14 Works

Phylogenomic resolution of sea spider diversification through integration of multiple data classes

Jesus Ballesteros, Emily Setton, Carlos Santibáñez-López, Claudia Arango, Georg Brenneis, Saskia Brix, Kevin Corbett, Esperanza Cano-Sánchez, Merai Dandouch, Geoffrey Dilly, Marc Eleaume, Guilherme Gainett, Cyril Gallut, Sean McAtee, Lauren McIntyre, Randy Moran, Pablo López-González, Gerhard Scholtz, Clay Williamson, Arthur Woods, Jakob Zehms, Ward Wheeler & Prashant Sharma
Despite significant advances in invertebrate phylogenomics over the past decade, the higher-level phylogeny of Pycnogonida (sea spiders) remains elusive. Due to the inaccessibility of some small-bodied lineages, few phylogenetic studies have sampled all sea spider families. Previous efforts based on a handful of genes have yielded unstable tree topologies. Here, we inferred the relationships of 89 sea spider species using targeted capture of the mitochondrial genome, 56 conserved exons, 101 ultraconserved elements, and three nuclear...

Satellite-based habitat monitoring reveals long-term dynamics of deer habitat in response to forest disturbances

Julian Oeser, Marco Heurich, Cornelius Senf, Dirk Pflugmacher & Tobias Kuemmerle
Disturbances play a key role in driving forest ecosystem dynamics, but how disturbances shape wildlife habitat across space and time often remains unclear. A major reason for this is a lack of information about changes in habitat suitability across large areas and longer time periods. Here, we use a novel approach based on Landsat satellite image time series to map seasonal habitat suitability annually from 1986 to 2017. Our approach involves characterizing forest disturbance dynamics...

Untangling the imprints of climate, geography and land use/cover on bird diversity in the South American Gran Chaco

Gabriela Názaro, Daniel Dos Santos, Ricardo Torres, Matthias Baumann & Pedro Blendinger
Aim: To evaluate the structure of bird communities throughout the South American Gran Chaco determining the effects of climate, geography, and land use/land cover in bird beta diversity, as well as to understand the beta-diversity processes underlying land-use changes across broad spatial ranges. Taxon: Birds. Location: South American Gran Chaco. Methods: We constructed a site-by-species matrix with occurrence probabilities of 293 bird species across 2669 spatial units tiling completely the study area. Based on this...

Sexual selection on bushcricket genitalia operates in a mosaic pattern

Nadja Wulff & Gerlind Lehmann
In most species with internal fertilization, male genitalia evolve faster than other morphological structures. This holds true for genital titillators, which are used exclusively during mating in several bushcricket subfamilies. Several theories have been proposed for the sexual selection forces driving the evolution of internal genitalia, especially sperm competition, sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) and cryptic female choice (CFC). However, it is unclear whether the evolution of genitalia can be described with a single hypothesis or...

Datasets related to the paper 'Identifying priority areas for restoring mountain ungulates in the Caucasus ecoregion'

Tobias Kuemmerle
Three datasets are contained here: 1. The final habitat suitability map for bezoar goats (Capra aegagrus aegagrus) for the Caucasus ecoregion (in TIFF format) 2. The table of occurence location used for generating this map (in CSV format) 3. The habitat patches derived from the habitat suitability map and their priority ranking according to three conservation scenarios (in SHP format)

Data from: Increasing synergistic effects of habitat destruction and hunting on mammals over three decades in the Gran Chaco

Alfredo Romero-Muñoz, Ana Benítez-López, Damaris Zurell, Matthias Baumann, Micaela Camino, Julieta Decarre, Hugo Del Castillo, Anthony Giordano, Bibiana Gómez-Valencia, Christian Levers, Andrew Noss, Veronica Quiroga, Jeffrey Thompson, Ricardo Torres, Marianela Velilla, Andrea Weiler & Tobias Kuemmerle
Habitat destruction and overexploitation are the main threats to biodiversity and where they co-occur, their combined impact is often larger than their individual one. Yet, detailed knowledge of the spatial footprints of these threats is lacking, including where they overlap and how they change over time. These knowledge gaps are real barriers for effective conservation planning. Here, we develop a novel approach to reconstruct the individual and combined footprints of both threats over time. We...

Data from: How do habitat amount and habitat fragmentation drive time-delayed responses of biodiversity to land-use change?

Asunción Semper-Pascual
Land-use change is a root cause of the extinction crisis, but links between habitat change and biodiversity loss are not fully understood. While there is evidence that habitat loss is an important extinction driver, the relevance of habitat fragmentation remains debated. Moreover, while time-delays of biodiversity responses to habitat transformation are well-documented, time-delayed effects have been ignored in the habitat loss vs. fragmentation debate. Here, using a hierarchical Bayesian multi- species occupancy framework, we systematically...

Trade-offs between biodiversity and agriculture are moving targets in dynamic landscapes

Leandro Macchi, Julieta Decarre, Andrea Goijman, Matias Mastrangelo, Pedro Blendinger, Gregorio Gavier-Pizarro, Francisco Murray, Maria Piquer-Rodriguez, Asuncion Semper-Pascual & Tobias Kuemmerle
Understanding how biodiversity responds to intensifying agriculture is critical to mitigating the trade-offs between them. These trade-offs are particularly strong in tropical and subtropical deforestation frontiers, yet it remains unclear how changing landscape context in such frontiers alters agriculture-biodiversity trade-offs. We focus on the Argentinean Chaco, a global deforestation hotspot, to explore how landscape context shapes trade-off curves between agricultural intensity and avian biodiversity. We use a space-for-time approach and integrate a large field dataset...

PO2 of the metathoracic ganglion in response to progressive hypoxia in an insect

Jon Harrison, Stefan Hetz & Wolfgang Waser
Mammals regulate their brain tissue PO2 tightly, and only small changes in brain PO2 are required to elicit compensatory ventilation. However, unlike the flow-through cardiovascular system of vertebrates, insect tissues exchange gases through blind-ended tracheoles that may involve a more prominent role for diffusive gas exchange. We tested the effect of progressive hypoxia on ventilation and the PO2 of the metathoracic ganglion (neural site of control of ventilation) using micro-electrodes in the American locust, Schistocerca...

Engineering crack tortuosity in polymer-polymer composites through ordered pores

Megan Valentine, Craig Hawker, Luke Gockowski, Neil Dolinski, Roberto Chavez, Noy Cohen, Fabian Eisenreich, Stefan Hecht & Robert McMeeking
Multimaterial additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) is an enabling tool for exploring structure-property relationships. In this work, a recently developed multimaterial printing approach, solution mask liquid lithography (SMaLL), is used to produce polymer-polymer composites inspired by tough, hierarchical structures found in nature. Triphasic composites comprised of a hard exterior “cuticle”, a soft interior “core,” and controlled pore size/structure are printed in a single step and their mechanical properties evaluated. The results of these tests demonstrate...

Data from: Declining human pressure and opportunities for rewilding in the steppes of Eurasia

Matthias Baumann, Johannes Kamp, Florian Pötzschner, Benjamin Bleyhl, Andrey Dara, Brett Hankerson, Alexander Prishchepov, Florian Schierhorn, Daniel Müller, Norbert Hölzel, Roland Krämer, Ruslan Urazaliyev & Tobias Kuemmerle
Large and ecologically functioning steppe complexes have been lost historically across the globe, but recent land-use changes may allow the reversal of this trend in some regions. We aimed to develop and map indicators of changing human influence using satellite imagery and historical maps, and to use these indicators to identify areas for broad-scale steppe rewilding. Location Eurasian Steppes of Kazakhstan. Methods We mapped decreasing human influence indicated by cropland abandonment, declining grazing pressure, and...

A practical approach to measuring the biodiversity impacts of land conversion

América P. Durán, Jonathan M. H. Green, Christopher D. West, Piero Visconti, Neil Burgess, Malika Virah-Sawmy & Andrew Balmford
1. Further progress in reducing biodiversity loss relies on the improved quantification of the connections between drivers of habitat loss and subsequent biodiversity impacts. To this end, biodiversity impact metrics should be able to report linked trends in specific human activities and changes in biodiversity state, accounting for both the ecology of different species, and the cumulative effects of historical habitat losses. These characteristics are not currently captured within a single metric. 2. Here we...

Data from: Widespread and major losses in multiple ecosystem services as a result of agricultural expansion in the Argentine Chaco

María Paula Barral, Sebastián Villarino, Levers Christian, Baumann Matthias, Tobias Kuemmerle & Matias Mastrangelo
Where agriculture expands into tropical and subtropical forests, social-ecological impacts are typically strong. However, where and how frontier development impacts on ecosystem functioning and services is often unclear, including which services trade off against agricultural production. This constitutes a major barrier towards planning for more sustainable outcomes in deforestation frontiers. Here, we assessed spatiotemporal change in multiple ecosystem services in the Argentine Chaco, a global deforestation hotspot. We modelled and mapped five ecosystem functions (i.e.,...

Morphological convergence obscures functional diversity in sabre-toothed carnivores

Stephan Lautenschlager, Stephan Lautenschlager, Borja Figueirido, Daniel Cashmore, Eva-Maria Bendel & Thomas Stubbs
The acquisition of elongated, sabre-like canines in multiple vertebrate clades during the last 265 million years represents a remarkable example for convergent evolution. Due to striking superficial similarities in the cranial skeleton, the same or similar skull and jaw functions have been inferred for sabre-toothed species and interpreted as an adaptation to subdue large-bodied prey. However, although some sabre-tooth lineages have been classified into different ecomorphs (dirk-tooths and scimitar-tooths) the functional diversity within and between...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    14

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    14

Affiliations

  • Humboldt University of Berlin
    14
  • National Agricultural Technology Institute
    2
  • Centro Científico Tecnológico Mar del Plata
    2
  • University of Montana
    1
  • University of Hamburg
    1
  • University of Münster
    1
  • University of Greifswald
    1
  • University of Cambridge
    1
  • Radboud University Nijmegen
    1
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
    1