37 Works

Data from: Divergent clades or cryptic species? Mito-nuclear discordance in a Daphnia species complex

Anne Thielsch, Alexis Knell, Ali Mohammadyari, Adam Petrusek & Klaus Schwenk
Background: Genetically divergent cryptic species are frequently detected by molecular methods. These discoveries are often a byproduct of molecular barcoding studies in which fragments of a selected marker are used for species identification. Highly divergent mitochondrial lineages and putative cryptic species are even detected in intensively studied animal taxa, such as the crustacean genus Daphnia. Recently, eleven such lineages, exhibiting genetic distances comparable to levels observed among well-defined species, were recorded in the D. longispina...

Data related to: Bottom-up effects of fungicides on tadpoles of the European common frog (Rana temporaria)

Mirco Bundschuh, Jochen Zubrod, Theo Wernicke, Marco Konschak, Leon Werner, Carsten Brühl, Patrick Baudy & Ralf Schulz
We have uploaded a range of files informding about ergosterol and bacteria levels on leaf litter (LeafMicrobes.xlsx); the feces production, leaf consumption and legnth development of tadpoles during the study and among the two experimental phases as detailed in the mansucript (FecesFeedingLength.xlxs); composition of fatty acids in tadpoles and leaf litter (NFLA.xlxs); metamophoses event (Metamorphosis.xlsx) Paper abstract as submitted: Biodiversity is under pressure world-wide, with amphibians being particularly threatened. Stressors related to human activity, such...

Eutrophic status influences the impact of pesticide mixtures and predation on Daphnia pulex populations

Andreu Rico, Talles Oliveira Dos Anjos, Francesco Polazzo, Alba Arenas-Sánchez, Laura Cherta, Roberto Ascari, Sonia Migliorati & Marco Vighi
Pesticides, nutrients, and ecological stressors such as competition or predation co-occur in freshwater ecosystems impacted by agricultural pollution. The extent to which combinations of these stressors affect aquatic populations and the role of nutrients availability in modulating these responses requires further understanding. In this study, we assessed how pesticides affecting different taxonomic groups and predation influence the response of Daphnia pulex populations under different trophic conditions. An outdoor experiment was designed following a factorial design,...

Reduced host-plant specialization is associated with the rapid range expansion of a Mediterranean butterfly

Anika Neu, Stefan Lötters, Linda Nörenberg, Martin Wiemers & Klaus Fischer
Aim: Species ranges are highly dynamic, shifting in space and time as a result of complex ecological and evolutionary processes. Disentangling the relative contribution of both processes is challenging but of primary importance for forecasting species distributions under climate change. Here, we use the spectacular range expansion (ca. 1,000 km poleward shift within 10 years) of the butterfly Pieris mannii to unravel the factors underlying range dynamics, specifically the role of (i) niche evolution (changes...

Data from: Carbon allocation to root exudates is maintained in mature temperate tree species under drought

Benjamin D Hafner, Melanie Brunn, Marie Jasmijn Zwetsloot, Fabian Christopher Weikl, Karin Pritsch, Kyohsuke Hikino, Nadine Ruehr, Emma Sayer & Taryn Bauerle

Data from: Leaf litter breakdown along an elevational gradient in Australian alpine streams

Lloyd Werry, Mirco Bundschuh, Simon Mitrovic, Richard Lim & Ben Kefford
These data were generated to investigate the rate of leaf litter breakdown and how temperature and other factors such as microbial and and invertebrate activities were influenced over elevational and temporal gradients. Breakdown of allochthonous organic matter is a central step in nutrient cycling in stream ecosystems. There is concern that increased temperatures from climate change will alter the breakdown rate of organic matter with important consequences for ecosystem functioning of alpine streams. Dried leaves...

Dataset 1 for Large- and small-scale geographic structures affect genetic patterns across populations of an Alpine butterfly

Daronja Trense, Ary Hoffmann & Klaus Fischer
Understanding factors influencing patterns of genetic diversity and the population genetic structure of species is of particular importance in the current era of global climate change and habitat loss. These factors include the evolutionary history of a species as well as heterogeneity in the environment it occupies, which in turn can change across time. Most studies investigating spatio-temporal genetic patterns have focused on patterns across wide geographical areas rather than local variation, but the latter...

Data from: Review on the effects of toxicants on freshwater ecosystem functions

Katharina Peters, Mirco Bundschuh & Ralf B. Schäfer
We reviewed 122 peer-reviewed studies on the effects of organic toxicants and heavy metals on three fundamental ecosystem functions in freshwater ecosystems, i.e. leaf litter breakdown, primary production and community respiration. From each study meeting the inclusion criteria, the concentration resulting in a reduction of at least 20% in an ecosystem function was standardized based on median effect concentrations of standard test organisms (i.e. algae and daphnids). For pesticides, more than one third of observations...

Data from: Pros and cons of external swabbing of amphibians for genetic analyses

Antonia S. Müller, Patrick P. Lenhardt & Kathrin Theissinger
Non-invasive DNA sampling is an important tool in amphibian conservation. Buccal swabs are nowadays replacing the wounding toe-clipping method. Skin and cloaca swabbing are even less invasive and easier to handle than buccal swabbing, but could result in contaminations of genetic material. Therefore, we test if external skin and cloaca swabs are as reliable as buccal swabs for genetic analysis of amphibians. We analysed eight microsatellite loci for the common frog (Rana temporaria, Linnaeus 1758)...

Data from: Discrimination of hybrid classes using cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci: methodological challenges and solutions in Daphnia

Anne Thielsch, Elke Völker, Robert H. S. Kraus & Klaus Schwenk
Microsatellite markers are important tools in population, conservation and forensic studies and are frequently used for species delineation, the detection of hybridization and introgression. Therefore, marker sets that amplify variable DNA regions in two species are required; however, cross-species amplification is often difficult, as genotyping errors such as null alleles may occur. In order to estimate the level of potential misidentifications based on genotyping errors, we compared the occurrence of parental alleles in laboratory and...

Data from: Tailored flower strips promote natural enemy biodiversity and pest control in potato crops

Matthias Tschumi, Matthias Albrecht, Jana Collatz, Viktor Dubsky, Martin H. Entling, Adriana J. Najar-Rodriguez & Katja Jacot
1. Sown flower strips are increasingly implemented within agri-environment schemes (AES) to increase functional biodiversity and ecosystem services such as pollination or natural pest control, but their effectiveness in achieving these goals remains poorly studied. 2. We tested the performance of experimentally sown annual flower strips specifically designed to promote natural enemies of aphids and their pest control services (tailored flower strips) in adjacent potato crops (n=8) compared to control fields (n=10). Flower strips consisted...

Data from: Contrasting effects of aquatic subsidies on a terrestrial trophic cascade

Nadin Graf, Roman Bucher, Ralf B. Schaefer & Martin H. Entling
Subsidies from adjacent ecosystems can alter recipient food webs and ecosystem functions, such as herbivory. Emerging aquatic insects from streams can be an important prey in the riparian zone. Such aquatic subsidies can enhance predator abundances or cause predators to switch prey, depending on the herbivores. This can lead to an increase or decrease of in situ herbivores and herbivory. We examined the effects of aquatic subsidies on a simplified terrestrial food web consisting of...

Along-shelf connectivity and circumpolar gene flow in Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica)

Jilda Alicia Caccavo, Chiara Papetti, , Rainer Knust, Julian R. Ashford & Lorenzo Zane
The Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica) is a critically important forage species with a circumpolar distribution and is unique among other notothenioid species for its wholly pelagic life cycle. Previous studies have provided mixed evidence of population structure over regional and circumpolar scales. The aim of the present study was to test the recent population hypothesis for Antarctic silverfish, which emphasizes the interplay between life history and hydrography in shaping connectivity. A total of 1067 individuals...

Data from: Ecological requirements drive the variable responses of wheat pests and natural enemies to the landscape context

Ezequiel Gonzalez, Felix J.J.A. Bianchi, Philipp Eckerter, Verena Pfaff, Sarah Weiler & Martin H. Entling
1. Semi-natural habitats (SNH) are considered essential for pest suppressive landscapes, but their influence on crop pests and natural enemies can be highly variable. Instead of SNH per se, the availability of resources, such as pollen and nectar, may be more relevant for supporting pest control. 2. Here, we assessed the spatio-temporal variation of multiple insect pests (cereal leaf beetles and aphids) and natural enemies (predators and aphid parasitoids) in wheat fields and their responses...

Data from: Is there an interaction of the effects of salinity and pesticides on the community structure of macroinvertebrates?

Eduard Szöcs, Ben J. Kefford & Ralf B. Schäfer
Salinization of freshwater ecosystems is a global problem affecting many regions worldwide and can co-occur with pesticides in agricultural regions. Given that both stressors are potent to affect macroinvertebrate communities, their effects could interact. We investigated the effects of salinity and pesticides at 24 sites in an agricultural region of southern Victoria, South-East Australia. We used distance-based redundancy analysis to determine the influence of pesticides, salinity and other environmental variables on the composition of macroinvertebrate...

Data from: Landscape complexity promotes hoverflies across different types of semi-natural habitats in farmland

Jens Schirmel, Matthias Albrecht, Philipp-Martin Bauer, Louis Sutter, Sonja C. Pfister & Martin H. Entling
1. Semi-natural habitats (SNH) provide essential resources for many organisms in agricultural landscapes and can increase biodiversity at the local and landscape scale. For the management of ecosystem services, it is crucial to understand how local characteristics of SNH and the surrounding landscape complexity affect beneficial species. 2. We investigated this for hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae), an important functional group providing both pest control and pollination services, in a total of 138 SNH in 35 agricultural...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Nitrogen fertilization and high plant growing temperature increase herbivore performance

Ange Raharivololoniaina, Svenja Berweiler & Klaus Fischer
Global environmental change exerts growing pressure on biodiversity. Anthropogenic climate and land use change are particularly important drivers of biodiversity loss. While their effects on biodiversity have been widely studied individually, interactions among them are poorly understood. Here, we investigate the effects of two common drivers of global change, increased temperature and nitrogen fertilization, on host-plant quality and herbivore performance in the butterfly Lycaena tityrus. We show that butterfly performance was positively affected by plants...

Contrasting genetic responses to habitat fragmentation for two Lycaenid butterfly species

Daronja Trense, Jan Christian Habel, Aline Finger & Klaus Fischer
Biodiversity is currently declining at the global scale. Apart from species declines and lowered abundances, the loss of genetic diversity is equally concerning as it may undermine fitness and the potential to adapt to future environmental change. We compared genetic diversity of historical and recent Alpine populations of two butterfly species, Lycaena helle and L. hippothoe, over a period of about 10 years. Using microsatellite markers, we found no changes over time in L. helle,...

Dataset 2 for Large‐ and small‐scale geographic structures affecting genetic patterns across populations of an Alpine butterfly

Daronja Trense, Ary Hoffmann & Klaus Fischer
Understanding factors influencing patterns of genetic diversity and the population genetic structure of species is of particular importance in the current era of global climate change and habitat loss. These factors include the evolutionary history of a species as well as heterogeneity in the environment it occupies, which in turn can change across time. Most studies investigating spatio-temporal genetic patterns have focused on patterns across wide geographical areas rather than local variation, but the latter...

Data from: How to characterize chemical exposure to predict ecologic effects on aquatic communities?

Ralf B. Schäfer, Nadine Gerner, Ben J. Kefford, Jes J. Rasmussen, Mikhail A. Beketov, Dick De Zwart, Matthias Liess & Peter C. Von Der Ohe
Reliable characterization of exposure is indispensable for ecological risk assessment of chemicals. To deal with mixtures, several approaches have been developed, but their relevance for predicting ecological effects on communities in the field has not been elucidated. In the present study, we compared nine metrics designed for estimating the total toxicity of mixtures regarding their relationship with an effect metric for stream macroinvertebrates. This was done using monitoring data of biota and organic chemicals, mainly...

Data from: Differentiation in neutral genes and a candidate gene in the pied flycatcher: using biological archives to track global climate change

Kerstin Kuhn, Klaus Schwenk, Christiaan Both, David Canal, Ulf S. Johansson, Steven Van Der Mije, Till Töpfer & Martin Päckert
Global climate change is one of the major driving forces for adaptive shifts in migration and breeding phenology and possibly impacts demographic changes if a species fails to adapt sufficiently. In Western Europe, pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) have insufficiently adapted their breeding phenology to the ongoing advance of food peaks within their breeding area and consequently suffered local population declines. We address the question whether this population decline led to a loss of genetic variation,...

Data from: Phylogeography of the reed frog Hyperolius castaneus (Anura: Hyperoliidae) from the Albertine Rift of Central Africa: implications for taxonomy, biogeography and conservation

Eli Greenbaum, Ulrich Sinsch, Edgar Lehr, Federico Valdez & Chifundera Kusamba
We examine the systematics of multiple populations of the Albertine Rift endemic amphibian Hyperolius castaneus, which currently incorporates four subspecies. Standard morphometric data were analyzed with principal components analyses and analyses of covariance. Phylogenetic analyses of two mitochondrial (16S, cyt b) and one nuclear (RAG1) genes were analyzed from 41 samples representing three subspecies. Results indicated some significant morphometric differences between the nominate subspecies H. c. castaneus and the Itombwe Plateau subspecies H. c. constellatus,...

Data from: Inorganic fungicides as routinely applied in organic and conventional agriculture can increase palatability but reduce microbial decomposition of leaf litter

Jochen P. Zubrod, Alexander Feckler, Dominic Englert, Natalia Koksharova, Ricki R. Rosenfeldt, Frank Seitz, Ralf Schulz & Mirco Bundschuh
1. The application of fungicides is considered an indispensable measure to secure crop production. These substances, however, may unintentionally enter surface waters via runoff, potentially affecting the microbial community. To assess such risks adequately, authorities recently called for suitable test designs involving relevant aquatic microorganisms. 2. We assessed the structural and functional responses of leaf-associated microbial communities, which play a key role in the breakdown of allochthonous leaf material in streams, towards the inorganic fungicides...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

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