189 Works

Data from: Patterns in parasitism frequency explained by diet and immunity

Alyssa C. Hansen, Andrea E. Glassmire, Lee A. Dyer & Angela M. Smilanich
We sought to explain patterns in parasitism frequency of two specialist herbivores (Geometridae) by investigating the influence of plant diet as a source of variation in immune response variables important for defense against parasitism. Field collected caterpillars (Eois apyraria and Eois nympha) were assigned to one of two species in the plant genus Piper (Piperaceae): 1) a host species with high diversity of defensive chemistry, P. cenocladum C.DC., or 2) a host species with lower...

Data from: Ecological segregation in a small mammal hybrid zone: habitat-specific mating opportunities and selection against hybrids restrict gene flow on a fine spatial scale

Quinn Rodney Shurtliff, Peter J. Murphy & Marjorie D. Matocq
The degree to which closely related species interbreed is determined by a complex interaction of ecological, behavioral, and genetic factors. We examine the degree of interbreeding between two woodrat species, Neotoma bryanti and N. lepida, at a sharp ecological transition. We identify the ecological association of each genotypic class, assess the opportunity for mating between these groups, and test whether they have similar patterns of year-to-year persistence on our study site. We find that 13%...

Data from: Genetic source-sink dynamics among naturally structured and anthropogenically fragmented puma populations

Kyle D. Gustafson, Roderick B. Gagne, T. Winston Vickers, Seth P.D. Riley, Christopher C. Wilmers, Vernon C. Bleich, Becky M. Pierce, Marc Kenyon, Tracy L. Drazenovich, Jeff A. Sikich, Walter M. Boyce & Holly B. Ernest
Fragmentation of wildlife populations is increasing on a global scale and understanding current population genetic structure, genetic diversity, and genetic connectivity is key to informing wildlife management and conservation. We genotyped 992 pumas (Puma concolor) at 42 previously developed microsatellite loci and identified 10 genetic populations throughout the states of California and Nevada, USA. Although some genetic populations had large effective population sizes, others were small and inbred. Genetic diversity was extremely variable (heterozygosity, uHe...

Data from: Phylogeographic diversification of antelope squirrels (Ammospermophilus) across North American deserts

Stacy J. Mantooth, David J. Hafner, , Brett R. Riddle & Robert W. Bryson
We investigated the biogeographic history of antelope squirrels, genus Ammospermophilus, which are widely distributed across the deserts and other arid lands of western North America. We combined range-wide sampling of all currently recognized species of Ammospermophilus with a multilocus data set to infer phylogenetic relationships. We then estimated divergence times within identified clades of Ammospermophilus using fossil-calibrated and rate-calibrated molecular clocks. Lastly, we explored generalized distributional changes of Ammospermophilus since the last glacial maximum using...

Data from: Whole-plant metabolic allocation under water stress

Fabiane M. Mundim & Elizabeth G. Pringle
Trade-offs between plant growth and defense depend on environmental resource availability. Plants are predicted to prioritize growth when environmental resources are abundant and defense when environmental resources are scarce. Nevertheless, such predictions lack a whole-plant perspective-they do not account for potential differences in plant allocation above- and belowground. Such accounting is important because leaves and roots, though both critical to plant survival and fitness, differ in their resource-uptake roles and, often, in their vulnerability to...

Data from: Identifying biases at different spatial and temporal scales of diversification: a case study in the Neotropical parrotlet genus Forpus

Brian Tilston Smith, Camila C. Ribas, Bret M. Whitney, Blanca E. Hernández-Baños & John Klicka
The temporal origins of the extraordinary biodiversity of the Neotropical region are highly debated. Recent empirical work has found support for alternative models on the tempo of speciation in Neotropical species further fuelling the debate. However, relationships within many Neotropical lineages are poorly understood and it is unclear how this uncertainty impacts inferences on the evolution of taxa in the region. We examined the robustness of diversification patterns in the avian genus Forpus by testing...

Data from: The mismatch in distributions of vertebrates and the plants that they disperse

Jacob W. Dittel, Christopher M. Moore & Stephen B. Vander Wall
Little is known about how mutualistic interactions affect the distribution of species richness on broad geographic scales. Because mutualism positively affects the fitness of all species involved in the interaction, one hypothesis is that the richness of species involved should be positively correlated across their range, especially for obligate relationships. Alternatively, if mutualisms are facilitative (e.g., involving multiple mutualistic partners), the distribution of mutualists should not necessarily be related, and patterns in species distributions might...

Data from: Phenotypic differentiation is associated with divergent sexual selection among closely related barn swallow populations

Matthew R. Wilkins, Hakan Karaardıç, Yoni Vortman, Thomas L. Parchman, Tomáš Albrecht, Adéla Petrželková, Leyla Özkan, Peter L. Pap, Joanna K. Hubbard, Amanda K. Hund & Rebecca J. Safran
Sexual selection plays a key role in the diversification of numerous animal clades and may accelerate trait divergence during speciation. However, much of our understanding of this process comes from phylogenetic comparative studies, which rely on surrogate measures such as dimorphism that may not represent selection in wild populations. In this study, we assess sexual selection pressures for multiple male visual signals across four barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations. Our sample encompassed 2400 linear km...

Data from: The global distribution of diet breadth in insect herbivores

Matthew L. Forister, Vojtech Novotny, Anna K. Panorska, Leontine Baje, Yves Basset, Philip T. Butterill, Lukas Cizek, Phyllis D. Coley, Francesca Dem, Ivone R. Diniz, Pavel Drozd, Mark Fox, Andrea E. Glassmire, Rebecca Hazen, Jan Hrcek, Joshua P. Jahner, Ondrej Kaman, Tomasz J. Kozubowski, Thomas Kursar, Owen T. Lewis, John Lill, Robert J. Marquis, Scott E. Miller, Helena C. Morais, Masashi Murakami … & Lee A. Dyer
Understanding variation in resource specialization is important for progress on issues that include coevolution, community assembly, ecosystem processes, and the latitudinal gradient of species richness. Herbivorous insects are useful models for studying resource specialization, and the interaction between plants and herbivorous insects is one of the most common and consequential ecological associations on the planet. However, uncertainty persists regarding fundamental features of herbivore diet breadth, including its relationship to latitude and plant species richness. Here...

Data from: Return of a giant: DNA from archival museum samples helps to identify a unique cutthroat trout lineage formerly thought to be extinct

Mary M. Peacock, Evon R. Hekkala, Veronica S. Kirchoff & Lisa G. Heki
Currently one small, native population of the culturally and ecologically important Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi, LCT, Federally listed) remains in the Truckee River watershed of northwestern Nevada and northeastern California. The majority of populations in this watershed were extirpated in the 1940’s due to invasive species, overharvest, anthropogenic water consumption and changing precipitation regimes. In 1977, a population of cutthroat trout discovered in the Pilot Peak Mountains in the Bonneville basin of Utah,...

Data from: On the importance of having a good mother: maternal investment affects duckling mortality risk in wood ducks

Benjamin S. Sedinger, Christopher A. Nicolai, Kelley M. Stewart & Kelly M. Stewart
Most avian populations experience more variation in recruitment than adult survival, and twhich drives much of the change in population growth rates from year to year. In duck species, the probability of duckling survival is an important component of recruitment into the breeding population. We investigated how variation in maternal investment in offspring by nesting female wood duck Aix sponsa affected duckling mortality (1‐survival) to 60 days of age using capture‐mark‐recapture techniques. Our primary sample...

Data from: Seed and seedling traits have strong impacts on establishment of a perennial bunchgrass in invaded semi-arid systems

Elizabeth A. Leger, Daniel Z. Atwater & Jeremy J. James
1. Many restoration projects use seeds to found new populations, and understanding phenotypic traits associated with seedling establishment in disturbed and invaded communities is important for restoration efforts worldwide. Focusing on the perennial grass Elymus elymoides, a native species common to sagebrush steppe communities in the Western United States, we asked if seed and seedling traits could predict field establishment. 2. We collected seeds from 34 populations from the western Great Basin. In greenhouse studies,...

Data from: Genetic drift or natural selection? Hybridization and asymmetric mitochondrial introgression in two Caribbean lizards (Anolis pulchellus and Anolis krugi)

Tereza Jezkova, Manuel Leal & Javier A. Rodríguez-Robles
Hybridization and gene introgression can occur frequently between closely related taxa, but appear to be rare phenomena among members of the species-rich West Indian radiation of Anolis lizards. We investigated the pattern and possible mechanism of introgression between two sister species from Puerto Rico, Anolis pulchellus and Anolis krugi, using mitochondrial (ND2) and nuclear (DNAH3, NKTR) DNA sequences. Our findings demonstrated extensive introgression of A. krugi mtDNA (k-mtDNA) into the genome of A. pulchellus in...

Atelopus zeteki skin secretions not protective against Bd

Jordan Gass
To combat the threat of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, ecoimmunologists seek to understand the complex interactions among pathogens, their hosts, and their shared environments. The cutaneous fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has led to the decline of innumerable amphibian species, including the Panamanian golden frog (Atelopus zeteki). Given that Bd can evade or dampen the acquired immune responses of some amphibians, nonspecific immune defenses are thought to be especially important for amphibian defenses against...

Data from: Resource constraints highlight complex microbial interactions during lake biofilm development

Kevin H. Wyatt, Rody C. Seballos, Maria N. Shoemaker, Shawn P. Brown, Sudeep Chandra, Kevin A. Kuehn, Allison R. Rober & Steven Sadro
Abstract 1. This study evaluated how the availability of nutrients and organic carbon interact to influence the associations between autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms during lake biofilm development. Considering that decomposers are often better competitors for nutrients than producers in aquatic environments, we hypothesized that heterotrophs would outcompete autotrophs for available nutrients unless heterotrophs were limited by organic carbon provided by autotrophs. 2. To test our hypothesis, we evaluated autotrophic (algae) and heterotrophic (fungi, bacteria) biomass...

Data from: Reconstructing the evolutionary history of an endangered subspecies across the changing landscape of the Great Central Valley of California.

Marjorie D. Matocq, Patrick A. Kelly, Scott E. Phillips & Jesús E. Maldonado
Identifying historic patterns of population genetic diversity and connectivity is a primary challenge in efforts to re-establish the processes that have generated and maintained genetic variation across natural landscapes. The challenge of reconstructing pattern and process is even greater in highly altered landscapes where population extinctions and dramatic demographic fluctuations in remnant populations may have substantially altered, if not eliminated, historic patterns. Here, we seek to reconstruct historic patterns of diversity and connectivity in an...

Genetic data and niche differences suggest that disjunct populations of Diglossa brunneiventris are not sister lineages

Juan Luis Parra, Ana Maria Gutiérrez-Zuluaga, Catalina González-Quevedo, Jessica A. Oswald, Ryan S. Terrill & Jorge L. Pérez-Emán
Disjunct distributions within a species are of great interest in systematics and biogeography. This separation can function as a barrier to gene flow when the distance among populations exceeds the dispersal capacity of individuals, and depending on the duration of the barrier, it may eventually lead to speciation. Here we describe patterns of geographic differentiation of two disjunct populations of Diglossa brunneiventris separated by approximately 1000 km along the Andes. Diglossa brunneiventris vuilleumieri is isolated...

Correlated decision making across multiple phases of olfactory guided search in Drosophila

Floris Van Breugel
All motile organisms must search for food, often requiring the exploration of heterogeneous environments across a wide range of spatial scales. Recent field and laboratory experiments with the fruit fly, Drosophila, have revealed that they employ different strategies across these regimes, including kilometer scale straight-path flights between resource clusters, zig-zagging trajectories to follow odor plumes, and local search on foot after landing. However, little is known about the extent to which experiences in one regime...

Relationships between avian malaria resilience and corticosterone, testosterone and prolactin in a Hawaiian songbird

Gabrielle Names, Jesse Krause, Elizabeth Schultz, Frédéric Angelier, Charline Parenteau, Cécile Ribout, Thomas Hahn & John Wingfield
Glucocorticoids, androgens, and prolactin regulate metabolism and reproduction, but they also play critical roles in immunomodulation. Since the introduction of avian malaria to Hawaii a century ago, low elevation populations of the Hawaii Amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens) that have experienced strong selection by avian malaria have evolved increased resilience (the ability to recover from infection), while high elevation populations that have undergone weak selection remain less resilient. We investigated how variation in malaria selection has affected...

Data from: Introduced bees (Osmia cornifrons) collect pollen from both coevolved and novel host-plant species within their family-level phylogenetic preferences

Anthony Vaudo, David Biddinger, Wiebke Sickel, Alexander Keller & Margarita M Lopez-Uribe
Studying the pollen preferences of introduced bees allows us to investigate how species utilize host-plants when establishing in new environments. Osmia cornifrons is a solitary bee introduced into North America from East-Asia for pollination of crops in the Rosaceae. We investigated whether O. cornifrons 1) more frequently collected pollen from host-plant species they coevolved with from their geographic origin, or 2) prefer hosts-plant species of specific plant taxa independent of origin. To address this question,...

Long-term research and hierarchical models reveal consistent fitness costs of being the last egg in a clutch

Cheyenne Acevedo, Thomas Riecke, Alan Leach, Madeleine Lohman, Perry Williams &
1. Maintenance of phenotypic heterogeneity in the face of strong selection is an important component of evolutionary ecology, as are the consequences of such heterogeneity. Organisms may experience diminishing returns of increased reproductive allocation as clutch or litter size increases, affecting current and residual reproductive success. Given existing uncertainty regarding trade-offs between the quantity and quality of offspring, we sought to examine the potential for diminishing returns on increased reproductive allocation in a long-lived species...

Optic flow and odometry data from intelrealsense camera

Floris Van Breugel
Insects rely on the perception of image motion, or optic flow, to estimate their velocity relative to nearby objects. This information provides important sensory input for avoiding obstacles. However, certain behaviors, such as estimating the absolute distance to a landing target, accurately measuring absolute distance travelled, and estimating the ambient wind speed require decoupling optic flow into its component parts: absolute ground velocity and distance to nearby objects. Behavioral experiments suggest that insects perform these...

Pygmy rabbit landscape genomics in the southern Great Basin

Nathan Byer, Matthew Holding, Miranda Crowell, Todd Pierson, Thomas Dilts, Eveline Larrucea, Kevin Shoemaker & Marjorie Matocq
Local adaptation can occur when spatially separated populations are subjected to contrasting environmental conditions. Historically, understanding the genetic basis of adaptation has been difficult, but increased availability of genome-wide markers facilitates studies of local adaptation in non-model organisms of conservation concern. The pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis) is an imperiled lagomorph that relies on sagebrush for forage and cover. This reliance has led to widespread population declines following reductions in the distribution of sagebrush, leading to...

Opposing effects of Ceanothus velutinus phytochemistry on herbivore communities at multiple scales

Casey S. Philbin, Matthew Paulsen & Lora A. Richards
Identifying the interactions of functional, biotic, and abiotic factors that define plant–insect communities has long been a goal of community ecologists. Metabolomics approaches facilitate a broader understanding of how phytochemistry mediates the functional interactions among ecological factors. Ceanothus velutinus communities are a relatively unstudied system for investigating chemically mediated interactions. Ceanothus are nitrogen-fixing, fire-adapted plants that establish early post-fire, and produce antimicrobial cyclic peptides, linear peptides, and flavonoids. This study takes a metabolomic approach to...

Estimating correlations among demographic parameters in population models

Thomas Riecke, Alan Leach, James Sedinger, Benjamin Sedinger & Perry Williams
Estimating correlations among demographic parameters is critical to understanding population dynamics and life-history evolution, where correlations among parameters can inform our understanding of life-history trade-offs, result in effective applied conservation actions, and shed light on evolutionary ecology. The most common approaches rely on the multivariate normal distribution, and its conjugate inverse Wishart prior distribtion. However, the inverse Wishart prior for the covariance matrix of multivariate normal distributions has a strong influence on posterior distributions. As...

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  • University of Nevada Reno
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  • United States Geological Survey
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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  • University of Tennessee at Knoxville
  • University of Colorado Boulder