91 Works

Data from: Early evolutionary trends in ammonoid embryonic development

Kenneth De Baets, Christian Klug, Dieter Korn & Neil H. Landman
During the Devonian Nekton Revolution, ammonoids show a progressive coiling of their shell just like many other pelagic mollusk groups. These now extinct, externally shelled cephalopods derived from bactritoid cephalopods with a straight shell in the Early Devonian. During the Devonian, evolutionary trends toward tighter coiling and a size reduction occurred in ammonoid embryonic shells. In at least three lineages, descendants with a closed umbilicus evolved convergently from forms with an opening in the first...

Data from: Multivariate female preference tests reveal latent perceptual biases

David A. Gray, Eileen Gabel, Thomas Blankers & R. Matthias Hennig
The question of why males of many species produce elaborate mating displays has now been largely resolved: females prefer to mate with males that produce such displays. However, the question of why females prefer such displays has been controversial, with an emerging consensus that such displays often provide information to females about the direct fitness benefits that males provide to females and/or the indirect fitness benefits provided to offspring. Alternative explanations, such as production of...

Data from: Operating length and velocity of human M. vastus lateralis fascicles during vertical jumping

Maria Elissavet Nikolaidou, Robert Marzilger, Sebastian Bohm, Falk Mersmann & Adamantios Arampatzis
Humans achieve greater jump height during a counter-movement jump (CMJ) than in a squat jump (SJ). However, the crucial difference is the mean mechanical power output during the propulsion phase, which could be determined by intrinsic neuro-muscular mechanisms for power production. We measured M. vastus lateralis (VL) fascicle length changes and activation patterns and assessed the force–length, force–velocity and power–velocity potentials during the jumps. Compared with the SJ, the VL fascicles operated on a more...

Data from: Conservation of multivariate female preference functions and preference mechanisms in three species of trilling field crickets

Thomas Blankers, R. Matthias Hennig & David A. Gray
Divergence in mate recognition systems among closely related species is an important contributor to assortative mating and reproductive isolation. Here we examine divergence in male song traits and female preference functions in three cricket species with songs consisting of long trills. The shape of female preference functions appears to be mostly conserved across species and follows the predictions from a recent model for song recognition. Multivariate preference profiles, combining the pulse and trill parameters, demonstrate...

Data from: The evolutionary legacy of size-selective harvesting extends from genes to populations

Silva Uusi-Heikkilä, Andrew R. Whiteley, Anna Kuparinen, Shuichi Matsumura, Paul A. Venturelli, Christian Wolter, Jon Slate, Craig R. Primmer, Thomas Meinelt, Shaun S. Killen, David Bierbach, Giovanni Polverino, Arne Ludwig & Robert Arlinghaus
Size-selective harvesting is assumed to alter life histories of exploited fish populations, thereby negatively affecting population productivity, recovery, and yield. However, demonstrating that fisheries-induced phenotypic changes in the wild are at least partly genetically determined has proved notoriously difficult. Moreover, the population-level consequences of fisheries-induced evolution are still being controversially discussed. Using an experimental approach, we found that five generations of size-selective harvesting altered the life histories and behavior, but not the metabolic rate, of...

Data from: Consistent size-independent harvest selection on fish body shape in two recreationally exploited marine species

Josep Alós, Miquel Palmer, Marta Linde-Medina & Robert Arlinghaus
Harvesting wild animals may exert size-independent selection pressures on a range of morphological, life history, and behavioral traits. Most work so far has focused on selection pressures on life history traits and body size as morphological trait. We studied here how recreational fishing selects for morphological traits related to body shape, which may correlate with underlying swimming behavior. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we found consistent recreational fishing-induced selection pressures on body shape in two recreationally...

Data from: What are the prospects for citizen science in agriculture? Evidence from three continents on motivation and mobile telephone use of resource-poor farmers

Eskender Beza, Jonathan Steinke, Jacob Van Etten, Pytrik Reidsma, Carlo Fadda, Sarika Mittra, Prem Mathur & Lammert Kooistra
As the sustainability of agricultural citizen science projects depends on volunteer farmers who contribute their time, energy and skills, understanding their motivation is important to attract and retain participants in citizen science projects. The objectives of this study were to assess 1) farmers' motivations to participate as citizen scientists and 2) farmers' mobile telephone usage. Building on motivational factors identified from previous citizen science studies, a questionnaire based methodology was developed which allowed the analysis...

Data from: Assessing the relationship between illegal hunting of ungulates, wild prey occurrence and livestock depredation rate by large carnivores

Mahmood Soofi, Arash Ghoddousi, Thorsten Zeppenfeld, Shirko Shokri, Mobin Soufi, Lukas Egli, Abbas Jafari, Mohsen Ahmadpour, Ali Qashqaei, Taher Ghadirian, Marc Filla, Bahram Kiabi, Niko Balkenhol, Matthias Waltert & Igor Khorozyan
1. Illegal hunting of ungulates can reduce the prey base of carnivores, which can increase human-carnivore conflict (HCC) through livestock depredation. However, the relationship between ungulate poaching, wild prey abundance and livestock depredation has rarely been empirically studied. 2. We surveyed 18 sites across the Hyrcanian forest in northern Iran; a global biodiversity hotspot under pressure of illegal hunting of ungulates, prey depletion, livestock grazing and HCC. We conducted three field surveys across 1204 km...

Individual and collective encoding of risk in animal groups

Matthew M.G. Sosna, Colin R. Twomey, Joseph Bak-Coleman, Winnie Poel, Bryan C. Daniels, Pawel Romanczuk & Iain D. Couzin
The need to make fast decisions under risky and uncertain conditions is a widespread problem in the natural world. While there has been extensive work on how individual organisms dynamically modify their behavior to respond appropriately to changing environmental conditions (and how this is encoded in the brain), we know remarkably little about the corresponding aspects of collective information processing in animal groups. For example, many groups appear to show increased “sensitivity” in the presence...

Phylogenomic resolution of sea spider diversification through integration of multiple data classes

Jesus Ballesteros, Emily Setton, Carlos Santibáñez-López, Claudia Arango, Georg Brenneis, Saskia Brix, Kevin Corbett, Esperanza Cano-Sánchez, Merai Dandouch, Geoffrey Dilly, Marc Eleaume, Guilherme Gainett, Cyril Gallut, Sean McAtee, Lauren McIntyre, Randy Moran, Pablo López-González, Gerhard Scholtz, Clay Williamson, Arthur Woods, Jakob Zehms, Ward Wheeler & Prashant Sharma
Despite significant advances in invertebrate phylogenomics over the past decade, the higher-level phylogeny of Pycnogonida (sea spiders) remains elusive. Due to the inaccessibility of some small-bodied lineages, few phylogenetic studies have sampled all sea spider families. Previous efforts based on a handful of genes have yielded unstable tree topologies. Here, we inferred the relationships of 89 sea spider species using targeted capture of the mitochondrial genome, 56 conserved exons, 101 ultraconserved elements, and three nuclear...

Rear-edge populations are important for understanding climate change risk and adaptation potential of threatened species

Tobias Kuemmerle, Nader Habibzadeh, Benjamin Bleyhl & Arash Ghoddousi
Climate change disproportionately threatens alpine species, by reducing available habitat and by isolating their populations. These pressures are particularly relevant for rear-edge populations, which typically occupy more marginal habitat compared to populations at the core of species’ ranges. We studied Caucasian grouse Lyrurus mlokosiewiczi in the Caucasus ecoregion, a global biodiversity hotspot where this species is endemic, to understand potential climate change impacts on the species. Specifically, we assessed how climate change impacts rear-edge populations...

Satellite-based habitat monitoring reveals long-term dynamics of deer habitat in response to forest disturbances

Julian Oeser, Marco Heurich, Cornelius Senf, Dirk Pflugmacher & Tobias Kuemmerle
Disturbances play a key role in driving forest ecosystem dynamics, but how disturbances shape wildlife habitat across space and time often remains unclear. A major reason for this is a lack of information about changes in habitat suitability across large areas and longer time periods. Here, we use a novel approach based on Landsat satellite image time series to map seasonal habitat suitability annually from 1986 to 2017. Our approach involves characterizing forest disturbance dynamics...

Untangling the imprints of climate, geography and land use/cover on bird diversity in the South American Gran Chaco

Gabriela Názaro, Daniel Dos Santos, Ricardo Torres, Matthias Baumann & Pedro Blendinger
Aim: To evaluate the structure of bird communities throughout the South American Gran Chaco determining the effects of climate, geography, and land use/land cover in bird beta diversity, as well as to understand the beta-diversity processes underlying land-use changes across broad spatial ranges. Taxon: Birds. Location: South American Gran Chaco. Methods: We constructed a site-by-species matrix with occurrence probabilities of 293 bird species across 2669 spatial units tiling completely the study area. Based on this...

Sexual selection on bushcricket genitalia operates in a mosaic pattern

Nadja Wulff & Gerlind Lehmann
In most species with internal fertilization, male genitalia evolve faster than other morphological structures. This holds true for genital titillators, which are used exclusively during mating in several bushcricket subfamilies. Several theories have been proposed for the sexual selection forces driving the evolution of internal genitalia, especially sperm competition, sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) and cryptic female choice (CFC). However, it is unclear whether the evolution of genitalia can be described with a single hypothesis or...

Data from: Transcriptome profiling of ontogeny in the acridid grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus

Emma L. Berdan, Jonas Finck, Paul R. Johnston, Isabelle Waurick, Camila J. Mazzoni & Frieder Mayer
Acridid grasshoppers (Orthoptera:Acrididae) are widely used model organisms for developmental, evolutionary, and neurobiological research. Although there has been recent influx of orthopteran transcriptomic resources, many use pooled ontogenetic stages obscuring information about changes in gene expression during development. Here we developed a de novo transcriptome spanning 7 stages in the life cycle of the acridid grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus. Samples from different stages encompassing embryonic development through adults were used for transcriptomic profiling, revealing patterns of...

Data from: Demography and selection shape transcriptomic divergence in field crickets

Thomas Blankers, Sibelle Torres Vilaça, Isabelle Waurick, David A. Gray, R. Matthias Hennig, Camilla J. Mazzoni, Frieder Mayer & Emma L. Berdan
Gene flow, demography, and selection can result in similar patterns of genomic variation and disentangling their effects is key to understanding speciation. Here, we assess transcriptomic variation to unravel the evolutionary history of Gryllus rubens and G. texensis, cryptic field cricket species with highly divergent mating behavior. We infer their demographic history and screen their transcriptomes for footprints of selection in the context of the inferred demography. We find strong support for a long history...

Data from: “Darwin’s corollary” and cytoplasmic incompatibility induced by Cardinium may contribute to speciation in Encarsia wasps (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)

Marco Gebiola, Suzanne E. Kelly, Peter Hammerstein, Massimo Giorgini, Molly S. Hunter & Martha S. Hunter
The potential importance of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) – inducing bacterial symbionts in speciation of their arthropod hosts has been debated. Theoretical advances have led to a consensus that a role is plausible when CI is combined with other isolating barriers. However, the insect model systems Nasonia and Drosophila are the only two experimental examples documented. Here we analyzed the components of reproductive isolation between the parasitoid wasp Encarsia suzannae, which is infected by the CI-inducing...

Data from: Age estimates for an adaptive lake fish radiation, its mitochondrial introgression, and an unexpected sister group: Sailfin silversides of the Malili Lakes system in Sulawesi

Björn Stelbrink, Isabella Stöger, Renny K. Hadiaty, Ulrich K. Schliewen & Fabian Herder
Background: The Malili Lakes system in central Sulawesi (Indonesia) is a hotspot of freshwater biodiversity in the Wallacea, characterized by endemic species flocks like the sailfin silversides (Teleostei: Atherinomorpha: Telmatherinidae) radiation. Phylogenetic reconstructions of these freshwater fishes have previously revealed two Lake Matano Telmatherina lineages (sharpfins and roundfins) forming an ancient monophyletic group, which is however masked by introgressive hybridization of sharpfins with riverine populations. The present study uses mitochondrial data, newly included taxa, and...

Data from: Population differentiation of zander (Sander lucioperca, Linnaeus, 1758) across native and newly colonized ranges suggests increasing admixture in the course of an invasion

Erik Eschbach, Arne W. Nolte, Klaus Kohlmann, Petra Kersten, Robert Arlinghaus & Jochem Kail
In addition to ecological factors, evolutionary processes can determine the invasion success of a species. In particular, genetic admixture has the potential to induce rapid evolutionary change, which can result from natural or human-assisted secondary contact between differentiated populations. We studied the recent range expansion of zander in Germany focusing on the interplay between invasion and genetic admixture. Historically, the rivers Elbe and Danube harboured the most north-western source populations from which a north-westward range...

Data from: Exploring the hidden landscape of female preferences for complex signals

Michael S. Reichert, Jonas Finck & Bernhard Ronacher
A major challenge in evolutionary biology is explaining the origins of complex phenotypic diversity. In animal communication, complex signals may evolve from simpler signals because novel signal elements exploit preexisting biases in receivers’ sensory systems. Investigating the shape of female preference functions for novel signal characteristics is a powerful, but underutilized, method to describe the adaptive landscape potentially guiding complex signal evolution. We measured female preference functions for characteristics of acoustic appendages added to male...

Data from: Implications of dimeric activation of PDE6 for rod phototransduction

Trevor D. Lamb, Martin Heck & Timothy W. Kraft
We examine the implications of a recent report providing evidence that two transducins must bind to the rod phosphodiesterase to elicit significant hydrolytic activity. To predict the rod photoreceptor's electrical response, we use numerical simulation of the two-dimensional diffusional contact of interacting molecules at the surface of the disc membrane, and then we use the simulated PDE activity as the driving function for the downstream reaction cascade. The results account for a number of aspects...

Data from: Phosphatidylthreonine and lipid-mediated control of parasite virulence

Ruben D. Arroyo-Olarte, Jos F. Brouwers, Arunakar Kuchipudi, J. Bernd Helms, Aindrila Biswas, Ildiko R. Dunay, Richard Lucius & Nishith Gupta
The major membrane phospholipid classes, described thus far, include phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), and phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns). Here, we demonstrate the natural occurrence and genetic origin of an exclusive and rather abundant lipid, phosphatidylthreonine (PtdThr), in a common eukaryotic model parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. The parasite expresses a novel enzyme PtdThr synthase (TgPTS) to produce this lipid in its endoplasmic reticulum. Genetic disruption of TgPTS abrogates de novo synthesis of PtdThr and impairs the lytic...

Data from: Physical linkage and mate preference generate linkage disequilibrium for behavioral isolation in two parapatric crickets

Thomas Blankers, Emma L. Berdan, Ralf Matthias Hennig & Frieder Mayer
Behavioral isolation is a potent barrier to gene flow and a source of striking diversity in the animal kingdom. However, it remains unclear if the linkage disequilibrium (LD) between sex-specific traits required for behavioral isolation results mostly from physical linkage between signal and preference loci or from directional mate preferences. Here, we test this in the field crickets Gryllus rubens and G. texensis. These closely related species diverged with gene flow and have strongly diverged...

Data from: Modeling avian biodiversity using raw, unclassified satellite imagery

Véronique St-Louis, Anna M. Pidgeon, Tobias Kuemmerle, Ruth Sonnenschein, Volker C. Radeloff, Murray K. Clayton, Brian A. Locke, Dallas Bash & Patrick Hostert
Applications of remote sensing for biodiversity conservation typically rely on image classifications that do not capture variability within coarse land cover classes. Here, we compare two measures derived from unclassified remotely sensed data, a measure of habitat heterogeneity and a measure of habitat composition, for explaining bird species richness and the spatial distribution of 10 species in a semi-arid landscape of New Mexico. We surveyed bird abundance from 1996 to 1998 at 42 plots located...

Data from: Breeding bird species diversity across gradients of land use from forest to agriculture in Europe

Matti J. Koivula, Dan E. Chamberlain, Robert J. Fuller, Stephen C. F. Palmer, Attila Bankovics, Fintan Bracken, Tom Bolger, Eduardo De Juana, Marc Montadert, Renato Neves, Rui Rufino, Angel Sallent, Luís Lopes Da Silva, Pedro J. Leitão, Manfred Steffen & Allan D. Watt
Loss, fragmentation and decreasing quality of habitats have been proposed as major threats to biodiversity world-wide, but relatively little is known about biodiversity responses to multiple pressures, particularly at very large spatial scales. We evaluated the relative contributions of four landscape variables (habitat cover, diversity, fragmentation and productivity) in determining different components of avian diversity across Europe. We sampled breeding birds in multiple 1-km2 landscapes, from high forest cover to intensive agricultural land, in eight...

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  • Humboldt University of Berlin
  • Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
  • Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries
  • Museum für Naturkunde
  • University of Zurich
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • Berlin Brandenburg Institute of Advanced Biodiversity Research
  • University of Potsdam
  • Freie Universität Berlin
  • University of Bristol