14 Works

Livestock grazing impacts upon components of the breeding productivity of a common upland insectivorous passerine: results from a long-term experiment

Lisa E. Malm, James W. Pearce-Higgins, Nick A. Littlewood, Alison J. Karley, Ewa Karaszewska, Robert Jaques, Robin J. Pakeman, Steve M. Redpath & Darren M. Evans
The intensity of pastoral management in areas of High Nature Value farming is declining in some regions of Europe but increasing in others. This affects open habitats of conservation concern, such as the British uplands, where bird species that benefit from low-intensity grazing may be most sensitive to such polarisation. While experimental manipulations of livestock grazing intensities have improved our understanding of upland breeding bird responses in the short-term, none have examined the longer-term impacts...

Antibiotic resistance genes found in soils across the entire Scottish landscape (2007-10)

C.W. Knapp, D.W. Graham, T. Freitag, E. Pagaling, R. Hough, L. Avery, Y.-G. Zhu, J. Su & X.Y. Zhou
The dataset collates the relative concentration of nearly 300 antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes found in soil locations across Scotland. Soils were obtained from the National Soils Inventory of Scotland (NSIS2), from which the total community DNA were extracted and provided to assess AMR gene content. Sampling of the NSIS2 was conducted between 2007-2010 at 183 soil locations representing intersections of a 20km grid across all of Scotland. For each sample, nearly 300 AMR genes were...

Crop diversity benefits carabid and pollinator communities in landscapes with semi-natural habitats

Guillermo Aguilera Núñez, Tomas Roslin, Kirsten Miller, Giovanni Tamburini, Klaus Birkhofer, Berta Caballero-Lopez, Sandra Lindström, Erik Öckinger, , Adrien Rusch, Henrik Smith & Riccardo Bommarco
1. In agricultural landscapes, arthropods provide essential ecosystem services such as biological pest control and pollination. Intensified crop management practices and homogenization of landscapes have led to declines among such organisms. Semi-natural habitats, associated with high numbers of these organisms, are increasingly lost from agricultural landscapes but diversification by increasing crop diversity has been proposed as a way to reverse observed arthropod declines and thus restore ecosystem services. However, whether or not an increase in...

Description and classification of echolocation clicks of Indian Ocean humpback (Sousa plumbea) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) dolphins from Menai Bay, Zanzibar, East Africa

Liangliang Yang, Matt Sharpe, Andrew Temple, Narriman Jiddawi, Xiaomei Xu & Per Berggren
Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is a powerful method to study the occurrence, movement and behavior of echolocating odontocetes (toothed whales) in the wild. However, in areas occupied by more than one species, echolocation clicks need to be classified into species. The present study investigated whether the echolocation clicks produced by small, at-risk, resident sympatric populations of Indian Ocean humpback dolphin (Sousa plumbea) and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in Menai Bay, Zanzibar, East Africa, could...

Data from: Findings from an exploration of a social network intervention to promote diet quality and health behaviours in older adults with COPD: a feasibility study

Lindsay Welch, Ilse Bloom, Ivaylo Vassilev, Anne Rogers, Karen Jameson, Cyrus Cooper, Sian Robinson & Janis Baird
Background: Diet quality in older people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is associated with better health and lung function. Social factors, such as social support, social networks and participation in activities, have been linked with diet quality in older age. A social network tool – GENIE (Generating Engagement in Network Involvement) – was implemented in a COPD community care context. The study aimed to assess the feasibility of the GENIE intervention to promote diet...

Research criteria for the diagnosis of prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies.

Ian McKeith, Tanis J. Ferman, Alan J. Thomas, Frederic Blanc, Bradley F. Boeve, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Kejal Kantarci, Cristina Muscio, John T. O'Brien, Ronald B. Postuma, Dag Aarsland, Clive Ballard, Laura Bonanni, Paul C Donaghy, Murat Emre, James E Galvin, Douglas Galasko, Jennifer G. Goldman, Stephen N. Gomperts, Lawrence S. Honig, Manabu Ikeda, James B. Leverenz, Simon J.G. Lewis, Karen S. Marder, Mario Masellis … & Pietro Tiraboschi
The prodromal phase of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) includes (i) mild cognitive impairment (MCI), (ii) delirium, and (iii) psychiatric-onset presentations. The purpose of our review is to determine whether there is sufficient information yet available to justify development of diagnostic criteria for each of these. Our goal is to achieve evidence-based recommendations for the recognition of DLB at a pre-dementia, symptomatic stage. We propose operationalized diagnostic criteria for probable and possible mild cognitive impairment...

Support for the habitat amount hypothesis from a global synthesis of species density studies

James Watling, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Marion Pfeifer, Lander Baeten, Cristina Banks-Leite, Laura Cisneros, Rebecca Fang, Caroli Hamel-Leigue, Thibault Lachat, Inara Leal, Luc Lens, Hugh Possingham, Dinarzarde Raheem, Danilo Ribeiro, Eleanor Slade, Nicolas Urbina-Cardona, Eric Wood & Lenore Fahrig
Decades of research suggest that species richness depends on spatial characteristics of habitat patches, especially their size and isolation. In contrast, the habitat amount hypothesis predicts that: 1) species richness in plots of fixed size (species density) is more strongly and positively related to the amount of habitat around the plot than to patch size or isolation; 2) habitat amount better predicts species density than patch size and isolation combined, 3) there is no effect...

Data from: Increased dystrophin production with golodirsen in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Diane E. Frank, Frederick J. Schnell, Cody Akana, Saleh H. El-Husayni, Cody A. Desjardins, Jennifer Morgan, Jay S. Charleston, Valentina Sardone, Joana Domingos, George Dickson, Volker Straub, Michela Guglieri, Eugenio Mercuri, Laurent Servais & Francesco Muntoni
Objective To report safety, pharmacokinetics, exon 53 skipping, and dystrophin expression in golodirsen-treated patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) amenable to exon 53 skipping. Methods Part 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week dose titration of once-weekly golodirsen; Part 2 is an ongoing, open-label evaluation. Safety and pharmacokinetics were primary and secondary objectives of Part 1. Primary biological outcome measures of part 2 were blinded exon skipping and dystrophin protein production on muscle biopsies (baseline,...

Data from: Using structured eradication feasibility assessment to prioritise the management of new and emerging invasive alien species in Europe

Olaf Booy, Peter A. Robertson, Niall Moore, Jess Ward, Helen E. Roy, Tim Adriaens, Richard Shaw, Johan Van Valkenburg, Gabe Wyn, Sandro Bertolino, Olivier Blight, Etienne Branquart, Giuseppe Brundu, Joe Caffrey, Dario Capizzi, Jim Casaer, Olivier De Clerck, Neil Coughlan, Eithne Davis, Jaimie Dick, Franz Essl, Guillaume Fried, Piero Genovesi, Pablo González-Moreno, Frank Hysentruyt … & Aileen C. Mill
Prioritising the management of invasive alien species (IAS) is of global importance and within Europe integral to the EU IAS regulation. To prioritise management effectively the risks posed by IAS need to be assessed, but so too does the feasibility of their management. While risk of IAS to the EU has been assessed, the feasibility of management has not. We assessed the feasibility of eradicating 60 new (not yet established) and 35 emerging (established with...

Data from: Varietal variation and chromosome behaviour during meiosis in Solanum tuberosum

Anushree Choudhary, Liam Wright, Olga Patricia Ponce, Jing Chen, Ankush Prashar Prashar, Eugenio Sanchez-Moran, Zewei Luo & Lindsey Compton
Naturally occurring autopolyploid species such as the autotetraploid potato Solanum tuberosum face a variety of challenges during meiosis. These include proper pairing, recombination and correct segregation of multiple homologous chromosomes, which can form complex multivalent configurations at metaphase I, and in turn alter allelic segregation ratios through double reduction. Here, we present a reference map of meiotic stages in diploid and tetraploid S. tuberosum using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to differentiate individual meiotic chromosomes...

Negative mood affects the expression of negative but not positive emotions in mice

Jasmine Clarkson, Matthew Leach, Paul Flecknell & Candy Rowe
Whether, and to what extent animals experience emotions is crucial for understanding their decisions and behaviour, and underpins a range of scientific fields, including animal behaviour, neuroscience, evolutionary biology and animal welfare science. However, research has predominantly focussed on alleviating negative emotions in animals, with the expression of positive emotions left largely unexplored. Therefore, little is known about positive emotions in animals and how their expression is mediated. We used tail handling to induce negative...

Modifying plant photosynthesis and growth via simultaneous chloroplast transformation of Rubisco large and small subunits

Elena Martin-Avila, Yi-Leen Lim, Rosemary Birch, Lynnette Dirk, Sally Buck, Timothy Rhodes, Robert Sharwood, Maxim Kapralov & Spencer Whitney
Engineering improved Rubisco poses a crucial strategy for enhancing photosynthesis but is challenged by the alternate locations of the plastome rbcL gene and nuclear RbcS genes. Here we develop a RNAi-RbcS Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) master-line, tobRrΔS, amenable to rbcL-rbcS co-engineering by chloroplast transformation. Four tobacco genotypes coding alternative rbcS genes and adjoining 5ˈ-intergenic sequences revealed Rubisco production was highest in the lines incorporating a rbcS gene whose codon use and 5ˈUTR matched rbcL. These lines...

Honest signalling of cooperative intentions

Gilbert Roberts
Trust can transform conflicting interests into cooperation. But how can individuals know when to trust others? Here, I develop the theory that reputation building may signal cooperative intent, or ‘trustworthiness’. I model a simple representation of this theory in which individuals (1) optionally invest in a reputation by performing costly helpful behaviour (‘signalling’); (2) optionally use others’ reputations when choosing a partner; and (3) optionally cooperate with that partner. In evolutionary simulations, high levels of...

Data from: Assessing spatial patterns of soil erosion in a high‐latitude rangeland

Richard T. Streeter & Nick A. Cutler
High‐latitude areas are experiencing rapid change: we therefore need a better understanding of the processes controlling soil erosion in these environments. We used a spatiotemporal approach to investigate soil erosion in Svalbarðstunga, Iceland (66° N, 15° W), a degraded rangeland. We used three complementary datasets: 1) high‐resolution UAV imagery collected from 12 sites (total area ~0.75 km2); 2) historical imagery of the same sites; and 3) a simple, spatially‐explicit cellular automata model. Sites were located...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    14

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    14

Affiliations

  • Newcastle University
    14
  • Ghent University
    2
  • James Hutton Institute
    2
  • John Carroll University
    1
  • Bangor University
    1
  • Queen's University Belfast
    1
  • Research Institute for Nature and Forest
    1
  • Xiamen University
    1
  • University of Strathclyde
    1
  • Centre for Ecology and Hydrology
    1