Trans-specific polymorphism and the convergent evolution of supertypes in MHC class II genes in Darters (Etheostoma)Kara Million & Curt Lively
Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes are one of the most polymorphic gene groups known in vertebrates. MHC genes also exhibit allelic variants that are shared among taxa, referred to as trans-specific polymorphism (TSP). The role that selection plays in maintaining such high diversity within species, as well as TSP, is an ongoing discussion in biology. In this study we used deep-sequencing techniques to characterize MHC class IIb gene diversity in three sympatric species of darters....
Histological and life history data for small-bodied mammals from: Multituberculate mammals show evidence of a life history strategy similar to that of placentals, not marsupialsLucas Weaver, Henry Fulghum, David Grossnickle, William Brightly, Zoe Kulik, Gregory Wilson Mantilla & Megan Whitney
The remarkable evolutionary success of placental mammals has been partly attributed to their reproductive strategy of prolonged gestation and birthing of relatively precocial, quickly weaned neonates. Although this strategy was conventionally considered derived relative to that of marsupials with highly altricial neonates and long lactation periods, mounting evidence has challenged this view. Until now, the fossil record has been relatively silent on this debate, but here we find that proportions of different bone tissue microstructures...
Uncertainties surrounding tree carbon allocation to growth are a major limitation to projections of forest carbon sequestration and response to climate change. The prevalence and extent to which carbon assimilation (source) or cambial activity (sink) mediate wood production is fundamentally important and remains elusive. Here we quantify source-sink relations across biomes by combining eddy-covariance gross primary production with extensive on-site and regional tree-ring observations. We find widespread temporal decoupling between carbon assimilation and tree growth,...
Asymmetric density-dependent competition does not contribute to the maintenance of sex in a mixed population of sexual and asexual Potamopyrgus antipodarumZoe Dinges & Curt Lively
Asexual reproduction is expected to have a two-fold reproductive advantage over sexual reproduction, owing to the cost of producing males in sexual subpopulations. The persistence of sexual females thus requires an advantage to sexual reproduction, at least periodically. Here we tested the hypothesis that asexual females are more sensitive to limited resources. Under this idea, fluctuations in the availability of resources (per capita) could periodically favor sexual females when resources become limited. We combined sexual...
Comparative reconstruction of the predatory feeding structures of the polyphenic nematode Pristionchus pacificusClayton Harry, Sonia Messar & Erik Ragsdale
Pristionchus pacificus is a nematode model for the developmental genetics of morphological polyphenism, especially at the level of individual cells. Morphological polyphenism in this species includes an evolutionary novelty, moveable teeth, which have enabled predatory feeding in this species and others in its family (Diplogastridae). From transmission electron micrographs of serial thin sections through an adult hermaphrodite of P. pacificus, we three-dimensionally reconstructed all epithelial and myoepithelial cells and syncytia, corresponding to 74 nuclei, of...
Incucyte data for progeny virus derived from insect cells with or without methyltransferase inhibitorIrene Newton, Tamanash Bhattacharya & Richard Hardy
Arthropod endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis is part of a global biocontrol strategy aimed at reducing the spread of mosquito-borne RNA viruses such as alphaviruses. Our prior work examining Wolbachia-mediated pathogen blocking has demonstrated (i) the importance of a host cytosine methyltransferase, DNMT2, in Drosophila, and (ii) viral RNA as a target through which pathogen-blocking is mediated. Here we report on the role of DNMT2 in Wolbachia induced virus inhibition of alphaviruses in Aedes sp.. Mosquito DNMT2...
Rapid evolutionary divergence of a songbird population following recent colonization of an urban areaGuillermo Friis, Jonathan Atwell, Adam Fudickar, Timothy Greives, Pamela Yeh, Trevor Price, Ellen Ketterson & Borja Milá
Colonization of a novel environment by a small group of individuals can lead to rapid evolutionary change, yet evidence of the relative contributions of neutral and selective factors in promoting divergence during the early stages of colonization remain scarce. Here, we use genome-wide SNP data to test the role of neutral and selective forces in driving the divergence of a unique urban population of the Oregon junco (Junco hyemalis oreganus), which became established on the...
Data from: Parasite-driven cascades or hydra effects: susceptibility and foraging depression shape parasite-host-resource interactionsJason Walsman, Alexander Strauss & Spencer Hall
This contains data for the manuscript listed in the title.We measured the foraging rates of individual zooplankton hosts, Daphnia dentifera, on phytoplankton resources, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, in the presence of fungal parasites of zooplankton, Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Some of these data are previously published (Genotypes12_foraging.csv by Strauss, Alexander T., et al. "Genotypic variation in parasite avoidance behaviour and other mechanistic, nonlinear components of transmission." Proceedings of the Royal Society B 286.1915 (2019): 20192164.) and some are published...
This dataset contains two spreadsheets: 1) an in-depth functionality assessment of Digital Commons based on the University of Pennsylvania's "Platform Functionality Review" (https://penntrl.wordpress.com/2019/01/23/scrip-appendices/); 2) a running list of required functionality for an institutional repository platform. The spreadsheets accompany a forthcoming book chapter, "Envisioning the Future of a Mature IR: A Midlife Assessment of ScholarWorks@UMassAmherst".
Trade-offs between growth and self-maintenance are common in nature, such that early-life effects on growth can generate lasting consequences on survival and longevity. Telomeres – putative biomarkers of self-maintenance – may link early growth with these later phenotypic effects, but evidence for growth-telomere trade-offs is mixed. Null or even positive relationships between growth and telomeres may be driven by heterogeneity in resource availability or invariable allocation towards telomere maintenance within a population. We used nestling...
Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Interhemispheric antiphasing of neotropical precipitation during the past millennium’ (PNAS, Steinman et al. 2022)B.A. Steinman, N. Stansall, M.E. Mann, C.A. Cooke, M.B. Abbott, M. Vuille, B.W. Bird, M.S. Lachniet & A. Fernandez
Uncertainty about the influence of anthropogenic radiative forcing on the position and strength of convective rainfall in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) inhibits our ability to project future tropical hydroclimate change in a warmer world. Paleoclimatic and modeling data inform on the timescales and mechanisms of ITCZ variability; yet a comprehensive, long-term perspective remains elusive. Here, we quantify the evolution of neotropical hydroclimate over the pre-industrial past millennium (850 to 1850 CE) using a synthesis...
Genetic diversity and species diversity are typically studied in isolation despite theory showing they likely influence one another. Here, we used simplified communities of one or two populations of one or two species to test whether linkages between genetic and species diversity can be mediated by interactions between plants and their soil microbiota, or microbe-mediated plant-soil feedback (PSF). Interspecific PSF promotes the maintenance of species diversity when plants grow better with heterospecific soil microbes than...
In a rapidly warming world, exposure to high temperatures may impact fitness, but the gene regulatory mechanisms that link sublethal heat to sexually selected traits are not well understood, particularly in endothermic animals. Our experiment used zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), songbirds that experience extreme temperature fluctuations in their native Australia. We exposed captive males to an acute thermal challenge (43°C) compared with thermoneutral (35°C) and lower (27°C) temperatures. We found significantly more heat dissipation behaviors...
Supplementary tables for Honey Bee symbiont buffers larvae against nutritional stress and supplements lysineIrene Newton
Honey bees have suffered dramatic losses in recent years, largely due to multiple stressors underpinned by poor nutrition. Nutritional stress especially harms larvae, who mature into workers unable to meet the needs of their colony. In this study, we characterize the metabolic capabilities of a honey bee larvae-associated bacterium, Bombella apis (formerly Parasaccharibacter apium), and its effects on the nutritional resilience of larvae. We found that B. apis is the only bacterium associated with larvae...
A preliminary comparison of a songbird's song repertoire size and other song measures between an urban and a rural siteDustin Brewer & Adam Fudickar
Characteristics of birdsong, especially minimum frequency, have been shown to vary for some species between urban and rural populations and along urban-rural gradients. However, few urban-rural comparisons of song complexity—and none that we know of based on the number of distinct song types in repertoires—have occurred. Given the potential ability of song repertoire size to indicate bird condition, we primarily sought to determine if number of distinct song types displayed by Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia)...
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