Data from: Skeletal microstructure of Stenopterygius quadriscissus (Reptilia, Ichthyosauria) from the Posidonienschiefer (Posidonia Shale, Lower Jurassic) of GermanyKatherine L. Anderson, Patrick S. Druckenmiller, Gregory M. Erickson & Erin E. Maxwell
Ichthyosaurians (Ichthyosauria) are a major clade of secondarily aquatic marine tetrapods that occupied several major predatory niches during the Mesozoic Era. Multiple lines of evidence including isotopic, body shape and swimming modality analyses suggest they exhibited elevated growth and metabolic rates, and body temperatures. However, applications of osteohistological methods to test hypotheses regarding their physiology are few. Previous studies focused on the humeri, vertebrae and ribs from a small number of taxa. Here, we use...
Data from: Spatial variability in size at maturity of golden king crab (Lithodes aequispinus) and implications for fisheries managementAndrew P. Olson, Chris E. Siddon & Ginny L. Eckert
Many crab fisheries around the world are managed by size, sex and season, where males are given at least one opportunity to reproduce before being harvested. Golden king crab (Lithodes aequispinus) supports a commercial fishery in Southeast Alaska and legal size is based on growth and maturity information from other parts of their range. Size at maturity estimates varied for crabs among seven management areas in Southeast Alaska, where male maturity estimates increased in size...
Data from: Sexual dimorphism modifies habitat‐associated divergence: evidence from beach and creek breeding sockeye salmonKrista B. Oke, Elena Motivans, Thomas P. Quinn & Andrew P. Hendry
Studies of parallel or convergent evolution (the repeated, independent evolution of similar traits in similar habitats) rarely explicitly quantify the extent of parallelism (i.e., variation in the direction and/or magnitude of divergence) between the sexes; instead they often investigate both sexes together or exclude one sex. However, differences in male and female patterns of divergence could contribute to overall variation in the extent of parallelism among ecotype pairs, especially in sexually dimorphic traits. Failing to...
Data from: Non-linear effect of sea ice: Spectacled Eider survival declines at both extremes of the ice spectrumKatherine S. Christie, Tuula E. Hollmen, Paul Flint & David Douglas
Understanding the relationship between environmental factors and vital rates is an important step in predicting a species’ response to environmental change. Species associated with sea ice are of particular concern because sea ice is projected to decrease rapidly in polar environments with continued levels of greenhouse gas emissions. The relationship between sea ice and the vital rates of the Spectacled Eider, a threatened species that breeds in Alaska and Russia and winters in the Bering...
Data from: Microsite conditions in retrogressive thaw slumps may facilitate increased seedling recruitment in the Alaskan Low ArcticDiane C. Huebner & Marion S. Bret-Harte
In Low Arctic tundra, thermal erosion of ice-rich permafrost soils (thermokarst) has increased in frequency since the 1980s. Retrogressive thaw slumps (RTS) are thermokarst disturbances forming large open depressions on hillslopes through soil wasting and vegetation displacement. Tall (> 0.5 m) deciduous shrubs have been observed in RTS a decade after disturbance. RTS may provide conditions suitable for seedling recruitment, which may contribute to arctic shrub expansion. We quantified in situ seedling abundance, and size...
Data from: Biogeographic and anthropogenic correlates of Aleutian Islands plant diversity: a machine-learning approachMonte Garroutte, Falk Huettmann, Campbell O. Webb & Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond
This is the first comprehensive analysis of vascular plant diversity patterns in the Aleutian Islands to identify and quantify the impact of Aleutian Island distance dispersal barriers, geographical, ecological and anthropogenic factors. Data from public Open Access databases, printed floristic accounts, and from collections made by the primary author were used to develop an Aleutian floristic database. The most common plant distribution pattern was ‘an eastern origin community’, though it compared similarly to the ‘Western’...
Data from: Quantifying the dark data in museum fossil collections as palaeontology undergoes a second digital revolutionCharles R. Marshall, Seth Finnegan, Erica C. Clites, Patricia A. Holroyd, Nicole Bonuso, Crystal Cortez, Edward Davis, Gregory P. Dietl, Patrick S. Druckenmiller, Ron C. Eng, Christine Garcia, Kathryn Estes-Smargiassi, Austin Hendy, Kathy A. Hollis, Holly Little, Elizabeth A. Nesbitt, Peter Roopnarine, Leslie Skibinski, Jann Vendetti & Lisa D. White
Large-scale analysis of the fossil record requires aggregation of palaeontological data from individual fossil localities. Prior to computers these synoptic datasets were compiled by hand, a laborious undertaking that took years of effort and forced palaeontologists to make difficult choices about what types of data to tabulate. The advent of desktop computers ushered in palaeontology’s first digital revolution – online literature-based databases, such as the Paleobiology Database (PBDB). However, the published literature represents only a...
Studies of climate effects on ecology often account for non-stationarity in individual physical and biological variables, but rarely allow for non-stationary relationships among variables. Here, we show that non-stationary relationships among physical and biological variables are central to understanding climate effects on salmon (Onchorynchus spp.) in the Gulf of Alaska during 1965-2012. The relative importance of two leading patterns in North Pacific climate, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), changed...
Data from: Increased reproductive investment associated with greater survival and longevity in Cassin’s aukletsMichael E. Johns, Pete Warzybok, Russell W. Bradley, Jaime Jahncke, Mark Lindberg & Greg A. Breed
Individuals increase lifetime reproductive output through a trade-off between investment in future survival and immediate reproductive success. This pattern may be obscured in certain higher quality individuals that possess greater reproductive potential. The Cassin’s auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) is a long-lived species where some individuals exhibit greater reproductive ability through a behavior called double brooding. Here, we analyze 32 years of breeding histories from marked known-age auklets to test whether double brooding increases lifetime fitness despite...
1. Both population abundances and chemical tracers are useful tools for studying consumer-resource interactions. Food web models parameterized with abundances are often used to understand how interactions structure communities and to inform management decisions of complex ecological systems. Unfortunately, collecting abundance data to parameterize these models is often expensive and time-consuming. Another approach is to use chemical tracers to estimate the proportional diets of consumers by relating the tracers in their tissues to those found...
Data from: Is biasing offspring sex ratio adaptive? a test of Fisher’s principle across multiple generations of a wild mammal in a fluctuating environmentAndrea E. Wishart, Cory T. Williams, Andrew G. McAdam, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Murray M. Humphries, Dave W. Coltman, Jeffrey E. Lane & David W. Coltman
Fisher’s principle explains that population sex ratio in sexually reproducing organisms is maintained at 1:1 due to negative frequency-dependent selection, such that individuals of the rare sex realize greater reproductive opportunity than individuals of the more common sex until equilibrium is reached. If biasing offspring sex ratio towards the rare sex is adaptive, individuals that do so should have a higher number of grandoffspring. In a wild population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)...
Data from: Reproduction as a bottleneck to treeline advance across the circumarctic forest tundra ecotoneCarissa D. Brown, Geneviève Dufour-Tremblay, Ryan G. Jameson, Steven D. Mamet, Andrew J. Trant, Xanthe J. Walker, Stéphane Boudraeu, Karen A. Harper, Greg H.R. Henry, Luise Hermanutz, Annika Hofgaard, Ludmila Isaeva, G. Peter Kershaw, Jill F. Johnstone & Gregory H. R. Henry
The fundamental niche of many species is shifting with climate change, especially in sub-arctic ecosystems with pronounced recent warming. Ongoing warming in sub-arctic regions should lessen environmental constraints on tree growth and reproduction, leading to increased success of trees colonising tundra. Nevertheless, variable responses of treeline ecotones have been documented in association with warming temperatures. One explanation for time lags between increasingly favourable environmental conditions and treeline ecotone movement is reproductive limitations caused by low...
Crested auklets (Aethia cristatella), colonial seabirds of Alaska and Siberia, emit a citrus-like odorant from wick-like feathers. We examined whether the odorant emission is linked to adrenocortical function and correlated with size of the crest feather ornament. Conventional signals like the size of crest ornament are inexpensive to produce and thus may be prone to deception. However, assessment signals such as the odorant could be more reliable if they impose costs and more proximate since...
University of Alaska Fairbanks13
University of Alaska System3
University of Washington2
University of Saskatchewan2
University of Alberta2
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research1
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor1
Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County1
Alaska SeaLife Center1