Anthrax is a globally significant animal disease and zoonosis. Despite this, current knowledge of anthrax ecology is largely limited to arid ecosystems, where outbreaks are most commonly reported. We reveal cryptic the dynamics of an anthrax causing agent, Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis, in a tropical rainforest with severe consequences for local wildlife communities. Using data and samples collected over three decades we found that rainforest anthrax is a persistent and widespread cause of death for...
Carbapenems are considered the drugs of choice for first-line treatment of severe infections caused by carbapenem-susceptible, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Enterobacterales, while piperacillin-tazobactam has been recommended as an alternative for treatment of non-severe infections. Temocillin is stable to ESBL and AmpC enzymes and may thus represent another treatment option. This study assessed the in vitro activity of piperacillin-tazobactam and temocillin against third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, as compared to 3GC-susceptible isolates of either...
Data from: Carrion fly-derived DNA as a tool for comprehensive and cost-effective assessment of mammalian biodiversitySebastien Calvignac-Spencer, Kevin Merkel, Nadine Kutzner, Hjalmar Kühl, Christophe Boesch, Peter M. Kappeler, Sonja Metzger, Grit Schubert & Fabian H. Leendertz
Large-scale monitoring schemes are essential in assessing global mammalian biodiversity, and in this framework leeches have recently been promoted as an indirect source of DNA from terrestrial mammal species. Carrion feeding flies are ubiquitous and can be expected to feed on many vertebrate carcasses. Hence, we tested whether fly-derived DNA analysis may also serve as a novel tool for mammalian diversity surveys. We screened DNA extracted from 201 carrion flies collected in tropical habitats of...
The severe Ebola virus disease epidemic occurring in West Africa stems from a single zoonotic transmission event to a 2-year-old boy in Meliandou, Guinea. We investigated the zoonotic origins of the epidemic using wildlife surveys, interviews, and molecular analyses of bat and environmental samples. We found no evidence for a concurrent outbreak in larger wildlife. Exposure to fruit bats is common in the region, but the index case may have been infected by playing in...
Data from: Combined analysis of variation in core, accessory and regulatory genome regions provides a super-resolution view into the evolution of bacterial populationsAlan McNally, Yaara Oren, Darren Kelly, Ben Pascoe, Steven Dunn, Tristan Seecharan, Minna Vehkala, Niko Välimäki, Michael B. Prentice, Amgad Ashour, Oren Avram, Tal Pupko, Ulrich Dobrindt, Ivan Literak, Sebastian Guenther, Katharina Schauffler, Lothar H. Wieler, Zong Zhiyong, Samuel K. Sheppard, James O. McInerney, Jukka Corander & Tristan Sreecharan
The use of whole-genome phylogenetic analysis has revolutionized our understanding of the evolution and spread of many important bacterial pathogens due to the high resolution view it provides. However, the majority of such analyses do not consider the potential role of accessory genes when inferring evolutionary trajectories. Moreover, the recently discovered importance of the switching of gene regulatory elements suggests that an exhaustive analysis, combining information from core and accessory genes with regulatory elements could...
Interrogating discordance resolves relationships in the rapid radiation of Old World fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae)Nicolas Nesi, Stephen Rossiter, Michael McGowen, Georgia Tsagkogeorga, Burton Lim, Susan Tsang, Violaine Nicolas, Aude Lalis, Silke Riesle Sbarbaro, Sigit Wiantoro, Alan Hitch, Javier Juste, Corinna Pinzari, Frank Bonaccorso, Nancy Simmons, Annette Scanlon & Christopher Todd
The family Pteropodidae (Old World fruit bats) comprises >200 species distributed across the Old World tropics and subtropics. Most pteropodids feed on fruit, suggesting an early origin of frugivory, although several lineages have shifted to nectar-based diets. Pteropodids are of exceptional conservation concern with >50% of species considered threatened, yet the systematics of this group has long been debated, with uncertainty surrounding early splits attributed to an ancient rapid diversification. Resolving the relationships among the...
Data from: Games academics play and their consequences: how authorship, h-index, and journal impact factors are shaping the future of academiaJan Gogarten, Colin Chapman, Julio Bicca-Marques, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Pengfei Fan, Peter Fashing, Songtao Guo, Claire Hemingway, Fabian Leendertz, Baoguo Li, Ikki Matsuda, Rong Hou, Juan Carlos Serio-Silva & Nils Chr. Stenseth
Research is a highly competitive profession where evaluation plays a central role; journals are ranked and individuals are evaluated based on their publication number, the number of times they are cited, and their h-index. Yet, such evaluations are often done in inappropriate ways that are damaging to individual careers, particularly for young scholars, and to the profession. Furthermore, as with all indices, people can play games to better their scores. This has resulted in the...
Data from: Protecting great apes from disease: compliance with measures to reduce anthroponotic disease transmissionAna Nuno, Chloe Chesney, Maia Wellbelove, Elena Bersacola, Gladys Kalema-Zikusoka, Fabian Leendertz, Amanda Webber & Kimberley Hockings
Based on an international sample of past (N=420) and potential future visitors (N=569) to wild great ape tourism sites in Africa, we used an online questionnaire to characterise visitors’ practices, assess expectations (e.g., about proximity to great apes) and identify key factors related to potential compliance with disease mitigation measures. This was implemented adapting a framework from health literature (the Health Belief Model; HBM), particularly focused on reducing COVID-19 transmission at an early stage of...
Data from: Mother-offspring transmission and age-dependent accumulation of simian foamy virus in wild chimpanzeesAnja Blasse, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Kevin Merkel, Adeelia S. Goffe, Christophe Boesch, Roger Mundry & Fabian H. Leendertz
Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are thought to infect virtually any adult non-human primate (NHP). While much data have accumulated about patterns of co-divergence with their hosts and cross-species transmission events, little is known about the modalities of SFV transmission within NHP species, especially in the wild. Here we provide a detailed investigation of the dynamics of SFV circulation in a wild community of Western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). We demonstrate that mother–offspring (vertical) SFV transmission...
Data from: Phylogenetic and comparative genomics of the family Leptotrichiaceae and introduction of a novel fingerprinting MLVA for Streptobacillus moniliformisTobias Eisenberg, Ahmad Fawzy, Werner Nicklas, Torsten Semmler & Christa Ewers
Background: The Leptotrichiaceae are a family of fairly unnoticed bacteria containing both microbiota on mucous membranes as well as significant pathogens such as Streptobacillus moniliformis, the causative organism of streptobacillary rat bite fever. Comprehensive genomic studies in members of this family have so far not been carried out. We aimed to analyze 47 genomes from 20 different member species to illuminate phylogenetic aspects, as well as genomic and discriminatory properties. Results: Our data provide a...
Data from: Early maternal loss affects diurnal cortisol slopes in immature but not mature wild chimpanzeesCedric Girard-Buttoz, Patrick Tkaczynski, Liran Samuni, Pawel Fedurek, Cristina Gomes, Therese Löhrich, Virgile Manin, Anna Preis, Prince Valé, Tobias Deschner, Roman Wittig & Catherine Crockford
Biological embedding of stress experienced early in life is a mechanism proposed to explain the fitness costs of maternal loss in mammals. This embedding is expected to lead to long-term alterations of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis activity. This idea has, however, rarely been tested in wild long-lived animals. We assessed whether, as in humans, maternal loss had short and long-term impacts on orphan wild chimpanzee urinary cortisol levels and diurnal urinary cortisol slopes,...
Comparison of mosquitoes and fly derived DNA as a tool for sampling vertebrate biodiversity in suburban forests in Berlin, GermanyAimara Planillo, Renita Danabalan, Susanne Butschkau, Sita Deeg, Pierre Gras, Cincia Thion, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Stephanie Kramer-Schadt & Camila Mazzoni
The use of invertebrate-derived DNA (iDNA) is a promising non-invasive tool to monitor wildlife. While most studies have been carried out in dense tropical and sub-tropical forests and have focused on the use of a single category of invertebrates, this study compares the use of flies and mosquitoes derived DNA to assess vertebrate diversity in semi-urban environments. We conducted our sampling in four different forest plots in Berlin, Germany. Pools of flies and non-bloodfed mosquitoes...
Robert Koch Institute12
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology5
University of Oslo2
Laboratoire National d'Appui au Développement Agricole2
German Primate Center2
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology1
Sun Yat-sen University1
Estación Biológica de Doñana1
West China Hospital of Sichuan University1