Elevated atmospheric concentrations of CO2 increase endogenous immune function in a specialist herbivoreLeslie Decker, Chris Jeffrey, Kaitlin Ochsenrider, Abigail Potts, Jaap De Roode, Angela Smilanich & Mark Hunter
1. Animals rely on a balance of endogenous and exogenous sources of immunity to mitigate parasite attack. Understanding how environmental context affects that balance is increasingly urgent under rapid environmental change. In herbivores, immunity is determined, in part, by phytochemistry which is plastic in response to environmental conditions. Monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus, consistently experience infection by a virulent parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, and some medicinal milkweed (Asclepias) species, with high concentrations of toxic steroids (cardenolides), provide...
Long-term research and hierarchical models reveal consistent fitness costs of being the last egg in a clutchCheyenne Acevedo, Thomas Riecke, Alan Leach, Madeleine Lohman, Perry Williams &
1. Maintenance of phenotypic heterogeneity in the face of strong selection is an important component of evolutionary ecology, as are the consequences of such heterogeneity. Organisms may experience diminishing returns of increased reproductive allocation as clutch or litter size increases, affecting current and residual reproductive success. Given existing uncertainty regarding trade-offs between the quantity and quality of offspring, we sought to examine the potential for diminishing returns on increased reproductive allocation in a long-lived species...
Modern metabolomic approaches that generate more comprehensive phytochemical profiles than were previously available are providing new opportunities for understanding plant-animal interactions. Specifically, we can characterize the phytochemical landscape by asking how a larger number of individual compounds affect herbivores and how compounds covary among plants. Here we use the recent colonization of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by the Melissa blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa) to quantify plant metabolites and the performance of caterpillars as affected by both...
Genomic outcomes of hybridization depend on selection and recombination in hybrids. Whether these processes have similar effects on hybrid genome composition in contemporary hybrid zones versus ancient hybrid lineages is unknown. Here we show that patterns of introgression in a contemporary hybrid zone in Lycaeides butterflies predict patterns of ancestry in geographically adjacent, older hybrid populations. We find a particularly striking lack of ancestry from one of the hybridizing taxa, Lycaeides melissa, on the Z...
The types of mutations affecting adaptation in the wild are only beginning to be understood. In particular, whether structural changes shape adaptation by suppressing recombination or by creating new mutations is unresolved. Here we show that multiple, linked but recombining loci underlie cryptic color morphs of Timema chumash stick insects. In a related species, these loci are found in a region of suppressed recombination, forming a supergene. However, in seven species of Timema we find...
Data from: The geographic mosaic of arms race coevolution is closely matched to prey population structureMichael Hague, Amber Stokes, Chris Feldman, Edmund Brodie &
Reciprocal adaptation is the hallmark of arms race coevolution. Local coadaptation between natural enemies should generate a geographic mosaic pattern where both species have roughly matched abilities across their shared range. However, mosaic variation in ecologically relevant traits can also arise from processes unrelated to reciprocal selection, such as population structure or local environmental conditions. We tested whether these alternative processes can account for trait variation in the geographic mosaic of arms race coevolution between...
Multilevel modeling of time-series cross-sectional data reveals the dynamic interaction between ecological threats and democratic developmentKodai Kusano
What is the relationship between environment and democracy? The framework of cultural evolution suggests that societal development is an adaptation to ecological threats. Pertinent theories assume that democracy emerges as societies adapt to ecological factors such as higher economic wealth, lower pathogen threats, less demanding climates, and fewer natural disasters. However, previous research confused within-country processes with between-country processes and erroneously interpreted between-country findings as if they generalize to within-country mechanisms. In this article, we...
Data from: Introduced bees (Osmia cornifrons) collect pollen from both coevolved and novel host-plant species within their family-level phylogenetic preferencesAnthony Vaudo, David Biddinger, Wiebke Sickel, Alexander Keller & Margarita M Lopez-Uribe
Studying the pollen preferences of introduced bees allows us to investigate how species utilize host-plants when establishing in new environments. Osmia cornifrons is a solitary bee introduced into North America from East-Asia for pollination of crops in the Rosaceae. We investigated whether O. cornifrons 1) more frequently collected pollen from host-plant species they coevolved with from their geographic origin, or 2) prefer hosts-plant species of specific plant taxa independent of origin. To address this question,...
Fish abundance data (fish per m) collected during the MACRO project in Mongolia. We collected fish assemblages in river networks of two different ecoregions, the Forest Steppe (FS) and Grassland (G), in 2017 and 2019.
Data from: Long-term and interactive effects of different mammalian consumers on growth, survival and recruitment of dominant tree speciesJ. Hall Cushman, Vanessa Dodge & Valerie Eviner
Throughout the world, numerous tree species are reported to be in decline, either due to increased mortality of established trees or reduced recruitment. The situation appears especially acute for oaks, which are dominant features of many landscapes in the northern hemisphere. Although numerous factors have been hypothesized to explain reductions in tree performance, vertebrate herbivores and granivores may serve as important drivers of these changes. Here, using data from 8- and 14-year-old exclosure experiments, we...
Disentangling sources of gene tree discordance in phylogenomic datasets: testing ancient hybridizations in Amaranthaceae s.l.Diego F. Morales-Briones, Gudrun Kadereit, Delphine Tefarikis, Michael Moore, Stephen Smith, Samuel Brockington, Alfonso Timoneda, Won Yim, John Cushman & Ya Yang
Gene tree discordance in large genomic datasets can be caused by evolutionary processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization, as well as model violation, and errors in data processing, orthology inference, and gene tree estimation. Species tree methods that identify and accommodate all sources of conflict are not available, but a combination of multiple approaches can help tease apart alternative sources of conflict. Here, using a phylotranscriptomic analysis in combination with reference genomes, we...
Context-Dependent Effects of a Reintroduced Ungulate on Soil Properties are Driven by Soil Texture, Moisture and Herbivore ActivityJ. Hall Cushman
Although there is considerable evidence that large mammalian herbivores influence ecosystem-level processes, studies have reported such widely varying results that generalizations have remained elusive. Here, we use an 18-year-old exclosure experiment – stratified across a landscape heterogeneous with respect to soil texture, moisture and herbivore activity – to understand the variable effects of tule elk (Cervus canadensis nannodes), a native reintroduced herbivore, on soil properties along the coast of northern California. Elk significantly increased soil...
University of Nevada Reno37
Utah State University7
University of Michigan–Ann Arbor4
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor3
California Polytechnic State University2
University of Montana2
Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive2
University of Notre Dame2
University of Cambridge2
University of Virginia2