ingrid N. Visser, Paul R. Wade, Simon Y. W. Ho & Andrew D. Foote
Global climate change during the Late Pleistocene periodically encroached and then released habitat during the glacial cycles, causing range expansions and contractions in some species. These dynamics have played a major role in geographic radiations, diversification and speciation. We investigate these dynamics in the most widely distributed of marine mammals, the killer whale (Orcinus orca), using a global data set of over 450 samples. This marine top predator inhabits coastal and pelagic ecosystems ranging from...

Data from: Bias correction of bounded location errors in presence-only data

Trevor J. Hefley, Brian M. Brost & Mevin B. Hooten
1. Location error occurs when the true location is different than the reported location. Because habitat characteristics at the true location may be different than those at the reported location, ignoring location error may lead to unreliable inference concerning species-habitat relationships. 2. We explain how a transformation known in the spatial statistics literature as a change of support (COS) can be used to correct for location errors when the true locations are points with unknown...

Data from: Strong maternal fidelity and natal philopatry shape genetic structure in North Pacfic humpback whales

C. Scott Baker, Debbie Steel, John Calambokidis, Erin A. Falcone, Ursula Gozález-Peral, Jay Barlow, Alexander M. Burdin, Phillip J. Clapham, John K. B. Ford, Christine M. Gabriele, David Mattila, Janice M. Straley, Barbara L. Taylor, Jorge Urbán, Paul R. Wade, David Weller, Briana H. Witteveen, Manami Yamaguchi, CS Baker, BH Witteveen, E Falcone, BL Taylor, JKB Ford, AM Burdin, PJ Clapham … & JM Straley
We quantified the relative influence of maternal fidelity to feeding grounds and natal fidelity to breeding grounds in humpback whales based on an ocean-wide survey of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in the North Pacific. For 2,193 biopsy samples collected from whales in 10 feeding regions and 8 breeding regions during the winter and summer of 2004 to 2006, we first used microsatellite genotyping (average, 9.5 loci) to identify replicate samples. From sequences of the mtDNA...

Data from: A hidden Markov model to identify and adjust for selection bias: an example involving mixed migration strategies

John R. Fieberg & Paul B. Conn
An important assumption in observational studies is that sampled individuals are representative of some larger study population. Yet, this assumption is often unrealistic. Notable examples include online public-opinion polls, publication biases associated with statistically significant results, and in ecology, telemetry studies with significant habitat-induced probabilities of missed locations. This problem can be overcome by modeling selection probabilities simultaneously with other predictor–response relationships or by weighting observations by inverse selection probabilities. We illustrate the problem and...

Data from: Physiological, morphological, and ecological tradeoffs influence vertical habitat use of deep-diving toothed-whales in the Bahamas

Trevor W. Joyce, John W. Durban, Diane E. Claridge, Charlotte A. Dunn, Holly Fearnbach, Kim M. Parsons, Russel D. Andrews & Lisa T. Ballance
Dive capacity among toothed whales (suborder: Odontoceti) has been shown to generally increase with body mass in a relationship closely linked to the allometric scaling of metabolic rates. However, two odontocete species tagged in this study, the Blainville’s beaked whale Mesoplodon densirostris and the Cuvier’s beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris, confounded expectations of a simple allometric relationship, with exceptionally long (mean: 46.1 min & 65.4 min) and deep dives (mean: 1129 m & 1179 m), and...

Data from: Spatially structured statistical network models for landscape genetics

Erin E. Peterson, Ephraim M. Hanks, Mevin B. Hooten, Jay M. Ver Hoef & Marie-Josée Fortin
A basic understanding of how the landscape impedes, or creates resistance to, the dispersal of organisms and hence gene flow is paramount for successful conservation science and management. Spatially structured ecological networks are often used to represent spatial landscape-genetic relationships, where nodes represent individuals or populations and resistance to movement is represented using non-binary edge weights. Weights are typically assigned or estimated by the user, rather than observed, and validating such weights is challenging. We...

Data from: Water, water everywhere: environmental DNA can unlock population structure in elusive marine species

Kim M. Parsons, Meredith Everett, Marilyn Dahlheim & Linda Park
Determining management units for natural populations is critical for effective conservation and management. However, collecting the requisite tissue samples for population genetic analyses remains the primary limiting factor for a number of marine species. The harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), one of the smallest cetaceans in the Northern Hemisphere, is a primary example. These elusive, highly mobile small animals confound traditional approaches of collecting tissue samples for genetic analyses, yet their nearshore habitat makes them highly...

Data from: Long-lived marine species may be resilient to environmental variability through a temporal portfolio effect

Jacek Maselko, Kimberly Andrews & Paul Hohenlohe
Maintenance of a portfolio of adaptive alleles may provide resilience of populations to natural environmental variability. We used Pacific ocean perch (POP; Sebastes alutus) to test for the maintenance of adaptive variation across overlapping generations. POP are a long-lived species characterized by widespread larval dispersal in their first year and a longevity of over 100 years. In order to understand how early marine dispersal affects POP survival and population structure, we used Restriction Site Associated...

Genetic structure and dispersal in peripheral populations of a marine fish (Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus) and their importance for adaptation to climate change

Mary Fisher, Thomas Helser, Sukyung Kang, Wooseok Gwak, Michael Canino & Lorenz Hauser
Small and isolated peripheral populations, which are often remnants of glacial refugia, offer an opportunity to determine the magnitude and direction of fine-scale connectivity in high gene flow marine species. When located at the equatorial edge of a species’ range, these populations may also harbor genetic diversity related to survival and reproduction at higher temperatures, a critical resource for marine species facing warming ocean temperatures. Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), a marine fish in the North...

Data from: Detecting signals of chronic shedding to explain pathogen persistence: Leptospira interrogans in California sea lions

Michael G. Buhnerkempe, Katherine C. Prager, Christopher C. Strelioff, Denise J. Greig, Jeff L. Laake, Sharon R. Melin, Robert L. DeLong, Frances M. D. Gulland & James O. Lloyd-Smith
Identifying mechanisms driving pathogen persistence is a vital component of wildlife disease ecology and control. Asymptomatic, chronically infected individuals are an oft-cited potential reservoir of infection but demonstrations of the importance of chronic shedding to pathogen persistence at the population level remain scarce. Studying chronic shedding using commonly collected disease data is hampered by numerous challenges, including short-term surveillance that focuses on single epidemics and acutely ill individuals, the subtle dynamical influence of chronic shedding...

Data from: Spatio-temporal models reveal subtle changes to demersal communities following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

Andrew O. Shelton, Mary E. Hunsicker, Eric J. Ward, Blake E. Feist, Rachael Blake, Colette L. Ward, Benjamin C. Williams, Janet T. Duffy-Anderson, Anne B. Hollowed & Alan C. Haynie
Toxic pollutants such as crude oil have direct negative effects for a wide array of marine life. While mortality from acute exposure to oil is obvious, sub-lethal consequences of exposure to petroleum derivatives for growth and reproduction are less evident and sub-lethal effects in fish populations are obscured by natural environmental variation, fishing, and measurement error. We use fisheries independent surveys in the Gulf of Alaska to examine the consequences of the 1989 Exxon Valdez...

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